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From  photograph  I  y  G.  C.  Cox,  1896. 

J  (  1 }  I  X    II.  ETCHER    H  URST. 

I  John  Fletcher  Hurst 

A   Biography 




This  noble  ensample  to  his  shepe  he  yaf 

That  first  he  wrought  and  afterward  he  taught. 

—  Chaucer. 


r\  » 


New  York:    EATON  &  MAINS 

Cincinnati  :  JENNINGS  &  GRAHAM 





R  1906  L 

Copyright,  1905,  by 




(Co  £fti?  Cttctbcr 


Daughter  of  Samuel  Seabury  and  Harriet  Flower  Allen 

Born  February  17,1 8T5" 

at  Oak   Hill,  Greene  County 

New  York 

A  woman  of  sound  sense,  of  genuine  piety,  of  broad  intelligence  and 
quick  sympathy  ;  whose  widowhood  of  6fty  years  was  passed  in  devoted 
affection  for  her  eight  children,  their  children,  and  their  children's  children, 
in  serene  trust  in  God,  and  in  works  of  usefulness  for  a  wide  circle  of  friends; 
and  whose  peaceful  evening  came  on  August  Z7,  1903,  at  Eaton  Rapids, 
Michigan,  where  her  precious  dust  awaits  the  resurrection  of  the  just. 


ONE  bright  morning,  not  far  from  New  Year's  Day,  1901. 
while  Bishop  Hurst  and  the  writer  were  engaged  on 
the  usual  batch  of  mail  and  miscellaneous  chit-chat  on 
the  work  of  the  day,  a  restful  pause  in  a  long  stretch  of  dicta- 
tion gave  opportunity  for  a  short  stroll  from  his  high  desk 
around  the  sunlit  study  on  the  third  floor  of  1207  Connecticut 
Avenue.  Picking  up  one  of  a  lot  of  letters,  put  aside  as  those 
which  could  wait,  he  read  it  rapidly  through.  As  he  came  to 
a  passage  similar  to  many  others  received,  and  referring  to  the 
story  of  his  life  as  some  time  to  be  written,  he  turned  half  way 
around  and,  with  a  quizzical  look  out  of  the  corners  of  his 
lustrous  eyes  and  with  a  smile  that  softened  the  severity  of 
the  task  imposed  and  relieved  the  somber  suggestion  of  the 
possible  close  of  his  active  career,  but  which  sealed  the  commis- 
sion for  this  biography,  said,  "  I  expect  I  must  look  to  you 
for  that." 

Reluctance  to  think  the  time  near  when  it  would  be  proper 
to  engage  in  a  service  so  unwelcome  gradually  gave  place  to 
the  conviction  that  the  preparatory  gathering  and  sifting  of 
materials  should  be  begun.  This  was  already  in  progress  when 
in  September,  1901,  his  sickness  in  London  gave  unmistakable 
evidence  of  the  approaching  end.  When  to  the  personal  re- 
quest of  the  Bishop  was  added,  in  the  spring  of  1902,  that  of 
his  children  of  full  age,  the  work  was  carried  on  with  more 
vigor  and  in  such  time  as  could  be  found  in  the  intervals  of 
other  necessary  labors. 

After  the  decease  of  the  Bishop  the  collection  and  classifica- 

vi  A  Word  with  the  Reader 

tion  of  material  went  on  more  rapidly.  The  first  or  rough 
draft  of  the  work,  which  contained  the  facts  which  the  author 
considered  worthy  a  place  in  a  permanent  record,  was  completed 
August  22,  1904;  the  second,  a  reduction  of  the  first,  on  Sep- 
tember 17;  and  the  third,  a  revision  while  passing  through  the 
press,  on  August  4.  1905. 

Many  courtesies  from  Miss  Helen  Hurst,  Mr.  John  La 
Monte  Hurst,  Dr.  Carl  Bailey  Hurst,  and  Lieutenant  Paul 
Hurst  have  facilitated  the  work,  especially  by  the  loan  of  sev- 
eral hundred  letters  written  by  their  father  and  mother.  The 
kind  and  helpful  responses  to  requests  for  particular  incidents, 
personalia,  and  estimates  from  scores  of  persons  whose  names 
in  some  instances,  because  of  duplicated  material,  do  not  ap- 
pear in  the  book,  are  here  most  gratefully  acknowledged. 
Without  these  helps  the  task  would  have  been  deprived  of 
much  of  its  sweetest  pleasure. 

"Bishop  Hurst's  works  will  live;  but  besides  these,"  says 
Dr.  Charles  S.  Harrower,  of  New  York,  "  we  need  fitting 
words  and  events  set  in  their  order  and  bearing,  to  make  a  life 
practical  as  well  as  admirable.  One  can  scarcely  recall  such 
industry  and  carefulness,  such  affection  and  perseverance,  such 
loyalty  and  deserved  honors,  without  wishing  very  much  to 
see  it  all  set  where  honest  and  high-minded  young  men  can 
see  it  and  make  a  note  of  its  lights  and  its  clean  ambitions." 

'  Brother,  draw  a  true  picture,  a  Rembrandtesque  portrait 
of  Bishop  Hurst,"  was  the  exhortation  of  Dr.  G.  E.  Hiller, 
of  Louisville,  "  so  that  all  the  lines  of  shade  and  light  that 
belong  to  him  will  be  there."  A  message  from  Dr.  Samuel 
Macauley  Jackson,  "  Make  it  autobiographic,"  reinforced  and 
confirmed,  midway  in  the  labor,  a  purpose  formed  at  the 
outset.  The  one  canon  whose  observance  has  been  sought 
throughout  has  been:  Facts  in  proper  setting  tell  their  own 

A  Word  with  the  Reader  vii 

The  personal  acquaintance  between  the  subject  and  the 
author  began  in  the  summer  of  1874,  when  the  genial  president 
of  Drew  showed  the  buildings  and  grounds  to  a  young  man 
who  had  visited  Madison  in  order  to  help  himself  to  decide 
where  he  should  take  his  theological  course,  and  dropped  a  few 
words  of  counsel  into  his  ear  and  of  encouragement  into  his 
heart.  Through  a  three  years'  course  we  were  brought  not 
only  into  the  contact  of  the  classroom,  but  into  special  relations 
through  some  assistance,  first  in  correspondence,  and  later  in 
sundry  minor  literary  tasks.  These  latter  were  continued  after 
graduation,  during  fourteen  years  of  pastorates  in  western 
New  York,  and  the  former  were  renewed  when  in  1885  Provi- 
dence brought  the  Bishop  to  Buffalo.  With  the  increase  of 
labors  incident  to  the  launching  of  the  American  University 
came  the  call  of  the  chancellor  to  the  writer,  in  1 891,  to  render 
such  aid  as  would  leave  him  a  free  hand  to  work  for  the  new 
and  vast  enterprise.  From  October,  1891,  up  to  the  moment 
of  his  last  breath  these  relations  grew  in  frequency  of  contact, 
in  freedom  of  interc&urse,  in  mutual  understanding,  in  large- 
ness of  confidence,  in  intensity  of  affection.  Fidelity  to  his 
expressed  wish,  admiration  for  his  great  gifts  and  high  char- 
acter, and  love  for  his  noble  and  affectionate  spirit,  have 
wrestled  with  and  overcome  a  sense  of  inadequacy  to  set  in 
proper  array  and  worthy  proportions  the  many  aspects  of  a 
personality  so  varied  in  its  activities,  so  rich  in  its  influence, 
so  inwrought  with  the  interests  of  the  church,  the  country, 
and  the  race  of  the  present  age,  and  so  full  of  promise  of  good 
to  unborn  millions. 

Washington,  D.  C,  August  17,   1905. 




The  Line:     Parentage    and   Ancestry. — Samuel    Hurst. — Eliza- 
beth Hurst. — Elijah  Hurst. — Ann  Catherine  Colston I 


The    Place  :    The    Eastern    Shore    and    "  Old    Dorset." — Cam- 
bridge         8 

The  Boy  :     Schools,  Sports,  and  Work 12 

The  Youth  :     At  Cambridge  Academy 19 


Conversion 25 

The  Young  Man:     The  Collegian. — At  Dickinson. — The  Union 

Philosophical  Society 27 


A   Sophomore's  Diary 31 


Close  of  His  Sophomore  Year 35 

The  Collegian  in  Print. — A  Moral  Victory 37 

An  Interim  at  Home 41 

A  Junior  at  Carlisle 43 

A  Senior's  Journal 45 

Memory  Cameos  by  Fellow  Students 48 

x  Contents 


The  Teacher:    At  Greensboro,  Maryland,  and  in  the  Catskills. 

— "  The  Mystic  Nine." — A  "  White  Horse  "  Incident 52 


The  Lover:     Catherine   E.   La   Monte. — A   Look   toward   Ger- 
many.— Studying  German  at  Carlisle 59 

The  Engagement   Prolonged 64 

The  Student-Traveler:     A  Landlubber's  Log. — In  Brunswick.     69 

On  Foot  in  the  Harz  Mountains 74 

At  Old  Halle 77 

From  Halle  to  Rome 83 

From  Rome  to  Glasgow  and  Homeward 89 


The  Itinerant:     Two    "Months   of    Busy    Waiting. — Preaching 

"  Cnder  the  Elder." — Headquarters  at  Mechanicsburg. ...     94 

The  Pastor :     At   Irvington 103 

At    Passaic 1 1~ 


At  Elizabethport,  Fulton  Street 128 

At  Elizabeth.  Water  Street 133 

At  West  Xew  Brighton.  Trinity  Church 143 

The  Teacher-Elect:     The  Call  to  Germany 14S 


The  Author:    His  First  Book  (History  of  Rationalism) 152 

Contents  xi 


The  Brother  Beloved:     The  Hearts  of  His  Brethren 158 


The  Teacher-Traveler:   At  Bremen  and  at  Large 161 

At   Frankfort-on-the-Main 170 

Trips  in   Europe   and  the  East. — Escape   from  a   Bomb  in 
Rome  174 

The  Father  Bereft  :     The  Discipline  of  Sorrow 183 


The  Translator  :     The    German    Exegete. — The    Swiss    His- 
torian.— The  Dutch  Defender 188 

The  Professor  :     At   Drew 193 

The  President  :  At    Drew 198 

A  Crisis,  A  Stand,  A  Victory 203 


The  President-Professor  :     Vacation   Glimpses 212 


The  Delegate  :  His  Address  at  Basel 220 

The  Author      (continued)  :     Writing     at      Drew. — Life      and 
Literature    in    the    Fatherland. — Outlines    of    Bible    and 
Church  History. — Launching  of  the  Biblical  and  Theologi- 
cal Library  with  George  R.  Crooks 223 

The  Delegate      (continued)  :     Two      General      Conferences. — 

Elected   Bishop 230 

The  Bishop:     At    Des    Moines. — 1880-1881. — Fifteen     Confer- 
ences in  Five  Central  States 235 

xii  Contexts 


1882.     Eleven  Conferences. — East  and  West. — The  Accident 
Insurance    Man -'41 


[883-84. — Thirteen  Conferences  in  Ten  States,  South,  Cen- 
tral, and  East. — Impress  on  Iowa 246 


1884-85. — Abroad. — Twelve  Conferences  in  Eight  Countries 
of  Europe  and   Asia 251 

\  Bold  Stretch  of  Faith  and  Authority 263 


1885-87. — At     Buffalo. — Blanche's    Death. — Fifteen    Confer- 
ences in  Eight  States,  East,  Central,  and  South 268 

Official  Tour  of  Mexico 274 

1887-88. — Ten  Conferences  in  Seven  States,  West,  East,  and 
South. — Leaving   Buffalo 279 

The  Author  (continued):     Books  of  Two  Quadrenniums 285 

The  Bishop   (continued)  :     1888-90. — At  Washington. — General 
Conference  in  New  York. — Fourteen  Conferences  in  Eight 
States,  Northwest,  East,  Central,  and  South 290 

The  Husband  in  Grief:     Death  of  Catherine  E.  Hurst 296 

The  Bishop     (continued):     1890-91. — Two    Trips    Across    the 
Atlantic. — Three  Conferences  in  Maryland  and  New  York. 
— The  Second  Ecumenical  Conference 303 

[891-92. — At  Washington. — Nine  Conferences  in  Five  States, 
South,  East,  and  West. — General  Conference  at  Omaha. . .   308 

Contents  xiii 

Founder  of  the  American  University:     Hunting  for  a   Site. 
— Paying  for  the  Site. — Indorsements  by  Friends  of  Edu- 
cation    312 

The  Author     (continued)  :     Culminating    Literary    Work. — At 

Washington. — Fourteen  Years  of  Productiveness 322 


The  Bishop  (continued)  :  1892-96. — At  Washington. — Twenty- 
five  Conferences  in  Fourteen  States,  West,  Central,  East, 
and  South. — Funeral  of  Secretary  Gresham 336 

1896-98. — At    Washington. — Twenty-three     Conferences    in 
Sixteen   States,   Central,   East,   South,   and   West. — Many 
Addresses. — A  Zoological  Episode 34° 


1898-1901. — At  Washington. — President  McKinley's  Friend- 
ship.— Nineteen  Conferences  in  Eleven  States,  West, 
North,  South,  and  East. — His  Second  Marriage 347 

The  Bishop-Traveler:     Eighth   Trip   to    Europe. — Third   Ecu- 
menical Conference. — The  Break 355 

Aside  Views  and  Touches:    The  Book-Lover  and  Antiquarian.   358 


The  Hurst  Collection. — Its  Creation. — Its  Contents. — Its 
Dispersal 3^5 

The  Pedestrian 375 

The   Guest 377 

The  Preacher  and  Platform  Speaker 381 

The  Writer  for  the  Press 384 

xiv  Contents 


The  Maker  of  Verse 389 

The  Teacher  and  the  Friend  of  Youth 393 

In  Council,  in  the  Chair,  and  in  the  Field 396 


The  Scholar  and  the  Christian  Gentleman 399 


"Sunset   and   Evening    Star:"   Waning  Health. — Final    Sick- 
ness.— Sympathy  of  Colleagues. — The  End 402 


The  Obsequies:  Addresses  by  Bishops  Fowler  and  McCabe. — 

Memorial  Services 408 

Tributes:   Collective 417 


From  the  Press 420 


Personal   Appreciations 425 

Bibliography 432 

Index 435 


Bishop  Hurst  (from  Photo  by  G.  C.  Cox),  1S96 Frontispiece 


Birthplace   of   John    Fletcher    Hurst,    Salem,    Maryland 

(Clipping) 1 

"  Piney  Neck  "  or  "  Bonnie  Brook  "  (Photo) 12 

"  Weir  Neck  "  (Photo) 41 

East  College,  Dickinson 45 

John  F.  and  Catherine  E.  Hurst  (Cut),  1S59 117 

Class  of  1858,  Newark  Conference,  1862  (Photo) 158 

Bishop  Hurst  and  General  Clinton  B.  Fisk,  1870 174 

President  Hurst,  Drew  (Photo) 198 

Facsimile— Four  Lines 268 

Bishop  Hurst  (Cut),  1891 308 

Bishop  Hurst  (Photo),  1 896 322 

Facsimile — Our  Immortals  at  Fourscore 389 

"  Cedarcroft  "  (Photo) 402 



The  Line 

Parentage  and  Ancestry. — Samuel  Hurst. — Elizabeth  Hurst. — Elijah  Hurst. 

— Ann   Catherine  Colston 

WOHN  FLETCHER  HURST,  the  second  child  and  only 
I  son  of  Elijah  and  Ann  Catherine  (Colston)  Hurst,  was 
born  August  17,  1834,  in  the  two-story  house  still  stand- 
ing near  Salem,  Dorchester  County,  Maryland,  and  died  May 
4,  1903,  at  "Cedarcroft,"  the  villa  of  Mr.  Aldis  B.  Browne,  in 
Bethesda,  Montgomery  County,  of  the  same  state. 

His  paternal  grandfather  was  Samuel  Hurst,  who  was  born 
in  County  Surrey,  England,  in  1764.  and  came  to  Maryland 
when  he  was  about  sixteen  years  old.  His  name  appears  as 
one  of  the  fourteen  "militia  men"  drafted  from  Dorchester 
County,  listed  in  a  letter  of  Henry  Hooper,  of  date  June  28. 
1781,  to  the  governor,  "to  serve  in  the  Continental  Army  until 
the  10th  day  of  December  next."  He  served  in  the  second 
(Captain  James  Gray's)  company,  Third  Maryland  Regi- 
ment, as  a  private,  from  June  to  December,  1781 ;  also  in  the 
Maryland  Line,  First  Regiment,  as  a  member  of  the  sixth 
company  until  his  honorable  discharge  at  Fredericktown,  No- 
vember 29,  1783.  This  military  service  was  rendered  when  he 
was  in  his  seventeenth,  eighteenth,  and  nineteenth  years.     He 

John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

was  <ni  the  fighting  line  in  the  vicinity  of  Charleston,  South 
Carolina,  in  several  unimportant  engagements,  took  part  in  the 

pre  and  battle  of  Yorktown.  and  witnessed  the  surrender  of 
Lord  Cornwallis.  In  1787  there  was  awarded  to  him  as  a  sol- 
dier a  piece  of  land,  No.  1.053  of  4,165  lots  of  fifty  acres  each, 
on  reserved  ground  lying  west  of  Fort  Cumberland,  then  in 
Washington  (now  Garrett)  County,  Maryland,  about  one 
and  a  half  miles  from  Deer  Park.  This  property,  lying  near 
the  summit  of  the  Alleghanies,  he  seems  never  to  have  valued 
highly  enough  either  to  occupy,  sell,  or  pay  the  taxes  thereon, 
and  the  title  thereto,  as  it  appears,  subsequently  passed  to 
other  hands. 

A  local  tradition  of  trustworthy  character  is  to  the  effect 
that,  when  Samuel  Hurst  came  home  on  one  of  his  furloughs 
as  a  Revolutionary  soldier,  his  wardrobe  was  very  much  de- 
pleted.  His  friends  and  neighbors  clubbed  together  and  bought 
him  a  new  suit  of  clothes,  hat,  shoes,  and  other  adjuncts  of 
outward  respectability.  So  riddled  by  the  fortunes  of  war  was 
his  old  coat,  and  so  begrimed  with  dust  were  his  shirt  and 
trousers,  that,  seeing  the  delegation  approach  with  the  gifts, 
he  sought  refuge  in  the  water,  and,  having  slowly  receded 
until  only  his  head  appeared  above  the  surface  of  Cavithey 
Willis's  Creek,  he  shouted  his  gratitude  and  requested  that  the 
donation  be  placed  on  the  banks  to  await  a  more  favorable 
1  ipportunity  for  minute  inspection.  He  died  at  the  age  of 
fifty-eight,  October  26.  1822.  He  was  a  Methodist  several 
years  before  his  death.  The  dust  of  this  honored  soldier  sleeps 
in  the  old  cemetery  at  Cambridge.  He  owned  a  farm  near 
Salem,  and  about  thirteen  years  before  his  death  he  bought 
a  tract  of  land  on  the  west  side  of  the  stream  named  above, 
known  later  as  Hurst's  Creek,  about  four  miles  east  of  Cam- 
bridge, the  county  seat.  This  farm  was  called  "Weir  Neck," 
and   by   inheritance  became  the  property  of  his   eldest  son, 

Samuel  and  Elijah  Hurst  3 

Stephen  Hurst,  the  father  of  John  Edward  Hurst,  the  wealthy 
and  public-spirited  merchant  of  Baltimore,  whose  death,  early 
in  1904,  occurred  but  a  few  weeks  prior  to  the  fire  which  orig- 
inated in  his  wholesale  store  on  Hopkins  Place  and  grew  into 
the  greatest  conflagration  recorded  in  the  annals  of  the  Monu- 
mental City. 

Samuel  Hurst  was  married  first  in  1786  to  Lavinia  Little- 
ton, and  the  second  time  to  Elizabeth  Yardley  in  1803.  Of 
the  first  marriage  were  born  Elizabeth,  1787,  who  married 
Thomas  Wingate  and  died  1845;  Stephen,  born  1793,  who 
died  1846;  Christiana,  born  1795,  married  Lewis  Finney, 
died  1880;  and  Elijah.  1797,  who  died  1849.  The  fruit  of 
the  second  union  was  five  children,  Samuel,  Jr.,  1804  (died 
1840)  ;  John,  1807  (died  1880)  ;  James,  1810  (died  1823)  ; 
Henrietta  Maria,  181 3  (married  William  H.  Swiggett,  died 
1847);  and  Emily,   1816   (died  in  childhood). 

Elijah  Hurst,  the  second  son  of  Samuel  and  Lavinia  Hurst, 
soon  after  the  death  of  his  father  came  into  possession  of 
the  Salem  farm  in  1824,  and  lived  there  until  1838.  He  was 
married  first  to  Ann  Catherine  Colston  in  183 1.  Of  this  union 
were  born  three  children,  Sarah  Lavinia,  March  2  7,,  1833 
(died  March  18,  1886)  ;  John  Fletcher,  August  17,  1834;  and 
Ann  E..  August  3,  1838  (died  August  18,  1839).  His  sec- 
ond marriage  was  with  Emily  L.  Travers,  1845,  whose  three 
children  died  in  infancy.  Elijah  Hurst  was  an  energetic  and 
thrifty  young  farmer,  of  good  habits,  who  identified  himself 
with  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  about  1828.  Like  his 
neighbors  and  probably  by  inheritance,  he  was  a  slaveholder, 
though  the  number  of  his  slaves  was  never  large.  An  inter- 
esting incident  of  his  early  Christian  life  is  given  by  the  Rev. 
Dr.  John  S.  Porter  in  his  semicentennial  sermon  before  the 
Newark  Conference  in  1880,  at  its  session  in  Paterson,  New 
Jersey : 

4  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

In  [830  I  was  sent  to  Dorchester  Circuit,  with  Asa  Smith  as 
preacher  in  charge,  who  was  as  a  father  to  me,  and  we  had  a  pros- 
perous year.  Dorchester  Circuit  was  adjoining  that  I  had  just  left, 
and  some  of  the  people  here  had  heard  me  preach  before  I  came 
among  them,  and  had  given  me  encouragement.  Among  those  was  a 
young  man  of  genial  spirit  and  social  habits,  who  visited  at  one  of 
our  best  homes,  where  the  man  of  the  house  was  a  steward  and  class 
leader,  but  was  accustomed  to  take  as  a  beverage  something  stronger 
than  cold  water,  and  also  gave  it  to  his  friends.  This  was  known  to 
my  young  friend,  who  was  interested  in  the  temperance  movement, 
and,  fearing  for  his  neighbor  and  wishing  to  reform  him,  left  a 
tract  on  the  subject  at  his  house.  This  tract  was  discovered  one 
day,  soon  after  I  had  left  the  premises,  and  it  was  thought  the  young 
preacher  had  left  it.  It  was  accordingly  laid  aside  till  he  should 
return.  When  I  came  on  my  next  round  the  good  man  produced  the 
tract  on  temperance,  and  requested  me  to  read  it  in  the  presence  of 
the  family  during  the  evening  hour.  This  was  done,  and  the  Lord 
made  that  little  tract  a  special  blessing.  The  dangerous  practice  was 
discontinued,  and  after  I  left  the  circuit  that  beloved  brother  wrote 
me  one  of  the  most  grateful  letters  I  ever  received,  expressing  his 
obligations  to  me  for  having  cured  him  of  that  evil  practice.  The 
last  time  I  saw  that  excellent  man  was  in  1840,  in  the  city  of  Balti- 
more, when  he  fell  on  my  neck  and  wept,  repeating  his  sense  of 
obligation.  I  knew  not  at  first  who  had  left  the  tract  there,  knowing 
only  that  I  had  not,  and  when  informed  of  it  by  my  young  friend 
who  had  made  the  deposit  it  was  not  thought  best  to  correct  the 
existing  impression.  That  young  friend  was  Elijah  Hurst,  father 
of  our  esteemed  Dr.  Hurst. 

On  the  Salem  Chapel  Class  book  for  1831,  "James  Thomp- 
son, Leader,"  appear  the  names  of  Elijah  and  Ann  Catherine 
Hurst,  numbered  21  and  22  respectively,  while  numbers  30 
and  31  just  below  give  us  the  names  of  the  later  distinguished 
citizen  and  governor,  Thomas  H.  Hicks,  and  Ann  Hicks, 
his  wife. 

In  1838  Elijah  purchased  a  farm  of  about  two  hundred  and 
fifty  acres  on  the  east  side  of  Hurst's  Creek,  almost  directly 
opposite  to  the  old  homestead.  "Weir  Neck."  To  this  farm 
was  given  the  name  "Piney  Xeck" — a  few  years  later  changed 

Elijah  and  Ann  Catherine  Hurst  5 

to  the  euphonious  "Bonnie  Brook" — the  boyhood  home  of  John 
Fletcher.  Thither  he  brought  his  family  from  Salem  and 
thereafter  worshiped  in  Cambridge.  He  served  as  local  magis- 
trate for  several  years. 

Elijah  Hurst  was  a  liberal  giver  and  of  a  humorous  turn. 
His  sense  of  humor  was  exhibited  at  the  time  Zion  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  at  Cambridge  was  built.  When  the  time 
came  for  furnishing  the  church  Elijah  was  present  at  the  meet- 
ing. After  subscribing  twenty-five  dollars  each  for  his  chil- 
dren, Sallie  and  John,  he  hesitated  about  his  own  contribution. 
At  this  moment  the  preacher's  eye  caught  sight  of  Farmer 
Thompson,  who  shouted  so  everyone  could  hear,  "I'll  give 
ten  dollars  more  than  Lije  Hurst."  "Make  my  subscription 
then  two  hundred  dollars,"  exclaimed  Elijah.  Farmer  Thomp- 
son was  thunderstruck  and  handed  over  his  two  hundred  and 
ten  dollars  with  very  reluctant  grace. 

Not  long  before  his  death  Elijah  Hurst  purchased  "Weir 
Xeck"  and  left  this  farm  to  John  Fletcher.  He  died  August  4, 
1849,  after  a  long  and  severe  illness.  He  said  on  nearing  his 
final  hour,  "Tell  my  friends  I  see  my  way  clear  to  glory." 

Ann  Catherine  Colston,  the  mother  of  John  Fletcher  Hurst 
and  the  only  child  of  Samuel  and  Rebecca  (Catrup)  Colston. 
of  Talbot  County,  was  born  December  3,  1808.  Samuel  Col- 
ston was  the  son  of  Henry  and  Anne  (Hopkins)  Colston: 
Henry  Colston  was  the  son  of  James  (2)  and  Alice  (Orem) 
Colston;  and  James  Colston  (2)  was  the  eldest  son  of  James 
(1)  and  Elizabeth  (Bayley)  Colston,  and  lived  at  Ferry  Neck, 
opposite  Oxford.  Talbot  County;  James  Colston  (1)  lived  in 
Saint  Michael's  Parish  and  purchased  "Clay's  Hope,"  two 
hundred  acres  on  the  north  side  of  Choptank  River,  November 
15,  1664,  and  died  in  1729.  Henry  Colston,  second  of  that 
name,  was  born  May  26,  1748,  and  died  in  1824.  He  was 
the  maternal  great-grandfather  of  Bishop  Hurst,   and,   like 

6  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Samuel  Hurst,  served  in  the  Maryland  Line  of  the  Continental 
Army  during  the  Revolution.  He  was  in  February,  1776,  first 
sergeant  in  the  Heart  of  Oak  company  enlisted  from  Talbot 
(  )i  'Uiity,  and  was  recommended  at  that  time  by  the  county  con- 
vention to  the  council  for  promotion  to  ensign,  vice  Pern- 
Benson,  already  promoted. 

Ann  Catherine  Colston  was  twenty-three  years  of  age  when 
she  was  married  to  Elijah  Hurst  and  came  to  the  Salem  farm 
to  live.  She  had  been  an  exemplary  member  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  since  she  was  eighteen,  having  been  received 
into  the  church  by  Rev.  Levi  Scott,  later  Bishop,  during  his 
first  year  as  preacher  on  Talbot  Circuit  in  1826-27.  The 
Salem  home  and  later  that  at  "Piney  Neck,'"  during  the  ten 
years  of  her  married  life,  were  always  open  for  the  entertain- 
ment of  the  itinerant  preachers  in  their  journeys,  and  particu- 
larly during  the  camp  meetings  at  Ennalls  Springs.  She  was  a 
woman  of  refined  intelligence  and  fervent  piety.  Her  name  in 
the  community  was  a  synonym  for  charity  and  good  will.  Of 
the  early  close  of  her  life,  in  her  thirty-fourth  year,  a  beautiful 
account  was  written  by  John  Hurst,  half-brother  of  her  hus- 
band.    He  says  : 

She  labored  under  several  attacks  of  asthma,  which  caused  her  a 
great  deal  of  uneasiness  and  suffering.  .  .  .  She  asked  her  physi- 
cian, on  his  first  visit,  what  was  his  opinion  of  her  case,  and  said, 
'"Do  not  fear  to  alarm  me,  I  am  not  afraid  to  die."  Her  husband 
approached  her  bed,  and  asked  her  if  she  saw  her  way  clear  for 
heaven.  "Yes,"  she  replied,  "and  I  shall  soon  be  gone."  "Is  this 
death?"  she  exclaimed.  "I  feel  as  one  just  awakened  from  a  dream, 

'  Not  a  cloud  doth  arise  to  darken  my  skies, 
Or  hide  for  a  moment  my  Lord  from  my  eyes.'  " 

Some  time  after,  being  supported  by  her  pillows,  she  called  her 
husband  and  her  two  children  to  her  bedside,  and,  taking  each  by 
the  hand,  she  said,  "I  shall  meet  vou  in  heaven.     With  me  all  is 

His  Mother's  Death  7 

well."  After  speaking  of  her  class  leader  and  some  of  her  absent 
friends,  to  whom  she  wished  to  be  remembered,  her  countenance 
assumed  a  heavenly  paleness,  and  she  closed  her  eyes  in  death. 

The  day  of  her  death,  May  3,  1841,  was  ever  a  sacred  one  in 
the  calendar  of  John  Fletcher,  then  in  his  seventh  year.  The 
memory  of  his  sainted  mother,  especially  of  her  final  good-bye, 
was  ever  a  vivid  one  that  impressed  his  heart  and  life.  Its 
annual  recurrence  was  always  remembered  and  very  frequently 
marked  by  some  special  note,  even  down  to  his  later  years. 

Dr.  Edward  M.  Hardcastle,  of  Easton,  Maryland,  wrote  to 
Bishop  Hurst  in  1899: 

I  have  a  very  vivid  recollection  of  your  mother.  As  a  boy  I  spent 
much  of  my  time  at  my  Uncle  Morris  O.  Colston's.  She  made  a  pet 
of  me  as  a  little  fellow,  and  I  loved  her  very  much.  She  had  such  a 
gentle  and  lovely  disposition.  When  at  your  house  several  years 
ago  your  daughter  let  me  in,  and  I  was  struck  with  her  striking 
resemblance  to  your  mother. 

John    Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  Place 

The  Eastern  Shore  and  "Old  Dorset." — Cambridge 

The  peninsula  lying  between  the  Chesapeake  and  the 
Atlantic  is  a  very  remarkable,  if  not  an  absolutely  unique, 
formation  in  its  configuration  and  physical  aspects.  Its 
northeastern  quarter  furnishes  the  habitat  of  the  state  of  Dela- 
ware;  its  southern  part,  like  a  narrowing  nose,  stretches  out 
into  Accomac  and  Northampton  Counties  of  Virginia,  ending 
sharply  at  Cape  Charles ;  and  the  northwestern  and  central 
portions  form  the  famous  region  known  as  the  Eastern  Shore 
of  Maryland,  comprising  nine  rich  counties.  These  begin  with 
Cecil  on  the  north  ;  Kent  comes  next :  then  Queen  Anne,  each 
reaching  from  the  Chesapeake  to  Delaware;  then  Talbot,  with 
Caroline  stretching  eastwardlv  to  the  west  line  of  Delaware: 
then  Dorchester,  occupying  what  might  be  called  the  subpenin- 
sula  between  the  Choptank  and  Xanticoke  Rivers,  and  Wico- 
mico on  its  east  boundary,  the  most  nearly  inland  of  the  nine; 
and  lastly  Somerset,  bounded  on  the  east  by  Worcester,  which 
is  washed  on  its  eastern  edge  by  the  restless  Atlantic.  The 
northern  part  is  diversified  by  some  elevations  above  the  low 
levels  which  mark  the  central  and  southern  counties. 

The  Eastern  Shore  lies,  like  an  arm  thrust  up  by  the  ocean,  be- 
tween the  Atlantic  and  the  Chesapeake  Bay;  around  it  break  the 
surge  and  thunder  of  the  sea;  and  ocean's  breezes  sweep  perpetually 
over  it.  It  is  a  sandbar,  but  is  something  more;  it  is  a  garden  and 
an  orchard.  Nature  seemed  unkind  when  she  strewed  this  sand 
upon  clay  without  stones;  but  she  repented,  clothed  it  all  in  verdure, 
made  it  yield  almost  every  fruit,  vegetable,  and  berry  in  profusion 
and  of  finest  quality,  filled  even  the  swamps  with  cypress,  cedar,  and 

The  Eastern  Shore  9 

pine,  stored  the  streams  with  fishes,  filled  the  waters  along  the  coasts 
with  shellfish,  crustaceans,  and  valuable  finny  creatures,  sent  flocks 
of  birds  into  the  fields  and  woods,  and  flights  of  wild  fowl  upon  all 
the  waters. 

The  proportion  of  arable  land  is  very  high ;  the  soil  is  richly 
fertile  and  makes  quick  response  to  the  hand  of  toil.  The 
Chesapeake  with  its  endless  estuaries  deeply  indents  the  coast, 
while  the  adjacent  waters  are  studded  with  islands  of  every 
shape.  Very  many  of  the  farms  have  a  water  front  making 
the  use  of  canoes  and  small  boats  as  common  as  that  of  the 
cart  for  transportation  of  products  to  market. 

Its  climate  is  salubrious,  free  from  the  extreme  cold  of  the 
northern  latitudes  and  also  of  the  inland  regions  of  the  same 
latitude,  while  it  is  also  shielded  in  great  measure  from  the 
parching  heat  of  the  summer  by  the  breezes  from  ocean  and 
bay.  rendering  the  days  quite  tolerable,  the  nights  cool,  and 
the  periods  of  high  temperature  very  short.  Maize  grows  here 
to  perfection,  and  barley,  oats,  and  rye  are  staple  grains. 
Some  wheat  is  found  in  the  higher  portions,  but  fruits  and 
vegetables  of  every  kind  abound  and  are  of  prime  quality.  In 
the  northern  counties  apples,  apricots,  cherries,  peaches,  pears, 
plums,  and  quinces  are  plentiful.  Cantaloupes,  watermelons, 
currants,  blackberries,  raspberries,  strawberries,  whortleberries, 
and  cranberries  find  congenial  home. 

The  waters  of  the  Chesapeake  and  its  numberless  inlets  fur- 
nish a  great  variety  of  fish,  such  as  the  Spanish  mackerel,  bay 
trout,  shad,  bluefish,  white  perch,  herring,  rockfish,  pike, 
pickerel,  flounders,  and  others  less  prized,  while  the  crabbing 
industry  and  sport  go  on  almost  unceasingly,  these  shell-bound 
creatures  multiplying  with  astonishing  rapidity  and  seeming 
to  throw  themselves  into  the  hands  of  all  who  offer  them 
animal  bait  of  any  kind. 

The  oyster,  too,  here  has  its  established  haunts  and  finds  its 

[o  Joirx  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

rarest  qualities,  as  well  as  its  greatest  size.  Thousands  of  men 
■rain  their  livelihood  afloat  for  seven  months  out  of  the  twelve 
m  oyster  catching,  not  less  than  ten  million  bushels  of  the 
luscious  bivalves  being  taken  from  their  beds  by  scooping 
dredges  and  smaller  tongs  every  year.  Marvelous  tales  are 
told  of  the  diminutive  rarities  named  the  '"Cherrystones"  and 
the  magnitude  of  the  prices  brought  in  foreign  markets.  Along 
the  shore  and  in  the  marshy  regions  turtles  and  the  famous 
and  n<>\\-  rare  terrapin  reward  the  hunter  for  table  delicacies 
with  an  occasional  diamond-back  or  other  gustatory  prizes. 
Wild  fowl,  including  duck  even  to  canvasbacks  and  redheads, 
woodcock,  partridge,  wild  pigeons,  and  snipe  are  among  the 
feathered  inhabitants.  Squirrels  and  rabbits  are  the  chief 
specimens  of  four-footed  game. 

Dorchester  County  received  its  name  in  honor  of  a  personal 
friend  of  the  Calverts,  Earl  Dorset.  The  Abaco  Indians  con- 
tinued to  live  peaceably  in  this  region,  large  portions  of  which 
were  purchased  from  them  about  1669,  by  the  authority  of  the 
colonial  government  under  Lord  Baltimore.  Gradually  the 
land  was  thus  acquired  from  the  natives  without  serious  dis- 
turbance of  public  peace  and  safety,  and  a  few  Indians  survived 
among  the  population  even  down  to  1870.  Dorchester's  soil 
is  in  the  north  a  sandy  loam,  while  its  other  portions  are  mostly 
of  clay.  White  and  gray  clay  underlies  all  of  its  six  hundred 
and  ten  square  miles.  Its  central  position  on  the  Eastern  Shore 
gives  it  a  share  in  nearly  or  quite  all  the  industries  and  products 
of  the  region. 

Cambridge,  the  county  seat,  is  a  charming  town,  of  which 
Bayard  Taylor's  discriminating  pen  wrote,  "It  would  be  diffi- 
cult to  find  a  more  delightful  little  place  than  Cambridge." 
Founded  in  1684.  it  gradually  drew  into  its  population  from 
the  diverse  streams  of  immigration  a  large  number  of  people 
of  refinement  and  intelligence,  whose  homes  and  lives  reflected 

Cambridge.  Maryland  i  i 

much  of  the  culture  and  conscience  of  the  Old  World.  These 
elements  in  active  operation  created  an  atmosphere  at  once 
stimulating  to  the  mind,  promotive  of  calm  dignity  of  manner, 
and  productive  of  positive  religious  convictions.  The  fruits 
are  seen  in  the  growth  and  prosperity  of  both  schools  and 
churches,  keeping  pace  with  the  expansion  of  the  village  into 
the  town  and  of  the  town  into  the  city.  Not  until  1868  was 
Cambridge  connected  with  the  railroad  system  of  the  country, 
the  road  to  Seaford  being  built  in  that  year. 

Of  the  Eastern  Shore  Bishop  Hurst  has  himself  written  in 
his  Introduction  to  Todd's  Methodism  of  the  Peninsula : 

Slavery  planted  itself  here  with  a  strong  hand.  Fred  Douglass 
came  from  the  Lloyd  farm,  whose  broad  acres  were  plowed  by  five 
hundred  slaves.  One  of  my  earliest  recollections,  when  living  in 
Cambridge,  was  the  Georgia-man,  or  slave  trader,  who  sat  in  a 
splint-bottomed  chair  in  the  veranda  of  Bradshaw's  hotel,  and 
sunned  himself,  and  waited  for  propositions  from  slave  owners. 
We  boys  feared  him  as  a  hobgoblin.  I  saw  him  every  morning,  in 
the  opening  of  the  year,  for  it  was  at  this  time  that  he  made  his 
annual  northward  journey  for  business  purposes.  But  the  war  of 
1861-65  put  an  end  to  all  that.  .  .  .  The  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church  has  nowhere  had  a  more  difficult  task  to  perform  than  here, 
and  nowhere  has  it  won  more  signal  triumphs.  Bishop  Asbury  was 
regarded  as  a  Tory  during  the  Revolutionary  War,  and  was  sheltered 
from  danger  by  Judge  White,  of  Delaware,  who  entertained  him  in 
his  own  house  until  the  danger  was  over.  The  Methodists  were 
considered  a  dangerous  class  of  innovators,  judged  from  any  point 
of  view.  The  old  bricks  can  still  be  seen  in  Cambridge  of  which  had 
been  constructed  the  jail  in  which  Freeborn  Garrettson  was  once 
imprisoned  for  some  irregular  ministerial  exercises. 

i2  John    Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  Boy 

Schools,  Sports,  and  Work 

The  marriage  of  Elijah  Hurst  and  Ann  Catherine  Colston 
in  March,  1831,  had  been  blest  two  years  later  in  the  birth  of 
their  eldest  child,  Sarah  Lavinia,  who  on  October  31,  1854, 
became  the  wife  of  Dr.  John  F.  Kurtz,  and  died  in  1886, 
having  survived  her  husband  two  years,  and  leaving  six  of 
her  eleven  children  to  mourn  the  loss  of  a  most  faithful  and 
devoted  mother.  During  the  fourth  summer  of  their  wedded 
life,  on  the  seventeenth  of  August,  1834,  was  born  their  only 
son,  to  whom  their  devout,  if  not  prophetic,  admiration  of  the 
talents  and  spirituality  of  the  saintly  man  of  Madeley  led  them 
to  give  the  name  of  John  Fletcher.  It  is  currently  reported  to 
this  day  among  those  who  were  living  near  at  the  time  that 
immediately  after  his  birth  he  was  carried  by  the  nurse  to  the 
garret  of  the  old  farmhouse,  and,  when  asked  why  she  did  it, 
she  said,  "I  want  him  to  become  a  high-minded  man." 

The  quiet  days  of  his  infancy  and  early  boyhood  to  the  age 
of  four  years  were  spent  under  the  protecting  roof  and  shady 
maples  of  the  Salem  home.  The  tender  and  loving  ministra- 
tions of  his  mother,  stronger  in  faith  and  mental  powers  than 
in  body — for  she  suffered  repeatedly  from  asthma — and  the 
upright  and  vigorous  example  of  his  father,  both  parents  lead- 
ing a  positive  Christian  life,  combined  to  give  to  his  childhood 
a  beautiful  setting  and  development.  The  simple  and  hearty 
ways  and  open  hospitality  of  that  rural  Maryland  home  were 
to  be  reflected  in  the  simplicity,  courage,  and  open-mindedness 
of  the  son  who  then  brought  joy  and  later  great  honor  to  both 

At  School  13 

father  and  mother  and  elder  sister.  The  removal  to  "Piney 
Xeck"  in  1838,  and  the  establishment  of  the  family  there  on 
the  east  side  of  Hurst's  Creek  nearly  opposite  the  old  family 
homestead  of  "  Weir  Neck,"  were  followed  by  the  birth  of  a 
second  daughter,  August  3,  1838,  who  bore  the  name  of  her 
mother,  but  whose  baby  life  went  out  a  year  afterward — bring- 
ing the  first  household  grief  to  the  father  and  mother,  to  the 
sister,  little  Sallie,  six  and  a  half  years,  and  to  John  Fletcher, 
now  five. 

For  three  brief  years,  broken  by  this  sorrow  and  the  ap- 
proaches of  disease,  his  mother  presided  with  grace  and  gentle- 
ness over  the  new  home,  and  then  passed  to  her  eternal  rest 
and  crown.  She  left  to  her  only  boy  the  rich  legacy  of  a 
mother's  prayers.  He  carried  with  him  to  the  end  of  life  much 
of  her  disposition,  temperament,  manner,  and  resemblance  in 
features.  It  is  no  wonder  his  pen  formed  a  beautiful  tribute 
to  her  when  in  mature  life  he  wrote:  "If  there  is  anything 
immortal  in  this  world  it  is  a  mother's  prayer.  Her  face,  by 
a  spiritual  photography,  is  graven  in  the  soul." 

John  Fletcher,  who  had  learned  at  home  to  read  and  write, 
began  to  go  to  the  common  school  in  the  little  schoolhouse 
about  a  mile  from  his  father's  house,  but  adjoining  a  part  of 
the  ''Piney  Xeck"  farm.  His  first  teacher  in  the  frame  school- 
house  was  William  Mace ;  others  who  followed  were  Richard 
Keene,  Zechariah  Linthicum,  James  Radcliff,  and  Dr.  George 
Harmon — the  last-named  boarding  with  John's  father.  Soon 
after  his  mother's  decease  his  father  secured  a  Christian 
woman,  named  Mary  Higgins,  to  care  for  his  house  and  chil- 
dren. She  gave  her  time  and  labor  to  these  interests  faithfully 
and  intelligently  for  about  four  years.  In  1845  Elijah  Hurst 
was  married  to  Miss  Emily  L.  Travers,  of  Taylor's  Island,  a 
woman  of  Christian  character,  who  took  deep  and  kind  interest 
in  both  Sallie  and  lohn,  now  in  their  thirteenth  and  twelfth 

14  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

years.     Of  her  and  the  lad  Judge  L.  T.  Travers,  of  Taylor's 
Island,  a  relative,  wrote  in  1894: 

She  was  one  of  the  most  pious  young  ladies  I  ever  knew,  and  was 
my  Sunday  school  teacher.  .  .  .  When  I  first  knew  Bishop  Hurst  he 
was  a  very  modest  boy.  about  ten  years  old,  attired  in  a  plain  brown 
linen  suit,  following  closely  by  the  side  of  his  father  at  the  church 
on  Taylor's  Island  at  the  time  when  his  father  was  paying  attention 
to  Miss  Travers.  I  was  but  a  youth  then,  myself,  and  it  did  not 
enter  my  tbought  tbat  he  was  to  be  a  great  man  in  the  church  and  a 
bishop.  Perhaps  I  did  not  think  as  I  might  of  what  may  be  the  man- 
hood and  history  of  a  plain  boy  in  rural  life  on  a  farm. 

Dr.  Francis  P.  Phelps,  of  Cambridge,  whose  father  owned 
the  adjoining  farm,  used  to  go  crabbing,  duck-shooting,  and 
fishing  with  him.  On  one  occasion,  when  after  ducks,  John 
nearly  met  with  a  fatal  accident.  Both  had  ''blinds"  on  Hurst's 
Creek.  The  ducks  being  slow  in  their  appearance.  John  climbed 
a  tree  to  read  a  favorite  history.  He  became  so  absorbed  that 
he  did  not  see  the  ducks  coming  until  he  was  startled  by  a  loud 
rep'  >rt.  Frank,  not  seeing  John,  had  fired  at  the  ducks  straight 
into  the  tree.  John  tumbled  down  and  Frank  thought  he  had 
killed  him.  "Well."  said  John  after  his  fright  was  over,  "I 
finished  the  book  :"  "and  I  the  ducks.''  concluded  Frank.  Some 
shoals  near  his  father's  farm,  once  famous  as  an  Indian  retreat, 
was  a  favorite  place  for  John  to  pore  over  books  on  early 
American  history.  He  frequently  said  that  he  was  either  going 
to  teach  or  preach,  and  sometimes  he  would  preach  and  pray  in 
boy  fashion  at  improvised  meetings  in  an  old  storage  building 
at  "Weir  Neck,"  where  all  the  children  of  the  neighborhood 
gathered  for  indoor  games.  Mr.  James  E.  Sammons,  of  Wash- 
ington, D.  C.  who  was  a  schoolmate,  says  that  when  the  corner 
stone  of  Zion  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  in  Cambridge  was 
laid,  in  1844,  John  deposited  a  coin  and  his  name  in  the  stone 
and  told  his  mates  tkat  some  day  he  would  preach  in  that 

Eas'n  Sho  "  Sports  i 


On  a  certain  crabbing  excursion  of  six  boys,  including  John 
and  his  two  cousins.  "Sammy"  and  White  Hurst,  about  noon 
they  were  painfully  conscious  of  the  demand  of  the  "inner  boy" 
and  decided  "to  work"  old  Farmer  Billups  for  their  dinner. 
This  was  their  scheme :  John  with  voice  almost  a  whisper 
began,  "These  boys  want  some  dinner."  Sammy  next  took  up 
the  refrain  a  little  louder,  "These  boys  want  some  dinner." 
Then  came  White's  turn,  still  in  a  crescendo,  "These  boys  want 
some  dinner."  After  six  repetitions  of  this  formula,  each  time 
with  increasing  emphasis,  John's  turn  came  again.  He  com- 
menced very  seriously,  but  broke  out  in  a  hearty  laugh  before 
he  had  finished ;  for  every  boy  was  watching  Farmer  Billups, 
who  then  woke  up  to  the  humor  of  the  situation  and  treated 
the  boys  to  a  hearty  dinner. 

The  strong  trend  to  study,  reading,  and  to  general  excellence 
in  the  whole  round  of  childhood  duties  was  steadily  manifest 
during  his  next  six  vears'  attendance  at  the  district  school.  His 
active  sports  and  other  mingling  with  boys  of  his  own  age  are 
set  forth  with  much  zest  and  particularity  in  a  description  writ- 
ten by  himself,  and  probably  never  before  in  print : 

Our    Sports   and   What    Boys    Did   ox    the    Easterx    Shore 

In  no  respect  was  the  life  on  the  Eastern  Shore  more  primitive  or 
apart  from  the  usual  than  in  the  sports  which  formed  so  large  a 
share  of  the  time  and  joy  of  "Eas'n  Sho"  boys.  We  must  have 
followed  in  the  wake  of  the  sports  of  the  Western  Shore  boys ;  for  as 
the  weeks  rolled  around  there  were  kites  and  tops  and  marbles  and 
mumblepeg  on  our  side  of  the  bay  as  well  as  on  the  western.  But 
there  was  no  large  place  like  Baltimore  to  give  us  toys.  Our  largest 
town  in  old  Dorset  was  Cambridge,  and  in  the  forties  few  were  the 
shops  where  playthings  of  any  kind  could  be  found.  Then,  as  to  a 
farmer's  boy,  he  could  not  buy  even  those  whose  bright  colors  most 
fascinated.  But  playthings  he  had,  and  without  the  buying !  He 
made  them  himself.  He  was  prince  of  the  jackknife.  Take  bows 
and  arrows.  Far  back  in  the  forties  the  typical  "Eas'n  Sho"  boy 
could  go  through  a  forest  of  miles  of  varied  timber  and  tell  every 

1 6  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

kind  of  wood  or  plant  he  saw.  He  knew  just  the  age  of  hickory  that 
furnished  him  the  best  bow,  and  what  wood  was  best  for  his  arrows. 
White  oak  would  do  for  his  bow,  but  not  so  well  as  a  bit  of  hickory 
without  a  knot.  The  arrow  needed  something  to  fortify  it  for  reach- 
ing a  far-away  mark.  One  of  two  things  had  to  be  done :  point  it 
with  tin — though  brass  was  better — or  so  cut  the  wood  at  the  end 
that  lead  could  be  poured  around  it,  thus  making  a  firm  and  effective 
head.  The  most  of  us  had  arrows  of  various  devices  and  soon 
learned  which  we  could  trust  most  fully. 

I  doubt  whether  in  Cambridge  as  far  back  as  the  forties  there  had 
ever  been  seen  a  kite  which  had  come  from  the  factory.  We  made 
all  our  own  kites,  and  knew  all  the  art.  Newspapers  were  tougher 
then  than  now,  and  could  well  resist  the  wind.  The  wooden  frame 
had  to  be  thin  and  delicate,  yet  strong.  We  knew  the  best  shape  and 
size  of  the  solid  structure,  and  whenever  it  was  ready,  with  a  good 
tail  and  with  the  tow  string  which  we  knew  how  to  twist  from  the 
flax,  we  soon  had  it  soaring  among  its  fellows  far  above  forest  and 

Even  tops  were  sometimes  made  by  the  boys  themselves.  I  re- 
member well  a  boy  who  made  his  own  top  and  twisted  his  own  string, 
but  he  long  lacked  the  courage  to  spin  it  in  the  ring  where  the  more 
sumptuous  tops  from  the  shop  were  humming  with  energy.  The 
fashion  was  to  plug  another  top.  The  top  which  could  plug  and 
split  another  while  spinning  came  to  high  honor  and  was  often  sub- 
ject to  barter  or  sale.  One  day  the  timid  boy,  with  the  top  which 
his  own  deft  fingers  had  made,  gained  courage  enough  to  spin  his 
top  in  the  big  ring  and  by  a  good  stroke  plugged  one  of  the  stylish 
tops  from  the  shop.  Immediately  the  fortunate  boy  was  approached 
by  another  who  traded  with  him  his  top  from  the  factory  for  the 
more  homely  one  which  the  jackknife  had  made. 

At  the  schoolhouse  on  the  roadside,  in  Dorchester  County,  which  I 
first  attended,  there  was  no  more  thought  of  a  ball  from  a  store  than 
of  the  Trojan  horse.  India  rubber  was  just  coming  into  use,  and 
the  first  shoes  of  that  material  down  on  the  Eastern  Shore  were 
without  any  crude  stuff.  A  worn-out  rubber  was  cut  into  one  or 
more  long  strings  and,  by  stretching  well  in  the  winding,  these  were 
wound  into  a  ball.  To  bring  it  into  full  size  woolen  yarn  was 
wound  upon  the  india  rubber. 

I  made  my  own  lead  pencils  by  melting  shot  and  running  the  metal 
into  a  little  groove  in  the  ground  of  the  length  I  wanted  the  pencil. 
My  first  top  I  made  of  a  piece  of  solid  pine,  while  the  plug  or 
spindle  I  made  by  a  laborious  use  of  a  file  on  a  wrought  iron  nail. 

Birds  and  Books  17 

All  my  kites  I  made  with  my  own  hand.  I  made  all  my  bird  traps, 
and  knew  how  to  so  set  them  as  to  entrap  the  unwary.  But  I  must 
here  confess  I  never  caught  a  thoroughly  good  mocking  bird  in  one 
of  them — but,  if  any  mocking  bird  at  all,  only  the  poor  French 
variety.  These  traps  we  would  suspend  in  a  tree  and  disguise  them 
skillfully.  There  was  another  class  of  birds  which  spent  their  time 
on  the  ground.  The  cage  to  catch  them  was  made  of  slats,  like  a 
trap,  all  covered  with  leaves  to  appear  to  be  a  part  of  the  ground. 
Lucky  the  partridge  not  beguiled  with  one  of  the  brown  traps  which 
the  "Eas'n  Sho"  boy  knew  so  well  how  to  devise.  For  squirrels  we 
despised  the  modern  way  of  shooting.  Indeed,  happy  the  boy  who 
had  an  old-time  flint  gun,  for  all  over  the  Eastern  Shore  they  still 
existed.  But  happier  still  was  he  who  had  a  double-barreled  gun.  I 
had  one  of  the  latter  which  was  the  admired  of  all  the  boys  who  on 
Saturdays  roamed  over  the  fields  of  "Piney  Neck."  This  I  used 
long  before  I  was  able  to  hold  it  off  at  arm's  length.  But  no  matter 
for  that,  Black  Tom  was  my  unfailing  company.  When  aiming  at 
catbirds,  or  snipe,  or,  I  am  sorry  to  say,  even  robins,  I  would  rest 
the  gun  on  Tom's  shoulder  and  fire  both  barrels  at  once.  But  Tom 
had  his  turn  and  fired  with  equal  danger  and  haphazard  disposition. 
The  wonder  is  that  somebody's  ears  were  not  deafened  for  life  or 
his  head  blown  off.  The  game,  such  as  it  was.  was  common  to  us 
both,  and  Tom  knew  just  what  kind  of  a  withe  to  make  to  bear  it 

Fishing  nets  the  farmers'  boys  were  always  skillful  in  knitting, 
and  we  all  knew  that  the  heart  of  cedar  or  a  bit  of  hickory  furnished 
the  best  material  for  making  the  needle — not  a  straight  one  but  a 
kind  of  flat  rod  which  required  a  deft  use  of  the  knife.  The  in- 
ventive faculty  of  the  typical  boy  was  so  far  developed  that  he  could 
plait  his  own  straw  hat,  knit  his  own  woolen  gloves,  ride  a  horse 
without  a  saddle  and  with  only  a  halter  for  a  bridle,  cover  his  own 
ball,  made  of  yarn,  with  leather  as  neatly  sewn  as  any  now  to  be 
found  in  the  window  of  a  toy  store. 

At  the  end  of  the  above  penciled  lines  are  some  notes  in- 
tended for  future  elaboration,  and  each  reader  is  invited  to 
make  free  use  of  his  own  imagination  in  developing  such  as 
"Pike's  Arithmetic,"  "Jones's  Arithmetic,"  "Very  hard  books," 
as  bearing  on  the  mathematical  evolution  of  the  lad;  "Plu- 
tarch's Lives,"  as  a  vestibule  to  the  biographic,  historical,  and 

i8  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

classic  studies  of  later  decades ;  "otter,  muskrats,  rabbits,  squir- 
rels, ducks,"  as  the  game  on  which  the  future  hunter  for  ancient 
treasures  practiced  with  trap  and  gun ;  "ink,  suspenders,  shoes 
from  skins — made  by  boys."  as  the  foregleams  of  the  writer, 
the  supporter  of  men  and  institutions,  and  the  teacher  of  those 
whose  feet  should  be  clothed  with  the  sandals  of  the  gospel. 
In  a  final  notation  lurks  the  possibility  of  a  school-day  comedy, 
with  certain  elements  approaching  the  tragic,  for  we  read  mis- 
chief in  every  dash  of  the  trio  of  words,  "Lizards — stove — 
recess,"  and  can  almost  hear  the  cry  of  the  punished — whether 
guilty  or  innocent — in  which  our  John  Fletcher  figures  as  prob- 
ably only  a  sympathetic  on-looker. 

The  Youth  19 

The  Youth 

At  Cambridge  Academy 

It  was  a  long  step  in  the  progress  of  the  boy  when,  about  the 
beginning  of  his  eleventh  year,  he  entered  the  Cambridge 
Academy,  a  private  institution  which  had  won  a  good  public 
standing  for  secondary  education  and  the  preparation  of  young 
men  for  college.  Three  of  his  teachers  here  during  the  five  or 
six  years  of  his  attendance  were  Gardner  Bailey,  James  W. 
Conner,  and  William  Campbell.  His  studies  at  first  were  the 
common  English  branches,  through  the  usual  gradations  of 
grammar,  with  composition,  and  of  mathematics  from  arith- 
metic to  algebra  and  geometry,  with  Latin  and  Greek  during 
the  last  two  or  three  years. 

His  daily  trips  from  "Piney  Neck"  to  Cambridge  in  the 
morning,  and  return  in  the  afternoon,  during  the  terms  of 
school,  were  made  sometimes  on  foot  and  sometimes  on  horse- 
back. These  equestrian  journeys  were  made,  when  he  could 
have  his  choice,  astride  "Major,"  a  favorite  sorrel  pony.  At 
first  this  ride  was  a  bareback  performance,  no  saddle  to  fit  the 
pony  being  at  hand.  At  length  John's  longing  for  a  saddle  led 
him  to  appeal  to  his  father  for  one.  His  father  took  kindly  to 
the  request,  but  required  as  a  shrewd  and  happy  condition  that 
John  should  commit  to  memory  a  certain  hymn,  then  and  now 
in  frequent  use.  The  lad  was  eager  to  acquire  a  saddle  "for  a 
song."  but  met  his  father's  good  bargain  with  a  counter  propo- 
sition that  the  saddle  be  given  him  immediately  and  the  hymn 
learned  afterward.  To  this  his  father  gave  consent,  saying, 
"I  will  trust  you  to  keep  your  word."    The  saddle  was  bought, 

20  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

the  promise  was  kept,  and  the  hymn  thoroughly  imbedded  in 
the  tenacious  memory  of  the  young  student.  The  selection 
made  by  his  father  was  John  Cennick's  "Children  of  the  heav- 
enly King,"  and  peculiarly  appropriate  for  the  schoolboy 
mounted  for  his  four-mile  ride  was  the  second  line,  "  As  ye 
journey,  sweetly  sing."  Through  storm  and  sunshine  the  itin- 
erant youth  lived  the  spirit  of  that  hymn  down  to  life's  latest 
hour  as  one  who  from  his  heart  of  hearts  believed  and  knew 


"Jesus  Christ,  our  Father's  Son, 
Bids  us  undismayed  go  on." 

Many  a  day,  however,  did  John  make  the  daily  round  on  foot, 
trudging  cheerfully  with  his  books  and  luncheon  the  entire  dis- 
tance, except  when  good  fortune  overtook  him  in  the  chance  to 
ride  a  part  of  the  way.  While  a  boy,  and  until  he  was  sixteen, 
he  suffered  at  times  from  severe  attacks  of  asthma  or  phthisic, 
as  it  was  then  called.  The  struggle  for  breath  sometimes  seized 
him  so  violently  while  on  the  road  between  home  and  academy 
that  he  was  obliged  to  throw  himself  upon  the  ground  for  a  time 
until  he  could  regain  sufficient  breath  and  strength  to  go  on ; 
but  he  always  went  on. 

He  was  while  in  boyhood  possessed  of  an  even  temper,  not 
easy  to  take  offense,  and  ready  to  make  up  in  case  of  minor 
differences  of  feeling  whenever  they  occurred.  He  had  one 
physical  encounter  with  a  boy  named  Vaughn,  who  played  the 
part  of  a  bully  so  often  and  so  meanly  that  a  spirited  collision 
one  day  surprised  the  bully  into  a  sudden  meekness  and  a 
quiet  that  was  never  again  broken  so  far  as  John  was  con- 
cerned.    His  tormentor  sought  new  victims  from  that  day. 

His  complexion  was  fair  and  ruddy ;  his  hair  very  light ;  his 
form  well  rounded  and  of  good  proportions,  a  trifle  under 
average  size.  His  posture  was  upright,  save  a  slight  inclina- 
tion of  his  head  forward  and  a  droop  of  shoulders,  due  to  his 

At  the  Watering  Trough  21 

asthma  and  its  distressing  shortness  of  breath.  This  forward 
bend  of  his  neck,  suggestive  of  Alexander  von  Humboldt's 
poise  of  head,  clung  to  him  all  through  his  life,  confirmed  or 
perhaps  a  trifle  increased  by  his  studious  habits  and  heavy 
literary  labors,  but  was  by  no  means  altogether  the  "scholar's 
stoop,"  for  his  usual  posture  in  study  and  writing  in  mature 
life  was  standing  at  a  high  desk  hour  after  hour  and  day  after 
day,  as  he  plodded  through  a  hundred  tasks. 

When  John  was  in  his  early  teens  the  question  arose  in  his 
father's  mind,  and  in  his  own  as  well,  whether  he  should 
become  and  remain  a  farmer,  or  go  on  with  his  work  at  school 
and  enter  some  path  that  should  properly  follow  an  advanced 
education.  Being  the  only  son,  he  was  naturally  expected  to 
follow  his  father  as  proprietor  of  the  farm.  The  conflict 
between  the  natural  bent  of  the  boy  toward  learning  and  the 
paternal  desire  to  keep  him  near  came  to  a  crisis  one  bright 
summer  day  when  John  was  about  fourteen.  His  father  sent 
him  to  water  the  horses,  several  in  the  herd ;  and  the  water  was 
at  some  distance  from  the  barn.  John  had  a  book  in  his  hand. 
He  rode  one  horse  and  the  others  followed.  At  the  watering 
place  he  found  it  convenient  to  slip  from  the  horse's  back  to 
the  trough,  as  many  a  boy  does,  when  the  height  of  the  trough 
makes  the  descent  easy.  The  boy  found  an  easy  place  to  sit, 
opened  his  book  for  a  draught  from  its  depths,  became  ab- 
sorbed, forgot  all  about  the  horses,  and,  when  they  had  disap- 
peared from  view,  slowly  returned  to  the  house,  too  keenly 
conscious  of  the  situation  for  his  own  comfort,  and  wondering 
what  his  disappointed  father  would  say  to  him.  His  father 
spoke  the  word  which  opened  the  way  for  the  son's  whole 
career:  "John,  there  is  no  use  of  you  staying  around  here. 
You  will  never  make  a  farmer.  Pack  your  trunk  and  go  to 
school."  The  delighted  youth  obeyed  his  father,  and  began 
boarding  at  Cambridge  in  the  family  of  Captain   Shadrach 

22  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Mitchell.  This  arrangement  gave  him  more  time  for  the 
severer  studies  which  marked  the  last  two  years  at  the 
Academy,  and  were  in  the  direct  line  of  preparation  for  college. 
At  this  time  he  came  under  the  instruction  of  William 
Campbell,  who  had  come  into  the  institution  at  the  beginning 
of  1848.  This  cultured  Irishman  was  a  splendid  instructor, 
and  subjected  the  young  student,  "in  common  with  his  school- 
mates," as  a  written  report  sent  to  his  father  for  January,  1848, 
declares,  "to  a  searching  examination."  This  report  goes  on 
to  say  also : 

Having  himself  been  convinced  of  his  deficiency  in  most  branches, 
he  deserves  my  warmest  commendation  for  having  resolutely  com- 
menced the  work  of  improvement.  Much  could  not  be  done  in  one 
month,  but  he  has  manifested  the  desire  to  profit  by  instruction,  and 
has  been  laying  the  sure  foundation  for  solid  improvement.  His 
capabilities  are  such  as,  if  aided  by  persevering  attention,  will  secure 
the  most  satisfactory  results.  In  his  Latin  studies  there  has  been 
already  much  improvement.  In  other  exercises  he  has  maintained  a 
fair  position,  with  the  exception  of  geometry,  in  which  I  cannot  say 
that  he  has  given  me  satisfaction.  His  conduct  has  been  uniformly 

This  record  of  four  weeks  under  the  stimulus  of  a  new  and 
master  teacher  is  an  index  of  the  growing  love  of  the  young 
student  for  language  and  letters,  a  fair  enjoyment  in  other 
departments  of  knowledge,  with  an  indifferent  and  perhaps 
waning  interest  in  the  science  of  surfaces,  angles,  and  magni- 

His  good  offices  as  a  peacemaker  found  opportunity  one  day 
when  Frank  Phelps  and  some  other  boys  of  the  school  toiled 
successfully  at  the  task  of  leading,  pulling,  and  lifting  a  goodly 
sized  calf  into  one  of  the  rooms  of  the  second  story  of  the  old 
Academy.  John  did  not  actually  join  in  the  sport,  but  stood 
outside.  When  he  saw  the  master  coming  he  was  convulsed 
with  laughter  at  the  interesting  juncture.     From  John  the 

His  Uncle  John  23 

teacher  learned  what  was  going  on,  but  the  rising  tide  of 
wrathful  feeling  in  the  breast  of  the  stern  disciplinarian  was 
stemmed  by  the  infectious  merriment  of  the  witness,  and  was 
itself  turned  into  a  laughing  fit  which  soon  spread  among  all 
the  teachers  and  gave  the  offenders  immediate  and  full  for- 
giveness for  their  mischievous  pranks. 

The  death  of  his  father,  Elijah  Hurst,  in  August,  1849,  left 
John,  now  fully  orphaned,  to  the  guardianship  of  his  uncle, 
John  Hurst,  who  responded  nobly  to  the  important  trust  thus 
committed  to  him  by  his  elder  half-brother.  John  Hurst  was 
at  that  time  a  successful  merchant  in  Baltimore  in  partnership 
with  General  John  S.  Berry.  His  interest  in  his  nephew  never 
lagged,  but  was  active  and  helpful  at  many  points  in  his  career, 
and  frequently  showed  itself  in  friendly  advice  and  opinion 
concerning  the  young  man's  methods  and  plans,  usually  in  ap- 
proval, but  sometimes  suggesting  important  changes. 

As  early  as  1849,  his  thoughts  of  going  to  college  assumed 
shape  definite  enough  for  him  to  write  this  letter  from  Cam- 
bridge to  the  president  of  Dickinson,  on  the  fifth  of  December: 

Dear  Sir:  Having  seen  a  catalogue  of  Dickinson  College,  I  have 
concluded  to  go,  provided  I  can  get  a  room  in  the  College  or  else- 
where. Master  Bowdle  wrote  that  there  were  only  two  or  three 
rooms  vacant,  and  I  thought  that  it  would  be  well  for  me  to  write  to 
you  to  reserve  me  one  if  they  are  not  occupied  before  you  receive 
this  letter.  It  is  doubtful  whether  I  shall  be  there  or  not  before 
Christmas,  which  caused  me  to  write,  thinking  that  fresh  students 
may  come  and  that  you  would  reserve  me  a  room  from  the  time  that 
you  receive  this,  as  there  is  no  doubt  at  present  about  my  coming. 
If  there  cannot  be  a  room  left  for  me  I  would  like  to  get  a  place  in 
some  private  family,  and  you  would  confer  a  favor  upon  me  if  you 
would  bespeak  me  one.  I  would  be  gratified  to  receive  an  answer 
to  this,  that  I  may  know  what  course  to  pursue. 

Yours  with  respect,  John  F.  Hurst. 

The  Master  Bowdle  whose  letter  is  mentioned  above  was  a 
Maryland  boy  acquaintance  already  at  Carlisle,  whose  corre- 

24  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

spondence  had  evidently  stimulated  young  Hurst  to  this  rather 
sudden,  and  as  it  proved  premature,  application  for  a  room ; 
for  he  remained  at  Cambridge  until  the  following  summer  in 
earnest  and  successful  prosecution  of  his  studies.  During  the 
year  1849  he  began,  as  a  side  exercise  to  his  literary  reading, 
the  copying,  into  a  book,  of  passages  which  struck  his  fancy 
as  possessing  special  value.  The  entries  in  this  book  were 
completed  in  1850  at  Carlisle.  The  wide  range  of  his  reading 
and  the  high  taste  of  his  sixteenth  year  appear  in  extracts  from 
Horace,  Virgil,  Cicero,  Ovid,  Ouintilian,  Sallust,  and  Seneca, 
in  Latin ;  while  the  English  quotations  embrace  Milton,  Pollok 
(Course  of  Time,  many),  Thomson's  Seasons,  Irving's  Tales 
of  a  Traveler  and  Bracebridge  Hall,  Hume,  Robespierre,  Kirke 
White,  Milman,  Shakespeare,  Ben  Jonson,  Daniel,  Young, 
Pope,  Sam  Johnson,  Howard,  Addison,  Cowley,  Baillie, 
Dryden,  Franklin,  Moore,  Samuel  Butler,  Byron,  Rogers,  and 

He  received  and  accepted  an  invitation  to  deliver  the  public 
address  in  Cambridge  on  the  Fourth  of  July,  1850,  and  ac- 
quitted himself  with  honor  before  a  large  audience.  His  con- 
nection with  Cambridge  Academy  ceased  about  the  same  time 
with  the  departure  of  his  esteemed  teacher  in  July,  1850,  when 
Mr.  Campbell  said  in  a  letter  of  appreciation  and  suggestion 
to  Mr.  John  Hurst,  the  guardian  of  his  promising  pupil : 

John  has  been  my  pupil  since  my  appointment  to  the  Academy, 
January,  1848,  and  during  all  that  time  he  has  invariably  given  me 
satisfaction  and  cause  for  pride.  His  conduct  has  been  uniformly 
excellent,  his  industry  ceaseless,  and  his  improvement  rapid  and  at 
the  same  time  sound.  His  abilities  I  consider  to  be  of  a  high  order, 
and,  coupled  with  his  untiring  perseverance,  good  judgment,  and 
good  principles,  they  afford  the  fairest  promise  of  a  manhood  of 
usefulness  and  honorable  distinction.  I  am  satisfied  that  in  any 
business  or  profession  his  excellent  sense  and  his  principles  would 
secure  him  a  highly  respectable  position ;  but  it  seems  to  me  that  his 
talents  and  habits  fit  him  especially  for  the  study  of  the  law.   .    .    . 

His  Conversion  25 

However  far  I  may  be  separated  from  him  in  his  future  life,  I 
cannot  cease  to  feel  a  lively  interest  in  his  welfare,  nor  can  I  deny 
myself  the  hope  that  his  abilities,  rightly  directed,  will,  under 
Providence,  render  him  a  pride  to  his  friends,  a  distinguished,  a 
useful,  and  a  good  man. 


The  child  of  many  prayers,  and  the  youth  who  doubtless 
kept  up  the  childhood  habit  of  secret  prayer  when  mother  and 
father  had  been  taken  from  him  and  home  had  thereby  been 
robbed  of  much  of  its  meaning  except  as  a  hallowed  memory, 
it  was  an  altogether  reasonable  expectation  on  the  part  of  his 
friends  that  he  should  in  keeping  with  the  example  and  pre- 
cept of  his  parents,  a  "pious  pair,"  enter  into  an  open  espousal 
of  the  cause  and  profession  of  the  faith  of  Jesus  Christ,  as  his 
personal  Saviour  and  the  world's  Redeemer.  This  expectation 
became  a  reality  during  his  sixteenth  year.  How  earnestly  and 
happily  he  took  this  step  let  his  love-feast  testimony  at  the 
Northwest  Indiana  Conference  in  Brazil  in  1889,  recorded  in 
the  Western  Christian  Advocate,  tell : 

I  have  been  trying  to  serve  God  now  ever  since  the  year  1850.  I 
had  no  parents — they  had  gone  home  to  heaven — and  I  was  among 
strangers.  My  mother  died  before  I  was  seven  years  old,  so  that  I 
don't  remember  her  face  fully — just  a  mere  outline.  I  think  I  shall 
know  it;  I  think  I  shall  recognize  it  when  the  fight  is  over,  and 
when  the  happy  meetings  come,  never  to  separate.  My  father  was  a 
Christian  man,  and  he  died  when  I  was  fourteen.  I  was  going  home 
from  a  little  debating  society,  pretty  late  at  night,  and,  on  the  other 
side  of  the  street,  as  I  was  going  toward  my  boarding  place,  I  heard 
them  singing  in  the  Methodist  church.  With  me  was  a  young  school 
companion,  who  afterward  entered  the  ministry.  We  went  over  and 
went  into  the  meeting,  and  crowded  pretty  well  up  to  the  front.  The 
minister  saw  us,  and  came  down  and  spoke  to  me,  and  asked  me  if  I 

26  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

didn't  want  to  go  to  heaven.  We  both  went  to  the  altar,  time  after 
time,  meeting  after  meeting.  I  was  seeking  light  all  the  time,  trying 
to  do  something,  trying  to  perform  some  obligation,  trying  to  under- 
stand him,  and  when  I  came  to  see  that  I  could  not  understand  any- 
thing, could  not  do  anything,  he  gave  me  light.  One  night,  going 
home  from  church,  I  remember  that  a  change  came  over  me ;  a  light 
broke  out  before  me :  there  was  a  little  river  in  the  distance,  and  it 
seemed  to  shine  like  silver;  I  didn't  know  what  it  all  was;  I  thought 
it  was  some  sudden  glow  of  good  feeling.  I  went  to  my  room  full 
of  joy,  and  then  the  Lord  revealed  to  me.  "You  have  a  new  heart!" 
The  Lord  had  given  it  to  me ;  there  was  no  consciousness  of  sin.  I 
felt,  like  Pilgrim,  that  the  burden  had  fallen  from  my  shoulders.  I 
could  now  see  it,  because  I  had  gotten  to  the  foot  of  the  cross,  and  I 
have  been  trying  to  serve  the  Lord  ever  since.  I  have  been  thankful 
to  him  that  the  change  was  so  sudden,  so  striking;  that  I  have,  been 
able  to  look  back  upon  it  as  the  hour  when  God,  for  Christ's  sake, 
spoke  peace  to  my  soul. 

A  mention  of  the  preacher  who  helped  him  into  the  king- 
dom, and  of  his  fellow  student  and  seeker  after  God,  is 
made  in  a  beautiful  and  grateful  tribute  which  he  wrote  in 
1894,  to  the  memory  of  the  Rev.  James  A.  Brindle,  and 
which  was  published  in  the  Peninsula  Methodist : 

In  the  year  of  1849-50,  Rev.  Henry  Colclazer  and  Rev.  James  A. 
Brindle  were  preachers  on  Cambridge  Circuit,  Snow  Hill  District, 
Philadelphia  Conference.  During  the  winter  there  was  a  very  ex- 
tensive revival  in  the  town  of  Cambridge.  .  .  .  My  friend  was  Douglas 
Dashiell,  who  afterward  became  an  honored  minister  in  the  Metho- 
dist Episcopal  Church,  South.  His  field  of  labor  was  in  Texas. 
Brother  Brindle  was  as  truly  a  man  of  God  as  anyone  whom  I 
have  ever  known.  His  life  was  one  of  rare  consecration.  Every- 
thing he  touched  was  with  a  master  hand.  His  calm  and  patient 
manner,  his  gentleness  and  sympathy,  and  his  devout  life  made  a 
profound  impression  upon  me.  He  was  very  far  from  ostentatious, 
courteous  in  language,  but  of  desperate  and  quiet  energy. 

John  Fletcher  Hurst  bought  his  first  Discipline  from  his 
pastor  James  A.  Brindle,  and  his  first  class  leader  was  James 
Bryan,  of  Cambridge. 

At  Dickinson  College  27 

The  Young  Man 

The  Collegian. — At  Dickinson. — The  Union  Philosophical  Society 

The  composition  of  a  Sophomore  friend  read  during  his 
Cambridge  life  first  awakened  John  F.  Hurst's  desire  to  go  to 
college.  In  his  address  at  the  funeral  of  Bishop  Jesse  T.  Peck, 
in  1883,  Bishop  Hurst  made  a  profound  impression  by  his 
tribute  to  this  friend  of  his  youth,  and  thus  refers  to  the  influ- 
ence of  that  educator  in  turning  him  toward  Dickinson  : 

My  mind  goes  back  from  this  hour  many  years,  over  the  chasm  of 
a  generation,  thirty-three  years.  Away  down  in  the  south  of  Mary- 
land, on  the  eastern  shore  of  the  Chesapeake,  when  attending  a 
camp  meeting  I  was  told  that  the  president  of  Dickinson  College  was 
to  preach  on  a  certain  day.  Such  a  sermon  was  seldom  heard  in 
that  peninsula.  Some  one  had  said  "college"  to  me  a  few  times 
before  this,  and  I  had  thought  of  seeking  a  college  education,  but 
this  seemed  well-nigh  impossible.  I  remember  that  a  kind  minister 
brought  me  to  the  preacher  of  the  afternoon.  I  told  him  something 
about  going  to  college.  Said  he,  "Don't  trouble  yourself.  Go  home 
and  wait  until  the  opening  of  the  term  and  then  you  take  the  stage 
across  by  York  and  come  there  and  I  will  meet  you  and  we  will  live 
happily  together."  And  for  two  years  I  was  a  student  there  under 
him.  When  Dr.  Collins  succeeded  him  I  remained  two  years;  but 
no  tender  heart  ever  beat  more  keenly  in  sympathy  with  the  student 
than  his.  The  friend  of  schools  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific ! 
So  I  think  of  him  as  a  man  who  took  a  boy  by  the  hand,  and  ever 
since  the  memories  of  the  man  have  been  precious. 

The  kind  preacher  who  introduced  the  shrinking  youth  to  the 
college  president  was  none  other  than  the  Rev.  Dr.  Robert  H. 
Pattison,  father  of  the  ex-governor  of  Pennsylvania,  the  late 
Hon.  Robert  E.  Pattison. 

Among  the  thirty-six  names  enrolled  as  Freshmen  at  Dickin- 

2S  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

son  College  in  September,  1850,  was  that  of  John  Fletcher 
Hurst.  The  catalogue  for  1849-50  indicates  the  standard  of 
the  young  student's  preparation: 

Candidates  for  Freshman  class  must  be  well  acquainted  with 
Arithmetic;  Davies's  First  Lessons  in  Algebra;  Geography;  Outlines 
of  Ancient  and  Modern  History;  the  English,  Latin,  and  Greek  Gram- 
mars (McClintock  and  Crooks's  First  Books  in  Latin  and  Greek)  ; 
Caesar's  Commentaries  (two  books)  ;  Virgil's  ^ineid  (five  books)  ; 
Xenophon's  Anabasis  (two  books)  ;  Roman  Antiquities  and  My- 
thology; Greek  Reader  and  the  Historical  Books  of  the  New 

He  was  assigned  to  48  West  College  with  William  J.  Bowdle, 
of  Church  Creek,  Maryland,  as  .roommate.  The  change  of 
scene  from  the  blending  of  water  and  land  about  the  inlets  and 
necks  of  the  Eastern  Shore  to  the  region  of  the  Blue  Ridge  was 
a  signal  one  for  the  youth  of  sixteen,  and  seems  to  have  greatly 
benefited  his  health  in  a  nearly  total  relief  from  the  asthma. 
Upon  his  entrance  into  the  new  and  strange  scenes  of  college 
life  he  received  and  ever  afterward  treasured  this  letter  from 
his  pastor  at  Cambridge,  sent  with  his  certificate  of  church 
membership,  and  dated  September  17: 

Dear  Brother  John:  I  trust  you  are  pleased  with  your  new 
location  and  situation.  You  cannot  expect  to  find  everything  as  you 
may  wish  or  desire.  You  may  well  suffer  some  privations  in  order 
to  secure  that  one  thing  so  much  desired,  a  good  education,  and  so 
necessary  to  make  you  useful  in  either  church  or  state.  Doubtless 
you  will  be  exposed  to  temptations  notwithstanding  the  religious 
example  you  have  set  before  you  in  the  officers  in  the  Institute; 
therefore  it  will  be  absolutely  important  for  you  to  both  watch  and 
pray  that  you  enter  not  into  temptation.  Remember  the  Eye  of  God 
is  upon  you  and  his  Ear  is  open  to  your  prayer;  his  Arm  is  able  to 
Mipport  you.  and  nothing  shall  harm  you  whilst  you  are  a  follower 
of  that  which  is  good.  Remember  your  classmates  pray  for  you  and 
Jesus  prays  for  you,  and  the  Holy  Spirit  makes  intercession  for  you 
with  groanings  which  cannot  be  uttered.  Choose  those  for  your 
companions  who,  like  yourself,  are  striving  to  save  their  souls.     If 

Union  Philosophical  Society  29 

you  cannot  find  such,  you  had  better  hold  yourself  aloof  from  them 
all;  only  treat  them  with  kindness  and  show  to  all  around  you  have 
been  with  Jesus.  But  I  trust  you  will  find  some  who  will  take  you 
by  the  hand  and  assist  you  upon  your  heavenly  journey.  I  am  sure 
we  shall  miss  you  very  much  in  our  class  room,  for  you  deserve 
much  credit  for  your  strict  attendance.  I  hope  you  will  not  slacken 
the  reins  of  duty,  though  you  may  be  a  stranger  in  a  strange  place. 
And  again,  my  dear  young  brother,  let  nothing  draw  or  drive  you 
from  your  secret  devotions.  However  much  we  may  think  of  learn- 
ing, we  should  not  give  up  our  closet  devotion  to  obtain  it.  Converse 
with  your  Father  in  heaven.  Pour  out  your  heart  to  him,  and. 
although  your  father  and  mother  have  gone  to  glory  before  you,  the 
Lord  will  take  you  up.  And  another  duty  I  wish  to  enforce  is  that 
of  reading,  yea,  searching  the  Scriptures  regularly,  frequently, 
prayerfully,  and  I  have  not  the  shadow  of  a  doubt  upon  my  mind  the 
Lord  will  make  a  useful  man  of  you,  both  in  the  church  and  in  the 
world.  Join  the  church  as  soon  as  convenient,  and  be  faithful  to 
attend  all  her  ordinances.  May  God  bless  you  more  and  more  and 
save  you  with  the  power  of  an  endless  life.  So  prays  your  brother 
in  Christ,  James  A.  Brindle. 

I  wish  you  to  write  me  soon.  Open  your  heart  to  one  who  feels 
the  deepest  interest  in  your  spiritual  and  eternal  welfare. 

J.  A.  B. 

Two  large  societies,  with  literary  and  social  features,  em- 
braced nearly  the  whole  body  of  students,  and  were  rivals  in  se- 
curing members  and  in  the  public  debates  and  exhibitions  which 
marked  every  school  year.  In  October  young  Hurst  was  voted 
in  as  a  member  of  the  Union  Philosophical  Society,  and  threw 
his  energy  into  its  interests  as  distinguished  from  those  of  the 
"  Belles-Lettres."  The  records  of  the  Society  show  that  he  was 
a  faithful  member  of  the  organization  and  prominent  in  its 
work.  In  his  first  year  he  was  elected  assistant  librarian,  later 
became  librarian,  and  still  later  was  elected  censor.  In  the  two 
succeeding  years  he  filled  the  office  of  secretary  and  treasurer. 
Especially  does  his  name  stand  prominent  on  the  records  as  an 
essay  writer  and  debater.  He  was  evidently  a  great  reader,  for 
the  librarian's  books  from   1850  to  1853  snow  many  books 

3<d  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

charged  to  his  name.  He  took  part  in  a  very  animated  debate 
in  which  the  whole  society  participated,  on  the  question,  "Re- 
solved, That  the  interests  of  the  United  States  would  be  con- 
served by  the  abolition  of  slavery."  He  was  on  the  affirmative, 
and  his  side  won,  though  there  were  many  Southerners  in  the 
society,  Dickinson  drawing  many  from  the  South. 

Among  the  literary  addresses  which  he  made  in  chapel  was 
one  on  "The  Influence  of  Music,"  delivered  May  6,  1854. 
"The  Beauties  of  National  Art"  was  given  at  the  sixty-fifth 
anniversary  of  the  Union  Philosophical,  July  11,  1854,  two 
days  before  his  graduation.  From  the  former,  on  which  is 
indorsed  "plenty  of  ladies  present,"  we  select  a  few  sentences 
on  a  theme  which,  so  well  treated  in  his  college  days  and  so 
assiduously  cultivated  in  his  first  pastorate,  seems  to  have  lost 
its  attraction  for  him  in  his  maturer  life  : 

From  the  time  when  the  morning  stars  first  sang  together,  it  has 
been  powerful  enough  to  unite  the  tastes  of  man  to  ennobling  ob- 
jects, no  less  than  to  calm  the  convulsions  of  him  who  writhes 
beneath  the  throes  of  malignant  passions.  Even  though  it  adds  new 
pleasures  to  the  achievements  of  the  past,  and  fresh  hopes  for  the 
future,  it  does  not  lose  sight  of  its  mission  when  the  hand  of  ad- 
versity casts  a  blight  upon  the  spirits.  The  harp  which  had  often 
cheered  the  heart  of  the  Hebrew  King  did  not  hang  mute  upon  his 
palace  walls  when  his  rebellious  son  had  fallen  a  victim  to  his  un- 
feeling nature.  .  .  .  Like  the  fabled  tent  of  the  Arabians,  music 
can  so  expand  and  contract  its  folds  as  to  adapt  itself  to  any  climate 
or  to  any  order  of  society.  The  experience  of  ages  has  proved  that 
Mars  is  no  less  a  skillful  musician  than  Apollo.  If  some  "Auld 
Lang  Syne"  can  place  us  amid  the  cherished  scenes  of  youth,  and 
retrace  the  most  pleasing  memories  of  early  days,  martial  music 
leads  every  heart  a  willing  captive  to  its  charms.  When  France 
needed  an  incentive  to  resist  the  corrupt  rule  of  her  Bourbon  king, 
the  Marseillaise  converted  an  army  of  royalists  into  the  warmest 
supporters  of  republicanism.  .  .  .  But  music  was  never  made  to 
subserve  the  unholy  purposes  of  misanthropy  or  melancholy.  On 
the  contrary,  if  all  the  romantic  attachments  in  ancient  or  in  modern 
times  were  traced   from   their  origin   to   their   consummation,   there 

A  Sophomore  31 

would  be  found  as  many  instances  of  love  at  first  sound  as  of  "love 
at  first  sight." 

His  oration  on  "The  Beauties  of  National  Art,"  after  a  glow- 
ing appreciation  of  Oriental  and  European  art  of  ancient  and 
classic  times,  closes  in  a  strain  of  prophecy  for  his  own  loved 

When  national  art  shall  enjoy  a  more  extended  rule,  its  beauties 
will  brighten  up  the  dark  caverns  and  gild  the  rugged  mountain 
peaks  of  the  Western  continent.  Our  own  Washington  will  become 
another  Rome  without  its  vices ;  our  own  rotunda  will  become 
another  Forum  whose  paintings  and  statues  shall  witness  no  political 
convulsions,  but  shall  bind  the  heart  of  every  citizen  to  the  interests 
of  his  country.  Our  blue  Potomac  will  become  the  Tiber  of  America, 
with  no  pagan  associations,  whose  banks  shall  be  studded  with  monu- 
ments erected  to  the  memory  of  her  honored  sons.  It  will  then  be 
left  for  future  years  to  found  a  tower  which  shall  not  cause  a  new 
confusion  of  tongues,  but  which  shall  witness  the  union  of  the  jarring 
interests  of  the  world,  and,  while  reflecting  the  glories  of  the  rising 
and  the  setting  sun  upon  a  race  of  freemen,  the  nations  of  the  earth 
shall  crown  its  capital  with  the  laurel  wreaths  of  victory  and  honor. 

A  Sophomore's  Diary 

The  phases  of  his  social,  intellectual,  moral,  and  religious  life 
while  in  college  are  clearly  reflected  in  sundry  passages  from  his 
diary,  which  bears  the  heading 


Carlisle,  Pa. 

1852  No.  20  East  College 

Sunday,  April  II. — Having  formerly  kept  a  "Diary,"  I  concluded 

that  it  was  too  much  of  a  "bore,"  and  for  that  reason  gave  it  up.     It 

has  become  fashionable,  however,  to  keep  a  diary,  and,  prejudging 

32  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

that  it  will  be  useful  as  well  as  entertaining,  in  after  life,  to  read 
some  of  my  Journal,  I  have  finally  concluded  to  resume  the  task. 
My  desire  is  to  keep  an  exact  account  of  my  religions  experience, 
and  to  state  my  daily  progress  and  retrogression  in  religious  and 
mental  culture. 

Surely  a  student's  life  is  one  of  change,  sometimes  agreeable  and 
sometimes  otherwise,  yet  altogether  I  think  there  is  a  vast  deal  of 
enjoyment,  perhaps  more  than  will  counterbalance  all  of  the  un- 
pleasantness. To-day  is  rainy,  and  of  all  the  days  calculated  to 
generate  the  "blues"  I  do  think  that  "rainy  Sundays"  surpass.  Yet 
we  console  ourselves  with  the  thought  that  Providence  knows  better 
than  we  do,  and  it  is  all  for  the  best.  I  heard  Mr.  Peck,  of  the 
Senior  Class,  preach;  his  text  was  concerning  the  "grain  of  mustard 
seed,"  meaning  the  obscurity  of  the  church  and  her  gradual  increase 
down  to  the  present  time.  I  expected  a  better  one  than  I  did  hear, 
yet  he  is  young  and  has  time  (if  he  live)  for  improvement.  I  did 
not  enjoy  myself  very  much  in  the  afternoon  and  evening.  It  was 
because  I  was  engaged  too  much  in  secular  conversation.  I  heard 
the  Rev.  Dr.  Wickes  (our  pastor)  preach  at  night;  the  sermon  was  a 
continuation  of  a  former  one.  I  went  to  sleep,  as  usual,  at  night.  I 
have  often  tried  to  rid  myself  of  such  an  unenviable  custom.  I  was 
afterward  told  that  the  sermon  was  an  excellent  one.  Immediately 
before  the  Doctor  commenced,  the  choir  sang  the  "Easter  Anthem." 
It  brought  back  to  my  mind  the  many  times  my  father  has  sung  it  to 
me.  Indeed,  I  felt  like  shedding  tears  over  my  departed  parent. 
May  the  time  never  come  when  my  thoughts  will  not  go  back  to 
earlier  years,  when  a  kind  father  and  an  indulgent  mother  were 
almost  the  sole  objects  of  my  affections. 

12. — Rose  at  five  and  commenced  my  daily  studies.  Didn't  study 
much  at  night,  because  I  was  invited  downtown  to  take  some  ice 
cream  with  some  of  my  fellow  students;  didn't  enjoy  myself  much 
because  there  was  too  much  joviality.  The  most  of  the  students 
were  members  of  the  church.  Two  backsliders  went  to  a  hotel  and 
partook  of  the  unnecessary.  This  was  very  unpleasant  to  the  rest 
of  the  party. 

13. — Rose  at  four  o'clock  and  felt  quite  unwell  from  our  night's  in- 
dulgence. However,  it  soon  wore  off.  I  was  called  upon  to  recite  in 
Mathematics  (trigonometry),  Greek,  and  Taylor's  History.  Nearly 
all  the  class  failed.  The  lesson  was  very  long  and  difficult  to  commit 
to  memory.  I  knew  the  part  that  I  was  called  upon  to  recite,  but,  so 
many  failing  before  me,  I  felt  rather  delicate  in  regard  to  it,  and 
consequently  refused  to  recite. 

A  Sophomore  33 

14. — I  did  not  study  much  to-day.  I  fear  that  I  am  less  studious 
than  I  ought  to  be.  Last  year  I  used  to  be  mentally  employed  rather 
too  much  and  had  not  sufficient  time  to  take  exercise.  This  year  I 
fear  that  circumstances  are  vice  versa. 

15. — Our  class  recited  our  first  recitation  in  Cicero.  I  like  his  style 
very  much,  and  have  no  doubt  that  it  will  be  a  pleasant  study.  I 
was  called  up  in  it.  Made  out  pretty  well.  I  was  also  called  up  in 
Dr.  Peck's  room  in  Paley's  Evidences.  I  made  out  pretty  well  in 
that  also.  Went  to  Dr.  Peck's  prayer  meeting.  It  was  one  in  his 
own  house,  and  the  object  of  it  was  entire  sanctification.  I  have 
been  seeking  that  blessing  for  some  time.  My  mind  turned  directly 
toward  that  object  on  account  of  reading  a  little  book  called  Notes 
by  the  Way,  or  the  Way  of  Holiness.  I  have  made  a  solemn  assevera- 
tion that  I  will  go  on  in  the  pursuit  of  my  object,  and  will  never 
give  up  the  hope  of  entire  sanctification,  and  efforts  to  attain  it. 
May  God  help  me ! 

16. — Chum  (Milbourne)  and  myself  have  commenced  a  habit  which 
I  think  will  be  very  improving,  that  of  having  prayers  before  we 
commence  the  duties  of  the  day,  and  immediately  after  we  have 
finished  them.  I  was  called  up  to  the  Chair  to  recite  on  Taylor's 
History.  I  made  out  tolerably  well.  The  account  of  the  fall  of 
Babylon,  a  description  of  Nineveh  and  Babylon,  was  very  interesting. 

17. — Rose  some  time  before  prayers,  reviewed  my  morning  recita- 
tion, and  took  a  walk  up  the  railroad  with  a  friend,  Fountain  of 
Maryland.  One  of  the  new  students,  Chew,  was  facultised  to-night 
by  some  of  the  Student  Faculty.  Quite  a  muss  was  raised;  no  damage 
done,  however. 

18. — Rose  a  little  before  the  second  bell.  Went  to  class  meeting 
(Professor  Tiffany's).  I  afterward  went  to  a  class  meeting  down- 
town. It  partook  more  of  Methodism  in  my  opinion  than  those  at 
college;  besides,  it  bore  a  strong  resemblance  to  those  that  I  had 
formerly  attended,  and  which  had  little  of  formality  about  them. 
Professor  Tiffany  delivered  a  fine  sermon ;  the  text  was,  "Behold 
what  manner  of  love  the  Father  hath  bestowed  upon  us."  In  the 
evening  I  went  to  the  First  Presbyterian  Church — Rev.  Mr.  Wing; 
a  very  pleasant  discourse  upon  the  truth  that  Christ's  coming  has 
more  than  compensated  for  all  the  evil  which  Adam  brought  on  the 
human  race.     It  is  quarterly  meeting  at  our  church,  but  I  preferred 

Mr.   Wing   rather  than   Mr.   ,   the  presiding  elder.     Having 

read  my  complement  of  chapters,  I  retired. 

19. — Rose  early.  The  college  again  out  of  wood ;  this  makes  several 
times  that  we  have  been  out;  such  times  and  such  a  college  as  this 

34  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

that  cannot  furnish  fuel  to  keep  us  warm  !  Our  class  got  off  from 
recitation  on  account  of  it.  A  Green  Horn  is  again  being  put 
through.  It  is  said  that  he  gave  his  questioners  some  sarcastic  re- 
torts. I  started  over  to  it,  but  recollected  that  I  had  just  refused 
going  to  Love  Feast. 

21. — Read  a  little  in  Hume. 

22. — Rose  a  little  before  prayers.  Felt  the  effects  of  eating  just 
before  going  to  bed.  Resolved  to  do  less  of  it.  Read  some  in  Hume's 
England.  Went  to  Dr.  Peck's  prayer  meeting.  We  had  a  delightful 
time.  Several  of  us  were  praying  to  Almighty  God  to  sanctify  us, 
soul,  body,  and  spirit.  I  find  my  greatest  difficulty  in  not  bringing 
my  faith  to  bear  upon  the  present  moment.  I  have  this  night  set 
out  to  seek  God  earnestly,  and  never  tire  until  I  am  fully  sanctified. 
May  God  assist  me  in  my  endeavors.  I  know  that  it  is  at  present 
the  greatest  object  of  my  life  to  be  the  Lord's  unreservedly.  If 
there  be  yet  a  "bosom  sin"  remaining,  may  God  root  it  out.  I  am 
determined  to  be  sanctified,  and  I  do  believe  God  will  speedily  do  it. 

23. — Rose  at  four  o'clock  and  took  a  walk  out  in  the  country,  mainly 
for  the  purpose  of  practicing  my  speech  for  Saturday.  Had  an  idea 
of  writing  a  "description  of  the  Cumberland  Valley"  and  sending  it 
to  one  of  the  papers  of  my  native  county.    Doubtful. 

24. — Finished  the  fifth  volume  of  Hume's  England. 

25. — Read  an  article  in  Philadelphia  Christian  Advocate  on  the 
proposed  building  of  another  Methodist  Episcopal  church  in  Carlisle. 
Thought  there  were  a  great  many  objectionable  things  in  it,  and  that, 
if  I  could  fulfill  my  intentions,  I  would  reply  to  it,  favoring  the 

26. — Wrote  two  pages  of  cap  paper,  to  have  published  in  reply  to  a 
fellow  classmate's  article  in  opposition  to  the  erection  of  a  new 

27. — Wrote  more  of  my  communication. 

28. — Spherical  trigonometry  very  hard.  Called  up  in  it.  Didn't 
make  out  very  well. 

30. — Attended  Friday  evening  prayer  meeting.  Large  attendance. 
Violent  thunderstorm.  Very  fearful  in  them,  more  so  than  I  ought 
to  be.  I  suppose  it  originates  from  a  consciousness  of  not  having 
done  my  duty. 

A  Sophomore  35 


dose  of  His  Sophomore  Year 

May  3,  1852. — This  day  eleven  years  ago  my  mother  died.  Surely 
no  one  knows  the  good  a  mother  does  until  he  has  experienced  his 
loss.    May  I  ever  live  mindful  of  her  good  advice. 

5. — Changed  my  boarding  house — found  it  (Miss  Miller's)  more 
agreeable  than  at  the  college  table.  Wrote  a  piece  for  publication,  on 
Cumberland  Valley.     Took  a  great  deal  of  exercise  in  playing  ball. 

6. — Attended  Dr.  Peck's  prayer  meeting.  Very  good  one  indeed. 
Experienced  great  satisfaction,  but  did  not  receive  the  blessing  which 
I  so  much  long  after. 

8. — Our  class  society  had  a  meeting  at  night.  Question  was,  "Does 
nature  do  more  than  art  in  forming  the  orator?"  Had  the  negative 
of  the  question.     My  side  obtained  the  decision. 

9. — Read  some  in  Pilgrim's  Progress. 

10. — Did  not  rise  in  time  to  take  my  walk.  Was  not  called  up  in 
any  recitation.  Played  ball  to  make  up  for  the  loss  of  my  walk. 
Walking,  however,  seems  to  benefit  me  more  than  any  other 

14. — Saw,  in  the  paper,  the  article  I  had  written  in  reply  to  a  piece 
written  by  my  classmate,  Luckenbach.  He  decided  it  to  be  a  lame 
effort.  Of  course  he  would  not  like  it.  Great  deal  of  curiosity  as  to 
the  author  of  it.  Received  a  letter  from  my  step-mother.  She  kindly 
invited  me  to  spend  my  vacation  with  her  at  Federalsburg. 

16. — Read  Headley's  Sacred  Scenes  and  Characters  through.  Very 
flowery.  Apparently  very  sacrilegious.  Thought  his  comparison  of 
Paul  and  Napoleon  was  by  no  means  right — to  compare  sacred  and 
profane  characters. 

19. — Revised  an  old  composition  on  Oberlin  for  publication  in  the 
Sunday  School  Advocate. 

20. — I  made  a  determination  to  rise  early  and  walk  an  hour  before 
prayers ;  also  to  regulate  my  diet. 

21. — Attended  Friday  evening  prayer  meeting  and  while  there  (by 
no  means  a  fit  place)  thought  of  my  present  condition,  pecuniarily. 
I  knew  that  I  was  running  in  debt  to  my  uncle  to  a  certain  extent, 
and  devised  two  plans  by  which  I  might  better  my  situation.  First, 
I  thought  of  going  to  Baltimore  and  entering  some  store  in  order 
that  my  income  might  run  up  and  my  health  be  resuscitated. 
Secondly,  of  going  on  my  farm  and  remaining  with  the  tenant  for  a 

36  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

year,  where  I  would  be  able  to  study,  and  also  to  oversee  how  things 
go  on,  as  well  as  to  take  sufficient  exercise  for  my  health. 

22. — Wrote  to  my  uncle  on  the  topic  mentioned  above. 

23. — Invited  by  two  friends  to  spend  the  evening  in  reading  and 
examining  portions  of  the  Bible.  Consented  and  received  great  en- 
joyment. Felt  great  encouragement  to  go  on  in  the  pursuit  of  the 
blessing  of  entire  sanctification.  I  almost  had  the  witness,  but  could 
not  command  enough  of  present  faith.  May  the  Lord  assist  me  in 
my  endeavors. 

25. — Read  Hon.  Daniel  Webster's  speech  in  Faneuil  Hall.  Pleased 
with  it.  Took  a  solitary  walk  after  supper.  Our  class  excused 
Professor  Johnson  from  his  recitation. 

26. — Heard  of  the  newly  elected  bishops  (Scott,  Simpson,  Baker, 
and  Ames)  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church. 

28. — Commenced  reading  Junius;  also  read  some  in  Hume's 

29. — Finished  Hume's  England.  I  wonder  that  he  wrote  as  little 
against  religion  as  he  did.     He  is,  however,  evidently  prejudiced. 

30. — Commenced  an  article  for  publication,  on  "Moral  Education." 

31. — Read  some  in  Junius.     Commenced  Macaulay. 

June  1. — Received  the  paper  containing  my  piece  on  "Cumberland 
Valley."    Great  many  mistakes  made  in  it. 

2. — I  do  not  make  as  good  recitations  in  Cicero  as  in  Horace;  the 
latter  is  far  easier  than  the  former;  it  is  in  consequence  of  my  not 
taking  sufficient  pains  in  getting  the  recitations  out.  Received  a 
letter  from  my  uncle  advising  me  to  take  a  respite  of  a  year  from 
college,  just  the  object  of  my  desire. 

5. — Commenced  Russell's  History  of  France.  Commenced  compo- 
sition on  the  "Pleasures  of  Education." 

10. — Sold  my  furniture,  an  act  contrary  to  the  statutes.  Found  some 
matter  in  Hallam's  Middle  Ages.  Very  useful  for  my  "Index 
Rerum."  Attended  Dr.  Peck's  prayer  meeting.  Felt  almost  satisfied 
of  my  perfect  state;  but  my  faith  fled  almost  instantly.  O  that  I 
could  be  perfect  in  soul,  body,  and  spirit.  I  shall,  with  God's 
assistance,  strive  on. 

11. — A  classmate,  Emory,  accidentally  struck  me  in  the  eye  while 
playing  ball.     It  hurts  very  much  and  keeps  me  from  studying  much. 

16. — Called  up  in  Coleridge's  Introduction  to  Greek  Classic  Poets. 
Lost  a  library  book,  Junius. 

18. — Our  class  agreed  to  prepare  for  recitation  14  pages.  Professor 
Johnson  gave  us  26.  It  was  in  History  and  quite  hard  to  remember. 
He  heard  what  we  prepared,  omitted  what  we  did  not  prepare,  and 

A  Sophomore  37 

then  gave  us  a  new  recitation.  He  managed  quite  well  indeed. 
Found  my  piece  on  "  Moral  Education  "  in  the  Philadelphia  Christian 

24. — Attended  for  the  last  time  Dr.  Peck's  prayer  meeting. 

28. — Recited,  or  rather  attended  recitation,  for  the  last  time  for  a 
good  while — perhaps  forever.  Felt  peculiar  emotions.  Went  to  the 
creek  in  company  with  some  friends.  Fell  into  a  discussion  on 
"Predestination"  with  my  friend  Hepburn.  Neither  changed  the 
other's  opinion. 

29. — Heard  of  the  death  of  Henry  Clay.  No  human  tongue  can 
utter  half  the  praise  that's  due  him,  nor  can  the  wisest  philosopher 
tell  the  good  that  he  has  wrought  for  his  country.  May  he  rest  in 
peace !  Surely  his  name  will  be  ever  remembered  by  every  patriot, 
and  more  particularly  by  every  American. 

July  1. — Arose  before  four  and  commenced  to  study  history — quite 
a  bore.  The  long-dreaded  examinations  commenced  also.  Made  a 
nine  in  Paley.  The  Doctor  complimented  us  highly.  Made  an  eight 
in  Greek,  nine  in  Manual,  nine  in  Trigonometry,  six  in  Conies. 
Succeeded  tolerably  on  the  whole. 

2. — Studied  history  in  the  morning.  Made  a  nine  in  Latin,  also  in 
long-dreaded  history.  One  thing  off  hand,  another  in  view.  Com- 
mencement.   Played  football  all  afternoon. 

3. — Took  a  walk  out  to  Papertown,  about  six  miles  from  town; 
ascended  the  mountain  and  took  dinner  there;  was  accompanied  by 
two  friends. 

4- — Very  good  Commencement;  was  wearied  out  with  literary 
orations,  however. 

5. — Weather  warm  in  Baltimore.    Walked  almost  all  day. 

II. — Heard  Rev.  Mr.  Coombe  preach,  a  graduate  of  Dickinson.  He 
didn't  please  the  aristocratic  Charles  Streeters  much. 


The  Collegian  in  Print. — A  Moral  Victory 

During  his  Sophomore  year  he  occupied  room  20  in  East 
College  with  S.  T.  Milbourne,  a  Freshman,  from  Worcester 
County,  Maryland.  The  class  numbered  twenty-seven  this  year. 

3<8  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

While  a  Sophomore  he  made  his  first  contribution  to  the  press. 
It  was  a  brief  article,  written  January  16,  1852,  published  in 
the  Sunday  School  Advocate,  and  breathes  the  practical,  helpful 
spirit  of  the  long  series  of  which  it  proved  to  be  the  leader.  As 
a  promise  and  an  example  of  the  directness  and  simplicity  of 
this  kind  of  composition  the  entire  article  is  here  given : 

Comfort  the  Distressed 

Many  of  my  young  friends  have  often  met  with  the  above  ad- 
monition, but  perhaps  some  of  them  have  never  complied  with  its 
requirements.  The  modes  which  may  be  employed  in  the  fulfillment 
of  it  are  as  numerous  as  are  the  dispositions  of  men.  I  once  knew  a 
Sunday  school  scholar  who  accompanied  a  gentleman  to  the  humble 
and  weather-beaten  hut  of  an  old  blind  man.  Besides  his  blindness 
the  old  colored  man  was  afflicted  with  rheumatism.  The  two  visitors 
found  him  at  the  door,  leaning  on  his  staff.  He  addressed  them,  and 
told  them  he  was  trying  to  serve  the  Lord,  and  anticipated  a  home 
among  the  happy  hereafter.  During  their  visit  they  read  several 
chapters  in  his  hearing  and  had  prayers  together.  In  this  manner 
they  passed  the  evening,  and  the  two  visitors  returned  home,  sensible 
that  the  smile  of  God's  countenance  was  resting  upon  them.  I  think 
the  afflicted  man  has  since  died ;  if  so,  I  have  no  doubt  that  his  soul 
now  rests  in  Abraham's  bosom.  Sunday  school  scholars  might  do 
much  toward  comforting  the  distressed,  and  thus  be  a  benefit  to 
others  as  well  as  to  themselves. 

In  the  following  April,  over  the  name  "Chamfort,"  he  penned 
an  earnest  and  argumentative  plea  for  "The  Proposed  New 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church  in  Carlisle"  for  the  Philadelphia 
Christian  Advocate,  in  reply  to  an  article  by  a  classmate,  W.  H. 
Luckenbach,  opposing  a  resolution  of  the  Philadelphia  Con- 
ference, which  expressed  sympathy  and  recommended  help  for 
the  building  and  endowing  of  a  second  church  in  Carlisle.  The 
professors  and  students  who  favored  the  new  movement  had 
been  charged  with  aristocracy,  and  this  is  the  way  he  comes  to 
their  defense: 

This  College  is  proverbial  for  its  freedom  from  any  kind  of  aris- 
tocracy.    Though  there  may  be  isolated  instances  of  it,  yet  they  are 

Contributor  to  the  Press  39 

by  no  means  "generated"  here,  but  have  come  from  abroad.  Even 
then  they  receive  no  encouragement,  but  soon  find  it  far  preferable 
to  flee  to  more  congenial  places,  where  they  may  exhale  their 
pestilential  air. 

On  June  8  we  find  him,  under  the  nom-de-plitme  of  "XN," 
giving  to  the  same  paper  a  didactic  article  entitled  "Moral 
Education,"  the  burden  of  which  is  an  argument  for  the  con- 
temporaneous culture  or  training  of  both  the  heart  and  mind 
of  children,  and  for  the  early  action  of  the  religious  impulse  in 
its  bearing  on  a  symmetrical  growth.  About  the  same  time, 
and  again  as  "Chamfort,"  he  furnished  the  Cambridge  Demo- 
crat an  appreciative  article  on  "The  Pleasures  of  Education." 
His  summary  of  the  life  of  an  educated  person  thus  groups  the 
career : 

In  youth  he  strove  for  an  education,  in  middle  age  he  practiced  it 
and  imparted  it  more  or  less  to  others,  and  in  old  age  he  reaped  the 
fruits  of  it.  First  he  went  in  search  of  treasure,  next  he  obtained  it 
and  bestowed  it  on  the  world,  and  lastly  he  enjoys  the  good  resulting 
from  it. 

During  his  Junior  year,  1852-53,  there  appeared  several 
articles  in  the  Easton  (Md.)  Whig,  from  his  hand,  under  the 
name  of  "Philip  Philistone."  One  of  these  was  a  description 
of  a  foot-journey  with  two  other  students,  D.  H.  Walton,  of 
Woodstock,  Virginia,  and  Robert  H.  Conway,  of  Harrison, 
Maryland,  taken  at  the  close  of  the  summer  term  in  1852,  to 
the  mountain  near  Carlisle.  It  is  called  "A  Leaf  from  a 
Student's  Journal."  It  contains  several  fine  interweavings 
of  history  with  natural  scenery,  and  the  personal  thread  runs 
pleasantly  through  the  whole  sketch.  His  description  of 
their  noontide  luncheon  on  the  summit  is  in  these  words: 

There  was  little  of  the  artificial  attending  our  repast;  the  roof 
beneath  which  we  were  seated  was  none  less  than  the  broad  canopy 
of  heaven,  our  table  was  the  ground,  its  cover  the  leaves,  and  our 
hands  filled  the  office  of  knives  and  forks. 

40  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Of  the  Cumberland  Valley  that  here  burst  on  their  vision 
he  says : 

If  Thomas  Jefferson  thought  a  look  at  Harper's  Ferry  was  worth  a 
voyage  across  the  Atlantic,  we  think  such  a  sight  as  this  would  repay 
one  for  walking  up  many  peaks  of  the  Blue  Ridge. 

Another  was  entitled  "Friendship  at  College,"  setting  forth 
the  danger  of  too  sudden  intimacy  with  imagined  friends,  and 
the  value  of  a  true  friendship  based  on  worth  and  similarity  of 
aim  and  tastes.  Next  follow  three  historical  and  descriptive 
articles  under  the  general  title  of  "Ancient  Magnificence:  Its 
Rise,  Grandeur,  and  Decay,"  the  first  devoted  to  Alexandria, 
the  second  to  Memphis,  and  the  third  to  Thebes  in  Egypt. 
In  a  brief  introductory  paragraph  he  says : 

It  is  our  purpose  to  treat  the  religion,  society,  and  politics  of  them 
(the  great  cities)  ;  to  show  wherein  their  civil  politics  were  sound 
or  defective;  to  trace  back  the  improvement  or  deterioration  which 
they  underwent  to  the  prime  cause;  to  apply  their  institutions  to 
those  of  our  own  country,  and  to  prove  with  all  possible  clearness 
the  hand  of  God  displayed  in  history. 

John's  moral  susceptibility  was  seriously  put  to  the  test  when 
at  the  age  of  eighteen,  while  on  a  vacation  from  college,  he  re- 
ceived an  invitation  to  attend  a  party  at  the  home  of  one  of  the 
first  citizens  of  Dorchester  County.  It  was  a  rare  distinction 
to  be  invited  to  the  family  which  had  furnished  a  senator  and  a 
governor.  John's  imagination  lighted  up  as  he  pictured  the 
beauty,  fashion,  and  wealth  he  would  see  there.  Such  a  privi- 
lege had  never  before  been  his,  but  the  day  of  the  event  saw  him 
hesitating,  and  as  night  came  on  there  was  a  struggle.  "Well, 
John,  I  envy  you  your  good  time  to-night,"  said  his  cousin. 
"Shake  hands,  Sammy,"  was  John's  reply,  "I've  been  praying 
about  this  matter.  I'm  not  going  to  the  party.  I  cannot  go  to 
a  place  where  they  dance  and  drink  wine." 


A  Student  on  the  Farm  41 


An  Interim  at  Home 

The  greater  part  of  his  Junior  year  he  spent  at  "Weir  Neck," 
studying  the  books  of  the  curriculum  and  keeping  abreast  of  his 
class,  whose  roll  now  included  twenty-four. 

"Weir  Neck,"  September  10,  1852. — Have  been  to  five  camp  meet- 
ings. Met  with  a  number  of  students  from  old  Dickinson;  was 
delighted,  of  course,  with  meeting  old  and  true  friends.  Enjoyed  my 
sister's  company  very  much.  Visited  my  stepmother,  who  had  been 
married  (to  Mr.  Goslin)  since  my  departure  from  the  Eastern  Shore. 
Was  treated  kindly  and  consequently  enjoyed  myself  very  much. 
Am  sorry  to  say  that  my  religious  experience  is  not  so  favorable  as 
I  would  like  it  to  be.  Did  not  take  advantage  of  the  means  of  grace 
afforded  at  camp  meeting  as  I  should  have  done.  At  one  time  my 
soul  was  made  to  rejoice  with  joy  unspeakable.  Am  settled  down 
on  the  old  homestead,  boarding  with  the  tenant.  Commenced  Logic 
(Whately).     Find  it  hard  though  not  unpleasant  study. 

21. — Studied  some  of  Agricola  and  Germania  of  Tacitus.  He  is 
quite  concise.  Studied  some  Analytical  Geometry,  Moral  Science 
also.  Am  pleased  with  living  in  the  country;  eat  so  much,  however, 
that  I  will  soon  become  corpulent.  In  regard  to  religion,  I  have  en- 
joyed myself  very  much.  Have  not  yet  joined  a  class,  as  I  have  not 
yet  received  my  certificate.  Have  hunted  some  and  been  partially 
successful.  Made  considerable  progress  in  Hebrew.  Am  now  on  the 
inflection  of  pronouns.  Yesterday  I  finished  my  "Leaf  from  a 
Student's  Journal."  Fixed  up  a  bookcase  for  myself  in  the  recess 
of  the  room.  Am  now  prepared  for  studying.  Wrote  the  "Introduc- 
tory" to  my  intended  articles  on  the  "Rise,  Grandeur,  and  Decay  of 
Ancient  Magnificence,"  but  am  not  satisfied  with  it.  Shall  perhaps 
write  another. 

October  1. — Have  paid  a  visit  to  my  stepmother  at  Federalsburg. 
Studied  Mental  Philosophy,  Moral  Science,  and  Tacitus.  Borrowed 
the  Alcestis  of  Euripides  in  Greek  and  have  read  the  Hypothesis. 
Quite  difficult  at  first.  Have  written  another  introduction  to  my 
"Rise,  Grandeur,  and  Decay  of  Ancient  Magnificence."  Am  better 
pleased  with  it.  Commenced  the  series  with  Alexandria.  .  .  .  Com- 
menced wearing  standing  collars.  Saw  my  friend  Conway  at  Fed- 
eralsburg. Went  gunning  with  him.  He  and  myself  were  requested 
to  act  as  bearers  of  a  young  man  who  had  died  of  consumption.    We 

42  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

fulfilled  the  onerous  task.  I  formed  an  idea  of  going  to  the  West, 
after  graduating,  and  entering  some  literary  institution,  if  prac- 
ticable. Perhaps  I'll  enter  the  ministry.  May  the  Lord  direct  me  in 
the  proper  way.  I  intend  praying  particularly  for  direction  in  re- 
gard to  my  future  course.  I  have  enjoyed  myself  in  a  religious  point 
of  view  very  much.  Have  perhaps  made  use  of  too  much  levity. 
May  the  Lord  guide  me  between  levity  on  the  one  hand  and 
moroseness  on  the  other ! 

21. — Went  to  Federalsburg,  and  there  had  a  severe  attack  of  bilious 
fever.  Symptoms  of  the  dropsy  appeared  which  quite  alarmed  me. 
I  prayed  that  I  might  be  fully  resigned  to  the  will  of  the  Lord. 

November  5. — Daniel  Webster  is  dead.  The  nation  mourns  her 
pride.  Franklin  Pierce  (the  ignotus)  is  elected  President.  Finished 
Paley's  Evidences  and  am  nearly  equal  with  my  class  as  regards 
studies.  Commenced  No.  2  of  my  "Student's  Journal."  It  is  on 
college  life.  The  "Mechanics"  of  Natural  Philosophy  is  very  hard. 
I  have  a  fine  chance  for  study.  Take  considerable  exercise.  Am 
enjoying  the  smiles  of  God's  countenance  in  a  marked  degree.  May 
my  life  be  shaped  according  to  his  will !  I  am  aware  that  I  am  not 
sufficiently  grateful  to  him  for  all  his  favors,  but  will  try  to  be  more 
so.    May  he  bless  me  is  my  humble  prayer. 

12. — Have  been  at  home  of  late  and  have  studied  amazingly  hard 
sometimes,  while  at  others  I  have  been  too  lax.  Hunted  considerably. 
Studied  Natural  Philosophy  very  hard,  also  Analytical  Geometry. 
Never  liked  mathematics  much  before  I  studied  the  "Mechanics." 
Have  read  some  in  Macaulay's  England;  am  delighted  with  his 
style.  Commenced  Stevens's  Travels  in  Egypt,  Arabia  Petrasa,  and 
Holy  Land.  His  style  is  very  interesting.  My  religious  feelings 
have  been  buoyant;  am  possessed  of  a  pleasing  hope  of  a  blessed 
immortality  beyond  the  grave.    My  health  has  been  good. 

December  24. — My  friend  Conway  has  gone  West.  He,  however, 
spent  a  few  days  with  me  before  he  left  and  we  had  a  fine  oppor- 
tunity to  recall  past  experiences  and  also  to  relate  future  hopes.  We 
prayed  together,  and  earnestly  asked  kind  Providence  to  guide  us  in 
the  right  path  through  future  life.  I  felt  quite  lonely  when  he  left 
me  at  the  wharf.  I  have  since  received  a  six-page  letter  from  him 
since  he  arrived  at  Madison,  Indiana.  It  was  like  balm  to  my  soul. 
The  blues  dealt  a  heavy  blow  to  me  recently.  I  never  had  the 
horrors  much  worse.  In  a  word,  I  was  homesick.  But  how  can  I, 
an  orphan,  who  have  no  home,  be  homesick?  The  following  will 
explain  it: 

"  'Tis  home  where'er  the  heart  is." 

Again  at  Carlisle  43 

Have  nearly  kept  pace  with  my  class.  Think  something  ot  proposing 
to  Uncle  John  to  consent  to  my  going  to  Dickinson  again  in  April. 
"Man  is  a  social  being"  and  I  am  lonely.  Have  had  a  swelling  of 
the  ankles.  The  doctor  considered  it  a  dropsical  affection.  Have 
nearly  recovered  from  it  by  taking  medicine. 

February  17,  1853. — I  expect,  if  no  unforeseen  circumstances  hap- 
pen, to  go  to  Dickinson  in  March.  I  wrote  to  my  uncle  to  give  his 
consent  to  my  returning  to  Dickinson  College  in  April. 

A  Junior  at  Carlisle 

Dickinson  College,  Carlisle,  Penna.,  May  3,  1853.— Neglect  seems 
to  be  the  leading  trait  of  my  character,  and  procrastination  the 
thief  of  much  of  my  time.  After  so  long  a  silence,  I  can  scarcely 
muster  the  face  or  heart  to  make  an  entry  in  my  dear  old  Journal. 
But  my  thoughts  assume  a  graver  nature  when  I  reflect  that  on  this 
day  twelve  years  ago  I  lost  my  mother.  What  a  thought !  I  was 
made  motherless  twelve  years  ago,  and  am  yet  spared  to  behold  the 
beauties  of  God's  creation  and  enjoy  my  probationary  life  here  if 
proper  means  are  employed.  A  mother,  what  a  treasure !  True  is 
the  phrase,  "No  one  knows  the  need  of  a  mother  until  he  is  deprived 
of  her."  Although  her  smiles  and  tears  have  never  been  for  me  to 
see,  yet  a  hope  of  seeing  her  in  a  better  world  constitutes  a  great 
enjoyment.  May  her  guardian  spirit  watch  over  me  and  keep  me 
from  harm !  Twelve  years  to  come  I  may  be  numbered  with  the 
dead.  If  such  be  the  case,  may  I  be  numbered  among  those  who  die 
in  the  Lord!  May  a  mother  unseen  administer  kind  advice  to  her 
orphan  girl  and  boy ! 

Have  published  two  articles  in  the  Easton  Whig  on  "Ancient 
Magnificence."  They  were  written  on  the  cities  Alexandria  and 
Memphis.  Have  sent  on  another  article  under  the  head  of  Thebes. 
I  design  to  continue  them  through  Carthage,  Nineveh,  Babylon, 
Thebes  in  Bceotia,  Sparta,  Athens,  and  Rome.  Can't  tell  whether  or 
not  I  shall  ever  get  through  with  them,  for  it  is  rather  borons.  Have 
succeeded  very  well  in  my  studies.  Laziness,  however,  has  worked 
very  hard  on  me  as  well  as  a  good  appetite. 

I  have  spent  the  most  of  three  weeks  (during  smallpox  scare)  in  a 

44  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

not  very  useful  manner.  Among  other  reading,  I  have  read  The 
Scarlet  Letter  and  Blithedale  Romance  by  Hawthorne.1  Think  they 
are  rather  dry  and  misanthropic.  They  left  my  mind  in  rather  a 
gloomy  state.  Don't  expect  to  read  any  more  of  Hawthorne's  novels 
until  I  am  out  of  better  reading,  which  will  take  a  long  time.  I  have 
also  read  the  first  volume  of  Gibbon's  History  and  a  portion  of  the 
second.  Don't  know  what  to  think  of  his  two  celebrated  chapters 
derogatory  to  the  Christian  religion.  It  is  strange  to  say  that  men 
of  genius,  and  particularly  historians,  often  condescend  to  insert 
some  of  their  own  petty  notions  which  form  adjuncts  to  their  private 
animosities.  Just  so  Gibbon  appears  to  have  acted.  I  have  read 
Ivanhoe,  by  Walter  Scott.  The  only  thing  I  regretted,  when  I  fin- 
ished it,  was  that  there  was  not  more  of  it.  It  ended  abruptly. 
Shaw's  English  Literature  fell  in  amongst  other  reading,  and  thus  I 
have  spent  my  three  weeks.  Maybe  they  have  been  well  enough 

June  4. — Looked  at  Tom  Paine's  Age  of  Reason,  and  I  think  him 
not  only  not  a  very  good  Bible  reasoner,  but  also  occasionally  profane. 

13. — Have  been  elected  speaker  of  the  U.  P.  S.  to  address  the 
Senior  Unions  at  their  departure.  Finished  second  volume  of  Gib- 
bon's Rome,  and  commenced  in  "Crusades"  the  Talisman  of  Scott. 
Read  it  because  Shaw  praises  it  so  highly  for  containing  so  much 
knowledge  in  reference  to  chivalry. 

July  25. — Commencement  like  Christmas  has  come  and  gone.  There 
have  been  lots — yea,  Holds — of  speechifying.  What  contributed  most 
to  my  enjoyment  was  the  presence  of  some  of  my  Baltimore  relatives 
and  friends.  My  sister  Sallie  was  along.  Surely  I  was  glad  to  see 
her,  but  she  did  not  stay  long  enough  to  allow  me  a  fair  look  at  her. 
The  time  came  for  her  to  leave  and,  O,  my  heart  could  scarcely  con- 
tain itself  when  the  cars  took  her  off  perforce.  But  so  it  is,  and  if 
I  am  ever  to  be  a  man,  and  be  indued  with  manly  feelings,  it  is  when 
I  become  a  Senior.  .  .  .  My  standing  was  very  good,  the  second 
section.  There  were  four  sections  besides  the  honor  man.  Don't 
you  congratulate  me,  old  Journal  ?  for  you  are  proof  positive  that  I 
have  had  a  vacation  of  nine  months  and  have  studied  these  text- 
books scarcely  any.     Indeed,  I  am  feeling  perfectly  satisfied  though 

I  did  not  care  much  about  standing  alongside  of  B .    Well,  well, 

I  reckon  I  can  study  the  harder  next  year.  Finished  Goldsmith  this 
morning.  Irving  is  a  master  hand  and  master  mind,  let  him  under- 
take and  complete  whatever  he  will.     What  a  character  was  Gold- 

1  Late  in  his  life  he  owned  for  several  years  the  original  manuscript  of  the  Blithedale 


The  middle  window  of  the  three  shown  in  the  third  story  is  room  No.  40,  occupied 
by  John  Fletcher  Hurst  during  his  senior  year. 

A  Senior's  Journal  45 

smith !  and  what  a  genius  withal !  Pity  for  him  that  he  was  attended 
with  what  many  suppose  is  the  invariable  characteristic  of  genius — 
recklessness.     He  proved  an  illustration  of  the  rule: 

"Slow  rises  worth  by  poverty  oppressed." 

A  Senior's  Journal 

September  3,  1853. — August  past,  and  you,  O  Journal,  neglected! 
Indeed,  I  should  have  paid  some  little  tribute  to  the  memory  of  my 
dear  father  who  died  on  the  fourth  of  that  month  and  of  a  little 
sister  who  also  died  on  the  eighteenth.  Though  nothing  has  been 
said,  yet  much  has  been  felt.  O  may  I  strive  to  obey  my  father's 
precepts !  Surely  no  one  needs  wholesome  advice  more  and  receives 
less  of  it.  The  seventeenth  of  August  forms  a  very  important  epoch 
in  my  history.  It  was  the  anniversary  of  my  birthday.  I  know  not 
whether  a  long  or  short  life  is  before  me,  but  the  chances  (if  chances 
there  be)  and  my  own  imprudence  indicate  the  latter.  I  intend  upon 
the  coming  year  of  my  life  to  live  nearer  to  my  heavenly  Master, 
and  more  alive  to  my  own  eternal  interests  and  to  my  true  interests 
in  this  world  than  ever  before.    May  Heaven  help  me ! 

I  have  written  a  letter  to  my  uncle  requesting  some  money.  How 
could  I  forget  that  thought?  But  the  severest  stroke  yet  is,  I  have 
not  received  it,  and  need  not  inform  you,  kind  Journal,  that  the 
reception  is  looked  forward  to  with  anxious  expectation.  Have 
finished  the  fifth  volume  of  Gibbon's  History.  O  how  enchanting  a 
writer  Gibbon  is,  and  how  seductive!  From  this  seduction  men  or 
united  Christianity  have  most  to  fear.  Have  also  read  Lord's  Modern 
History.  It  is  a  fine  thing — though,  to  use  a  borrowed  expression,  I 
hate  General  Histories.  But  all  history  is  so  interesting  to  me  that 
any  is  better  than  none.  I  cannot  say  that  I  have  made  much  progress 
in  the  cause  of  religion.  Indeed,  I  need  something  of  a  stirring  up. 
Absence  from  prayer  meetings  is  a  great  detriment  to  Christian 

My  chum  (Paul  Lightner,  a  Junior,  from  Highland  County,  Vir- 
ginia) has  come  on  and  we  are  fixed  up  in  number  40,  East  College, 
for  my  last  year  in  college.  I  have  given  away  too  much  to  my  own 
appetite  of  late.     Ice  cream  is  on  the  carpet  almost  every  night,  and 

46  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

the  way  I  have  dived  into  the  peaches,  apples,  grapes,  and  cigars. 

0  shade  of  Bacchus,  appear.  Did  I  say  cigars?  Yes,  it  is  true.  I 
had  laid  aside  smoking  for  nearly  a  month,  having  come  to  the  just 
conclusion  that  it  was  an  unnecessary  evil  and  consequently  could 
be  dispensed  with  with  right  good  grace.  But  yesterday  I  gave  way 
to  the  desire  and  smoked  three  cigars  and  two  to-day.  I  have  come 
to  the  conclusion  to  quit  smoking  entirely. 

Have  commenced  my  first  senior  speech.  The  subject,  I  think, 
will  be  "The  Tendencies  of  Enthusiasm."  It  will  be  considered 
mainly  in  an  historical  point  of  view.  I  have  a  wide  field  if  I  don't 
spoil  the  thing  by  too  far-fetched  allusions. 

October  29. — My  chapel  speech,  after  a  great  deal  of  severe  boring 
and  toiling  over  it  and  in  it,  was  not  unfavorably  received,  although 

1  was  badly  frightened.  My  next  subject  will  be,  if  nothing  to  the 
contrary  happens,  on  "Spain."  Of  course,  this  is  an  historical  sub- 
ject, but  such  a  theme  always  suits  me  best.  I  have  written,  but  not 
corrected  it.  What  bores  these  chapel  speeches  are !  .  .  .  Though  I 
had  been  subject  to  doubts  and  mental  depressions  for  a  long  time, 
yet  I  must  thank  my  Father  that  these  doubts  have  been  removed  and 
those  depressions  converted  into  real  enjoyment.  Have  been  per- 
plexed lately  as  to  what  I  shall  engage  in  hereafter,  but  have  come 
to  no  definite  conclusion  in  that  respect.  I  must  rely  solely  upon 
kind  Providence  to  direct  me  in  the  true  course  most  suited  to  my 
abilities  and  circumstances.     Have  had  excellent  health  of  late. 

December  5. — Have  been  exceedingly  perplexed  of  late  as  to  what  I 
shall  hereafter  devote  myself  to,  but  have  resigned  into  the  hands  of 
an  All-wise  Director  and  Protector,  and  have  prayed  that  the  ful- 
fillment of  his  will  may  be  my  greatest  desire.  I  have  made  another 
chapel  speech.  My  subject  was  "Spain."  It  was  quite  a  long  one, 
and  my  friends  have  been  perfectly  satisfied  by  my  effort.  I  took 
less  trouble  with  it  than  with  my  other  one,  but,  although  I  was 
sick,  I  spoke  it  more  at  ease  and  with  greater  satisfaction  to  myself. 

On  December  2  and  3,  1797  and  1808,  my  father  and  mother  were 
born,  and  they  have  passed  away,  but  are  not  forgotten.  May  their 
advice  be  ever  ready  to  lead  me  in  the  right  way  though  their  voices 
have  been  long  silent.  My  religious  experience  has  been  generally 
even,  and  I  have  not  lately  had  any  especial  outpouring  of  God's 
Spirit  upon  me.  I  am  not  zealous  enough  for  the  cause  of  my  Re- 
deemer, but  will  be  more  attentive  to  my  eternal  interests  in  the 
future.  .  .  .  My  expenses  have  surpassed  those  of  any  other  year 
at  college.  I  have  bought  so  many  new  clothes.  The  girls  do 
exercise  a   silent  though  visible   influence  in  this  respect. 

A  Senior's  Journal  47 

29. — Examinations  are  over,  the  last  except  the  "final"  that  I  shall 
ever  have  to  pass  in  old  Mother  Dickinson.  The  success  I  met  with 
far  outwent  my  brightest  anticipations.  Have  commenced  reading 
Rollin's  History,  and  am  much  pleased  with  it.  Read  The  Deerslayer, 
one  of  Cooper's  novels.  It  gives  a  very  good  idea  of  Indian  life  and 
warfare,  but  could  have  been  compressed  in  half  the  space,  according 
to  my  notion. 

March  13,  1854. — I  have  received  an  especial  honor  from  Society, 
which  I  may  be  at  liberty  to  pen  next  Commencement.  I  feel  incom- 
petent to  the  task,  but  may  Heaven  assist  me  with  pure  motives  and 
earnest  efforts.  ...  I  do  not  have  enough  of  heart-religion  nor 
exercise  enough  of  God's  saving  faith.  O  my  God,  assist  me  to  live 
up  to  my  purposes  and  to  my  desires,  and  my  life  will  be  a  Christian's 
life,  and  my  death  a  Christian's  death.  My  last  chapel  speech  was 
upon  William,  Prince  of  Orange,  and  my  friends  have  judged  it  to 
be  my  happiest  effort.  I  have  read  but  little  of  late.  Prescott's 
Conquest  of  Peru,  I  think,  is  about  the  extent.  .  .  .  Have  come  to 
no  definite  conclusion  as  to  what  my  future  course  in  life  will  be. 
May  Heaven  lay  before  me  some  path  in  which  duty  would  urge  me 
to  travel ! 

April  17. — As  we  had  a  short  vacation  in  the  latter  part  of  March, 
Uncle  John  wrote  me  to  come  down  and  spend  a  week  with  him  and 
his  family.  This  I  did.  I  spent  the  greater  portion  of  my  time  in 
the  city,  though  I  really  do  not  like  Baltimore.  Uncle  John  was 
quite  clever,  and  did  not  censure  my  extravagance  any,  although  I 
really  deserved  it.  Students  are  profligate  animals.  My  week  in 
Baltimore  passed  off  quite  pleasantly,  considering  it  altogether.  O 
for  the  day  when  I  shall  have  a  home !  I  really  sympathize  with 
sister  Sallie.  She  does  not  like  Baltimore,  and  her  Baltimore  friends 
all  wish  her  there.  She  much  prefers  the  Eastern  Shore  and  enjoys 
herself  more  there.  May  the  day  soon  come  when  we  shall  have  a 
home  together !  .  .  .  Have  sketched  off  a  chapel  speech.  Theme  is 
"  Music."  Emory  says  it  is  as  good  as  any  I  have  spoken.  I  am 
reading  Gaieties  and  Gravities,  by  Horace  Smith.  It  is  fine  to  read 
when  one  is  in  a  bad  humor.  It  makes  him  feel  so  good-natured.  I 
would  like  to  read  it  whenever  I  get  in  an  ill  humor.  Have  written 
Dr.  Peck  to  procure  me  a  situation  in  some  academy  after  I  graduate. 
I  have  tried  to  do  my  duty  of  late.  Felt  some  promptings  toward  the 
ministry.  Mr.  Ridgaway  (whom  I  attended  upon  in  a  spell  of  sick- 
ness in  Baltimore)  gave  me  some  good  advice.  I  am  too  light  in 
my  disposition.  O  God,  assist  me  to  do  thy  whole  will ;  may  I  not 
swerve  from  my  duty  ! 

48  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

18. — My  rising  hour  is  7  o'clock  (shameful).  Commenced  the 
Lamplighter  this  morning;  was  very  much  pleased  with  the  tone; 
the  sentiment  suits  one  of  my  temperament ;  with  God's  assistance, 
I'll  never  get  mad  any  more.  Horace  Smith  has  been  amusing  me 
again  to-day. 

May  15. — Have  concluded  to  teach  school  after  I  graduate.  Peirce, 
of  Washington,  wrote  to  me  to  come  and  teach  school,  the  "Metro- 
politan Collegiate  Institute,"  at  a  salary  of  $250  a  year  and  board. 
Wrote  to  him  I  would  go  for  $300 — thought  that  was  better  than  a 
flat  refusal.  .  .  .  Have  had  some  serious  thoughts  with  reference 
to  the  ministry,  but  not  enough  to  act  upon — think  it  would  be  better 
to  teach  a  year  or  two  to  determine  upon  it.  Spoke  my  chapel  speech 
on  "Music."  My  friends  thought  it  was  decidedly  my  best  effort 
this  year. 

June  23. — Final  examination  is  over  and  I  am  near  graduating. 
What  a  thought !  Can  it  be  that  I  have  been  four  years  a  student  ? 
Yes,  and  about  to  graduate.  Well,  truly,  the  biggest  fools  can  grad- 
uate nowadays;  though  they  are  sheepish  sometimes,  I  don't  think 
the  classic  sheepskin  is  a  suitable  cover  for  their  ignorance.  I  suc- 
ceeded tolerably  well  in  my  final  examination  with  the  single  excep- 
tion of  mathematics.  I  came  near  failing,  but  was  well  satisfied  with 
my  other  examinations.  Have  received  a  letter  from  Uncle  John. 
It  was  nearer  a  lecture  than  a  letter  upon  the  subject  of  my  extrava- 
gance. But  Seniors  do  require  money,  especially  when  they  sport 
among  the  girls. 

His  theme  on  Commencement  Day,  July  13,  1854,  was 
"Modern  Hero  Worship."  Not  quite  twenty,  he  was  a  grad- 
uate and  now  faced  the  future  with  all  its  weighty  issues. 


Memory  Cameos  by  Fellow  Students 

Dr.  Robert  W.  Todd,  of  the  Wilmington  Conference,  says : 

"Johnnie"  was  of  moderate  stature  and  probably  the  youngest 
student  in  the  college  proper.  Being  both  Eastern  Shoremen  and 
from  adjoining  counties,  a  warm  and  sympathetic  friendship  sprang 

Memories  by  Fellow  Students  49 

up  between  us,  which  ever  continued.  No  new  companionships  or 
higher  honors  that  became  his  seemed  to  dim  his  remembrance  of 
our  halcyon  past  as  happy  schoolboys,  or  to  weaken  the  expression 
of  his  personal  friendship. 

Thomas  C.  Bailey,  an  attorney-at-law,  of  Washington,  D.  C, 

a  classmate  at  Carlisle,  writes : 

In  manner  he  was  gentle  and  quiet,  with  a  certain  reserved  dignity. 
As  a  student,  he  was  industrious,  and  always  came  to  the  recitation 
rooms  with  his  lessons  well  prepared.  In  disposition  he  was  cheerful, 
but  not  hilarious,  and  while  he  appreciated  fun  I  never  knew  him  to 
be  engaged  in  any  proceedings  that  transgressed  the  rules  of  the 


Dr.  D.  J.  Holmes,  of  the  Rock  River  Conference,  who  was 

a  classmate  during  the  Freshman  year,  says : 

I  remember  him  well.  John  was  a  dapper  little  chap,  always 
dressy  and  dignified.  Being  the  youngest  in  the  class  and  the  shortest, 
his  dignity  in  spite  of  his  youth  and  brevity  did  make  him  look  taller 
and  more  mature.  He  was  in  college  for  work,  not  for  fun,  so  that 
in  all  the  periodical  or  unexpected  volcanic  upheavals  I  do  not  recall 
that  John  F.  Hurst  troubled  himself  or  took  part,  or  was  present  or 
absent.  The  same  devotion  to  study  and  books  and  literature  he  had 
then  he  carried  into  the  world  and  down  to  his  grave.  He  was  not  a 
class  genius,  or  poet,  or  orator,  or  wire-puller,  but  a  steady  plodder. 

General  James  F.  Rusling,  of  Trenton,  New  Jersey,  a  warm 

friend  as  well  as  loved  classmate,  gives  this  sketch : 

I  first  knew  Bishop  Hurst  at  Dickinson  College  in  October,  1852. 
He  was  then  a  flaxen-haired  boy  from  Maryland,  intending  to  be  a 
lawyer,  and  indeed  read  Blackstone  in  his  Senior  year;  but  after 
graduating  turned  his  attention  to  the  ministry.  He  looked  younger 
than  he  was.  He  was  studious,  but  not  a  recluse — always  cheerful 
and  companionable.  Our  class  at  graduation  comprised  twenty  men, 
and  he  stood  well  in  the  First  Section  (we  had  four).  We  all 
thought  he  could  have  been  our  First  Honor  man,  but  apparently  he 
did  not  care  for  that  distinction.  In  Mathematics  he  was  good;  in 
the  Sciences  excellent ;  but  in  the  Languages  especially  strong,  and 
always  ready  to  help  our  "lame  ducks"  out,  without  resorting  to 

50  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

In  addition  to  onr  curriculum,  he  was  always  reading  and  became 
more  widely  read  in  history,  biography,  and  general  literature  than 
any  man  of  our  class.  I  remember  his  favorite  authors  were  Grote's 
Greece  and  Hume's  England,  and  he  never  wearied  of  descanting  on 
the  excellencies  of  both.  He  was  especially  fond  of  composition, 
took  Grote,  Hume,  and  Macaulay  as  his  models,  and  by  all  odds 
was  the  best  writer  of  our  class  in  those  college  days.  As  a  speaker, 
however,  he  was  indifferent,  and  dreaded  the  college  platform.  His 
voice  was  not  good ;  of  personal  magnetism  he  had  not  a  bit.  He 
was  industrious,  patient,  methodical,  persevering,  and  I  always 
thought  he  would  "  make  a  spoon  or  spoil  a  horn,"  as  Lincoln  used 
to  say,  though  we  never  supposed  he  would  become  an  "Episcopos" 
in  those  days. 

His  Christian  character  was  clear  and  distinct,  though  never  ob- 
trusive; but  we  always  knew  where  to  find  "Johnnie  Hurst,"  and  he 
was  always  on  the  right  side.  He  got  into  no  "college  scrapes."  He 
was  a  quiet  scholar  and  steadfast  Christian  gentleman,  and  no  man 
of  '54  was  more  honored  and  respected.  He  especially  held  the  es- 
teem and  confidence  of  the  Faculty,  and  good  things,  if  not  great, 
were  predicted  of  him  by  everybody.  He  was  the  soul  of  honor. 
He  was  the  synonym  of  uprightness  and  integrity.  Everybody  envied 
him  his  quiet  dignity  and  sinless  life  and  character. 

John  Peach,  M.D.,  of  Mitchellville,  Maryland,  a  classmate, 
says : 

He  was  of  a  mild  and  gentle  disposition — a  warm  friend;  at  the 
same  time  he  was  somewhat  choice  in  his  selection  of  associates. 
There  was  about  him  a  spirit  of  perseverance,  even  in  little  things. 
He  was  an  excellent  companion,  and,  although  he  could  freely  descend 
to  the  level  of  college  nonsense  and  hilarity,  yet  his  tone  of  thought 
was  elevating  and  improving  to  all  who  intimately  knew  him.  He 
was  not  much  given  to  the  fair  sex,  but  in  the  last  year  of  our  course 
he,  with  the  rest  of  us,  became  very  attentive  to  the  ladies. 

Professor  Charles  F.  Himes,  of  Dickinson,  a  member  of  '55, 
furnishes  the  following-  appreciative  account : 

He  never  engaged  in  anything  that  he  avoided  acknowledgment  of 
in  his  maturer  years.  I  simply  recall  an  incident  in  illustration.  At 
a  rather  small  and  select  meeting  of  alumni  of  the  college,  in  Phila- 
delphia, in  the  full  freedom  of  conversation  on  college  days,  when 
each    contributed   his   share   to   the   common   stock   of   incident,    the 

Cannon  Ball  and  Football  51 

"Rolling  of  the  cannon  ball  along  West  College  Hall,"  as  given  in 
the  old  college  song,  which  for  many  years  was  an  unfailing  diversion 
of  the  students,  naturally  came  up.  The  bishop  recalled  the  heating 
of  the  ball  on  one  occasion  and  the  way  in  which  the  professor,  alert 
to  capture  it,  had  dropped  it.  Professor  O.  H.  Tiffany,  whose  office, 
as  professor  of  Mathematics,  was  beneath,  was  quick  to  take  the 
application  and  pleasantly  denied  the  fact,  characterizing  the  story  a 
piece  of  college  fiction,  and  retorting  that  he  always  knew  that  Hurst 
took  part  in  those  performances.  Bishop  Hurst,  sitting  by  me, 
quietly  remarked  that  it  was  a  fact,  nevertheless,  and  that  he  did  not 
happen  to  have  anything  to  do  with  it  at  that  time.  The  apparent 
discrepancy  in  statement  is  easily  explained  by  the  fact  that  the  ball 
was  so  slightly  heated  that  it  had  had  ample  time  to  cool  to  the 
innocuous  stage  before  the  professor  laid  hands  on  it  and  that  the 
effect  was  imagined.  At  all  events,  the  joke  was  in  the  suggestion 
to  the  professor,  rather  than  in  burned  hands. 

Football  was  in  its  fullest  sense  football,  and  a  college  game.  It 
was  a  line-up  along  the  broad  path  leading  from  Old  West,  of  all 
students  who  wished  to  engage  in  the  game,  in  two  well-selected, 
evenly  matched  parties,  and  from  the  kick-off  to  the  passage  of  the 
ball  over  either  of  the  fences,  constituting  the  goals,  it  was  kicked, 
never  carried,  and  in  the  scrimmages  many  shins  were  kicked.  The 
line-up  was  different  each  game,  so  that  while  some  were  recognized 
as  most  expert  players,  there  were  no  match  games  to  be  recorded 
or  even  remembered.  It  was  all  sport  and  genuine  sport.  I  re- 
member consequently  little  about  John  Fletcher  Hurst  as  a  football 
player.  He  may  have  kept  on  the  outer  rim  of  the  conflict  seizing 
his  opportunity  as  it  presented  itself,  or  he  may  have  ventured  into 
the  thick  of  the  melee,  but  that  you  may  picture  him  as  participating 
in  such  sport  I  have  no  doubt.  There  were  champion  kickers.  One. 
who  kicked  the  ball  over  West  College,  died  as  the  result  of  the 

52  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  Teacher 

At  Greensboro,  Maryland,  and  in  the  Catskills. — "The  Mystic  Nine." — A 

"White  Horse"  Incident 

The  experiences  of  the  young  graduate,  standing  on  the 
threshold  of  his  entrance  upon  life's  calling  and  still  hesitant 
as  to  what  path  he  should  pursue,  are  tersely  told  by  himself 
in  an  entry  at  the  close  of  his  college  Journal,  made  in  Ashland, 
New  York,  June  5,  1855: 

It  cannot  be  that  a  year  has  passed  since  I  last  gave  my  thoughts 
and  my  experiences  to  a  faithful  old  Journal !  I  have  graduated ; 
my  exhibition  speech  was  complimented  highly.  The  day  before 
Commencement  I  was  compelled,  according  to  engagement,  to  meet 
a  man  in  Harrisburg  with  every  prospect  of  being  engaged  to  teach 
for  him  in  Lewistown,  Pennsylvania.  He  disappointed  me.  After 
Commencement  I  was  at  a  great  loss  what  to  do ;  walked  the  streets 
of  Baltimore  ready  at  any  moment  to  step  upon  the  first  boat  or  train 
of  cars  and  leave  for — anywhere.  I  wished,  I  fancied  I  wished,  to 
study  law;  applied  to  one  prominent  member  of  Baltimore  Bar;  he 
couldn't  take  me,  had  one  young  man  already.  Had  it  not  been  for 
this  I  might  have  been  a  student  at  law  now.  I  shrank  from  it,  and 
am  glad  I  did. 

Mrs.  Angelina  Goldsborough,  of  Greensboro,  Maryland,  an 
own  cousin  of  Bishop  Hurst's  mother,  tells  of  the  beginning  of 
his  career  as  a  teacher : 

In  1854,  John  F.  Hurst,  then  at  his  home  near  Cambridge  (Weir 
Neck),  wrote  me  a  letter,  asking  if  I  could  secure  for  him  a  school, 
as  he  was  anxious  to  put  into  practice  something  that  he  had  learned, 
while  deciding  what  profession  or  calling  in  life  he  might  hereafter 
choose.  My  late  husband,  Dr.  G.  W.  Goldsborough,  became  inter- 
ested and  at  once  placed  his  name  before  the  trustees  of  the  public 
school,  and  he  was  given  the  position  of  teacher.     Mr.  Hurst  was  in 

Among  the  Catskills  53 

Greensboro  several  months.    While  he  did  not  board  with  us,  he  was 
as  one  of  the  family,  coming  in  every  day. 

His  Journal  of  same  elate  as  the  passage  above  continues : 

Was  appointed  teacher  in  Greensboro  Academy,  Maryland. 
Stayed  there  about  two  months — didn't  like  it,  and  through  influence 
of  Dr.  Collins,  President  of  Dickinson  College,  was  appointed  Pro- 
fessor of  Belles-Lettres  at  Ashland,  at  $300  and  board.  Came  in 
November,  1854.  Have  been  here  since.  Teaching  pleasant  in  some 
respects.  Fond  of  languages  and  would  rather  have  that  department. 
Had  a  most  severe  spell  of  sickness  during  the  winter.  It  was  a  cold. 
I  feel  it  yet,  and  Heaven  only  knows  whether  or  not  I  shall  always 
feel  it  until  I  get  where  there  is  no  disease. 

The  Hedding  Literary  Institute,  at  Ashland,  Greene  County, 
New  York,  ran  a  brief  though  brilliant  career  of  about  six 
years,  in  its  mountain  home  among  the  Catskills.  Of  his  jour- 
ney thither,  of  the  incidents  which  marked  the  opening  days 
of  his  work  there,  and  especially  of  his  first  meeting  with  the 
young  lady  who  won  his  heart,  let  his  letter  of  November  16, 
1854,  to  his  sister  speak : 

I  arrived  in  New  York  in  time  to  take  the  Hudson  River  cars,  and 
arrived  at  Oak  Hill,  which  is  opposite  Catskill,  about  1  o'clock.  The 
next  morning,  which  was  Wednesday,  I  started  for  Ashland.  It 
was  about  5  o'clock  a.  m.  when  the  coach  started,  and  it  reached 
here  between  3  and  4  p.  m.  So  you  see,  Miss  Sallie — pardon  me,  for 
it  is  Mrs.  Kurtz — we  have  had  a  very  tedious  time  of  it  while  cross- 
ing these  Catskills.  I  arrived  at  the  very  best  time  and  consider 
myself  fortunate  in  getting  the  room  which  I  have  obtained.  The 
teachers  have  their  own  rooms,  but  still  there  is  a  choice  among 
them  and  I  would  prefer  this  one  to  all  others.  But  I  am  going  too 
fast.  When  I  first  arrived  at  the  Seminary  I  introduced  myself  to 
one  of  the  trustees  and  by  that  means  soon  found  the  principal  and 
was  introduced.  Instead  of  meeting  a  grave  and  too  stern  a  dis- 
ciplinarian, I  was  met  with  a  pleasant  countenance,  a  hearty  shake 
o'  the  hand,  and  a  "very  glad  to  see  you."  Since  then  I  have  re- 
ceived every  attention  that  I  could  desire  even  if  in  a  father's  house. 
Mr.  Pearson  introduced  me  at  once  to  the  female  teachers  and  his 
very  pleasant  lady.  One  of  the  teachers  was  quite  young  and 
charmingly  beautiful,   and,   if  I   had  not   already  lost  my  heart,   I 

5-|  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

should  surely  have  done  so  on  this  occasion.  She  has  a  melancholy 
caste  of  countenance  and  is  of  a  fine  form.  I  had  been  wishing  that 
she  and  I  would  have  rooms  on  the  same  floor,  so  that  1  might  take 
private  lessons  in  painting  or  whatever  she  teaches,  until  the  after- 
noon, when  she  commenced  having  her  room  prepared  for  her  on 
the  very  corner  opposite  mine.  I  am  just  fixed  in  that  respect.  You 
will  think  all  this  foolishness  and  I  shall  too  when  I  marry  up  out  of 
this  troublesome  world.  Now  let  me  tell  you  something  of  the 
scholars.  The  gentlemen,  as  they  are  to  be  styled,  are  generally 
large  and  full-grown,  and  no  one,  unacquainted  with  either  party, 
would  be  able  to  distinguish  the  corporals  from  the  privates.  Gen- 
erally speaking,  they  are  older  in  appearance  than  the  students  in 
Dickinson  College.  I  have  not  taught  as  yet,  but  everyone  is  so 
kind  that  I  cannot  but  be  pleased.  We  have  some  very  pretty  girls, 
and  I  don't  doubt  for  a  moment  that  a  plenty  of  them  are  of  your 
size  and  age.  I  think  we  have  already  between  two  and  three  hun- 
dred students,  male  and  female.  The  Institute  was  opened  this 
afternoon  by  Rev.  T.  W.  Pearson,  father  of  the  principal.  His  ad- 
dress was  fine.  The  very  large  chapel  was  filled  to  overflowing  with 
an  intelligent  and  interesting  audience. 

The  rooms  for  the  teachers  are  furnished  by  the  Institute.  I  have 
two,  one  a  dormitory,  the  other  my  study.  I  could  not  be  better 
situated.  But,  Sallie,  I  am  all  the  while  thinking  of  those  I  left  in 
Baltimore.  I  am  sure  I  was  never  half  so  reluctant  to  leave  my 
nearest  and  dearest  friends.  If  the  fountain  of  my  tears  had  not 
long  ago  dried  up  I  would  sit  right  down  and  cry  for  you  all. 

Besides  his  daily  duties  of  teaching  logic,  rhetoric,  English 
composition,  and  whatever  else  was  included  under  the  name 
of  Belles-Lettres,  which  by  some  stern  necessity  was  stretched 
to  cover  the  class  in  chemistry,  he  gave  occasional  lectures  in 
the  chapel — a  part  on  Sunday  afternoons  and  some  on  other 
occasions.  "God  Will  Provide"  was  the  subject  of  the  first  one 
he  gave,  December  3,  1854.  Later  topics  were  "Kingdom  in 
Heaven  Not  Like  Kingdom  on  Earth,"'  "Never  Complain," 
"Reading,"  "Talking,"  and  "Idolatry,"  with  each  of  which  he 
connected  a  Scripture  passage.  He  gave  also  two  very  inter- 
esting talks  on  "Greek  Mvthology."  one  on  "Mahomet."  and 
one  on  "Great  Men  vs.  True  Wisdom."     In  his  second  lecture 

Ashland  Collegiate  Institute  55 

on  Greek  mythology  he  introduces  a  bit  of  local  meteorology, 
as  the  sweet  revenge  of  a  Marylander  on  the  biting  breezes  of 
Ashland : 

vEolus  lived  in  the  modern  Island  of  Stromboli  in  the  Mediterra- 
nean Sea.  Since  those  days  Mollis  has  removed  his  residence  and 
emigrated  to  the  Catskill  Mountains.  Not  being  able  to  find  a  cave 
in  that  part  of  the  country  large  enough  for  a  palace,  he  concluded  to 
let  the  winds  run  loose,  and  the  consequence  is  that  the  natives  are 
incessantly  troubled  with  a  storm. 

John  Burroughs,  the  poet  and  naturalist,  then  a  student  at 
Ashland,  says : 

I  have  a  remembrance  of  him  as  a  young,  slender,  large-eyed, 
scholarly-looking  man  who  taught  me  logic  and  grammar. 

There  were  about  two  hundred  students  in  the  school  during 
the  winter  of  1855-56.  Board  with  furnished  room,  washing, 
and  fuel,  cost  $1.75  per  week,  and  tuition  in  Latin,  Greek,  and 
Hebrew,  including  common  and  higher  English,  was  $6  per 
term  of  eleven  weeks.  To  gentlemen  seeking  admission  the 
suggestion  was  made  in  print  that  for  greater  quiet  they  bring 
slippers.  The  main  school  building,  200x36  feet  on  the 
ground,  was  five  stories  high  above  the  basement,  with  a  chapel 
in  the  rear.  The  two  vacations  of  the  year  were  in  April  and 
October,  of  four  weeks  each.  Its  name  was  changed  in  1857 
to  Ashland  Collegiate  Institute.  While  the  school  was  in 
session  a  fire  broke  out  in  the  attic,  about  dinner  time,  January 
15,  1861.  The  main  building  was  destroyed.  The  building 
used  for  a  laundry  and  bakehouse  was  not  burned,  and  is  still 
standing  and  used  as  a  dwelling,  while  the  gymnasium  and  car- 
riage house  now  serve  for  a  barn.  The  origin  of  the  fire  was  a 
mystery.  The  location  was  on  an  elevation  on  the  north  side 
of  the  village.  Rev.  Henry  J.  Fox  was  the  last  principal  of  the 

56  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Mr.  Franklin  A.  Wilcox,  of  New  York,  who  was  a  student 
at  Ashland,  furnishes  the  following  items  of  interest : 

John  F.  Hurst,  although  youngest  of  the  faculty,  was,  in  point  of 
ability  and  thorough  preparation  for  his  duties,  foremost.  There 
was  a  charm  in  his  personality  which  drew  everyone  to  him.  He 
reminded  me  somewhat  of  Sir  Walter  Scott  in  his  physical  appear- 
ance. He  was  most  thorough,  and  I  remember  well  his  rigid  cor- 
rections of  my  Latin  exercises.  I  believe  he  took  an  especial  interest 
in  me,  and  coached  me  not  a  little  in  his  private  room,  where  I  was 
glad  to  go  on  the  least  excuse.  He  was  modest,  almost  diffident.  I 
recall  very  well  the  apparent  difficulty  he  had  in  leading  the  devo- 
tional exercises  in  the  chapel,  as  was  the  custom,  by  rotation.  His 
prayer  consisted  of  little  more  than  the  Lord's  Prayer,  and  this  with 
a  little  "stage  fright."  This  very  characteristic,  possibly,  was  the 
source  of  his  great  strength  as  his  abilities  matured. 

I  was  also  in  his  class  in  logic.  I  recall  very  well  the  text-book, 
Whately's.  It  was  dry  as  dust;  the  teacher  succeeded,  however,  in 
interesting  his  class,  although  we  recited  about  daylight  and  before 
breakfast  wras  served  at  the  Institute. 

He  encouraged  the  students  in  the  literary  societies,  and  took  a 
great  interest  in  this  all-important  work.  A  second  literary  society 
was  formed,  projected  and  planned  largely  by  Mr.  Hurst,  with  a 
very  select  membership,  which  he  named  "The  Mystic  Nine."  The 
President,  Professor  Hurst,  was  the  Pater  Novrm,  and  the  Secretary 
was  the  Gcheimschrcibcr.  The  membership  was  limited  to  nine. 
The  Mystic  Nine  was  a  success  from  the  commencement.  We  met 
and  debated,  wrote,  declaimed,  and  read  or  acted  plays  from  Shakes- 
peare whenever  there  was  opportunity,  in  the  chapel  or  elsewhere  in 
surrounding  localities.  Richard  III  was  one  of  these  plays.  One 
of  the  teachers,  "Professor"  Gilbert  (teachers  were  all  called  Pro- 
fessors), recited  "Clarence's  Dream."  The  effort  "brought  down  the 
house" ;  and  the  Mystics  were  much  elated.  The  old  society  was 
greatly  in  the  shade.  Professor  Hurst  was  the  prompter  and  "the 
man  behind  the  scenes,"  and  most  of  the  credit  for  the  success  was 
due  to  him. 

At  the  Exhibition  given  by  the  Mystic  Nine,  March  20, 
1856,  he  delivered  an  address  on  ''Why  Americans  Love 
Shakespeare,"  later  published  as  a  pamphlet  at  Catskill,  and  a 
product  of  his  muse,  called  "Farewell  to  Ashland,"  was  sung 

The  "  White  Horse  "  57 

at  the  close  of  a  very  popular  programme.     Its  three  stanzas 
and  chorus  contained  these  lines : 

Ye  snow-clad  Catskill  Mountains, 

We  bow  our  heads  to  you ; 
Ye  sparkling,  gurgling  fountains, 

We've  drunk  our  last  from  you; 
Ye  old  familiar  faces, 

Endeared  by  many  a  smile, 
We'll  go  to  other  places, 

But  think  of  you  the  while. 
Departure  has  its  sadness, 

The  future  seems  but  blank, 
Yet  we  will  pluck  with  gladness 

The  flowers  on  Avon's  bank. 

Mrs.  Sara  C.  Allaben,  of  Aiken,  South  Carolina,  gives  some 
inside  views  of  the  institution  : 

His  manners  were  those  of  a  gentleman,  quiet,  dignified,  with  no 
airs  or  assumption  whatever.  He  never  fretted  or  fumed  during 
class-time.  In  fact,  his  serene,  dignified  manner  seemed  to  hold  the 
most  mischievous  youth  in  check.  Upon  request  he  would  allow  his 
pupils  to  examine  his  class  book.  Perhaps  he  thought  if  they  were 
not  doing  well  it  would  make  them  more  ambitious. 

One  incident  shows  his  especial  kindness  and  good  sense.  I  had 
a  corner  room  on  the  fourth  floor,  larger  than  the  ordinary  rooms. 
When  the  evening  nine  o'clock  bell  rang,  "our  clan"  of  ten  or  a 
dozen  girls  would  assemble  there  for  fun  and  frolic.  One  evening  a 
Miss  Ostrander,  by  some  miraculous  method,  transformed  herself 
into  an  object  called  a  "Turkey  Buzzard."  She  hopped  about  in  the 
most  ridiculous  manner,  and  we  laughed  till  we  were  weary.  "Well," 
I  said,  "the  turkey  buzzard  makes  us  laugh,  but  I  could  get  up  some- 
thing, if  I  chose,  that  would  frighten  you  even  if  you  saw  it  made, 
and  knew  who  was  wearing  it."  The  young  ladies  teased  me  for  a 
week  after.  At  last  I  consented  to  prepare  it  if  they  would  not 
expect  me  to  carry  it  about.  It  was  that  horrible-looking  monster 
called  a  "White  Horse,"  to  be  held  over  a  person's  head  by  two 
sticks,  grinning  and  bowing  at  the  onlookers  in  the  most  diabolical 
manner.  A  young  lady  in  my  French  class,  who  had  more  than  any 
other  insisted  on  my  making  it,  volunteered  to  wear  it.  She  was  so 
successful    in    frightening    the    young    ladies    at    whose    rooms    she 

-s  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

knocked  for  admittance  that  she  finally  resolved  to  call  on  Miss 
Palmer  and  Miss  La  Monte,  two  teachers  who  roomed  on  the  third 
floor.  I  tried  to  dissuade  her,  but  go  she  would.  Professor  Hurst, 
who  was  calling  on  the  ladies,  opened  the  door.  He  grasped  the 
specter,  unmasking  K.'s  face.  She  screamed  and  he  released  her  in- 
stantly. He  could  not  help  recognizing  her,  and  she  lay  abed  for  a 
week  feigning  sickness  to  avert  suspicion.  Nothing  came  of  it, 
however,  and  I  doubt  if  it  was  discussed  in  the  Faculty  meeting. 

The  merriment  of  a  winter's  frolic  appealed  to  him,  and  he 
wrote  in  memory  of  one  a  poem  of  eight  jingling  stanzas 
which  he  called  "The  Sleighing  Party."  In  these  rhymes  he 
skillfully  connects  the  overtaking  of  a  company  of  young  folks 
by  a  heavy  snowstorm  while  on  an  evening  sleigh  ride,  their 
slow  progress,  bewilderment,  loss  of  the  road,  the  sudden  clear- 
ing of  the  sky,  the  discovery  of  the  road  and  their  safe  return, 
with  the  legend  told  by  Irving  in  the  Sketch  Book : 

The  Catskill  Mountains  were  said  to  be  ruled  by  an  old  squaw 
spirit,  said  to  be  their  mother.  She  dwelt  on  the  highest  peak  and  had 
charge  of  the  doors  of  day  and  night  to  open  and  shut  them  at  the 
proper  hour.  She  hung  up  new  moons  in  the  sky  and  cut  up  the 
old  ones  into  stars. 

Catherine  E.  La  Monte  59 

The  Lover 

Catherine  E.  La  Monte. — A  Look  Toward  Germany. — Studying  German  at 


The  acquaintance  of  young  ''Professor"  Hurst  with  Miss 
Catherine  E.  La  Monte,  the  teacher  of  painting  and  other 
branches  of  "Fine  Arts,"  as  we  have  seen,  began  most  pleas- 
ingly. It  grew  steadily  into  mutual  admiration  and  esteem 
and  ripened  into  hearty  friendship  and  genuine  love.  He 
became  her  accepted  lover  in  the  spring  of  1855.  In  his 
Journal  he  records  this  event  of  heart  history : 

June  5,  1855. — Now,  my  good  old  Journal,  I  will  introduce  to  you  a 
name  with  which  you  may  in  time  become  quite  familiar — Miss  La 
Monte.  Good  Journal,  take  care  of  her,  she  will  be  doubly  dear  to 
you  when  you  and  she  get  better  acquainted.  She  is  my  betrothed. 
I  love  her;  she  is  beautiful,  and  has  a  heart.  That  is  enough  for 
you,  for  vulgar  eyes  might  get  a  glimpse  of  these  lines  upon  your 

Soon  after  the  engagement  Miss  La  Monte  began  teaching 
in  a  school  at  Liberty,  Sullivan  County,  New  York.  From  the 
letters  to  his  betrothed  some  selections  will  give  essential  links 
in  the  chain  of  his  rapidly  developing  life : 

May  3. — Just  fourteen  years  ago  my  mother  died.  O  Kate,  if  such 
a  lovely  woman,  as  my  mother  was,  were  only  living  now  she  would 
love  you  as  dearly  as  she  would  me. 

16. — How  many,  many  thoughts  rose  in  my  mind  as  if  by  magic 
when  you  asked  me  if  I  had  ever  read  Festus.  Indeed  I  have.  It 
has  beguiled  many  a  swift  hour  of  my  time  at  college.  I  like  it  very 
much  and  would  point  you  to  some  favorite  passages  of  mine  if  the 
book  in  which  I  marked  them  had  not  fallen  into  the  hands  of  one 
of  the  most  detestable  pests  of  society — a  book-borrozver. 

26. — I  have  thought  that  there  is  too  much  of  infidelity  in  woman's 

6o  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

heart ;  indeed,  I  have  thought  she  was  forgetful  of  those  who  loved 
her;  but  I  have  judged  her  too  harshly;  you  have  redeemed  your  sex 
in  my  estimation.  1  look  back  upon  my  past  experience  and  through 
the  years  that  1  have  never  loved,  and  they  form  a  blank  in  my  life. 
I  have  never  known  before  what  real  life  was.  I  am  sure  it  does 
not  consist  in  length  of  clays,  in  threescore  and  ten,  but  in  the  days 
and  years  of  love  which  the  heart  lives. 

June  5. — If  there  were  need  of  me  here  (Ashland)  until  the  middle 
of  August  I  should  perhaps  stay,  but  I  shall  have  to  be  in  Maryland 
then  to  settle  with  my  uncle — I  shall  be  of  age  at  that  time.  I  some- 
times think  I  must  spend  next  winter  at  the  South — I  mean  farther 
down  than  Maryland ;  for  my  chest  pains  me  at  times  and  I  must 
guard  against  the  worst.  Don't  you  mind  it,  my  dear  Kate,  I  only 
need  warm  weather.  I  don't  think  we  shall  continue  longer  than 
the  close  of  the  quarter — at  any  rate,  I  will  see  you  at  that  time,  if  I 
live  and  am  well. 

I  wrote  a  letter  this  week  which  will  affect  us  both  materially. 
When  I  was  in  Baltimore  I  left  my  wish  to  have  the  farms  belonging 
to  my  sister  and  myself  sold.  My  sister's  husband.  Dr.  Kurtz,  has 
written  to  me  to  know  if  I  am  still  of  that  opinion.  I  wrote  him 
"no,"  but  that  I  wished  one  to  be  retained,  the  old  homestead  for  me. 
I  meant  for  you  and  me.  I  will  lose  by  not  selling  it,  but  matters 
have  changed,  you  know,  since  I  was  in  Baltimore,  and  I  have  the 
happiness  of  another  to  consult  as  well  as  my  own. 

16. — When  I  think  of  us  and  know  howT  much  we  love  each 
other,  I  feel  perfectly  happy.  To  know  that  there  is  one  who  can  love 
me  in  prosperity  or  adversity  affords  me  more  enjoyment  than  any- 
thing except  religion.  I  am  happy  beyond  the  common  lot  of  mortals, 
and  I  owe  much  of  it  to  the  kindness  and  feeling  of  your  heart. 
Whenever  you  tell  me  how  much  you  think  of  me  and  how  devoted 
you  are,  I  love  you  more  and  God  more.  We  know  not  what  changes 
may  come  over  us  in  life,  but  we  do  know,  Kate,  that  we  can  weep 
for  each  other's  sorrows  and  smile  with  each  other's  joys.  There 
will  be  love  and  sympathy  that  will  be  as  lasting  as  our  lives,  and  I 
believe  as  enduring  as  eternity.  We  can  help  each  other  to  serve 
God  better,  and  we  shall  not  be  separated  in  death. 

August  6. — Kate,  how  would  you  like  to  go  to  Germany  next  year  ? 
We  can  be  married  before  we  go.  I  will  attend  a  German  University 
(Berlin  in  all  probability)  and  will  fully  prepare  myself  to  take  a 
good  position  in  this  country  when  we  return.  I  have  thought  of  it, 
but  can't  tell  certainly  by  any  means; — or  had  you  rather  I  would  go 
first  and  we  be  married  when  I  return?     In  that  event  I  should  not 

A  Look  Toward  Germany  6i 

remain  more  than  a  year,  but  I  would  rather  we  should  go  together. 
If  I  don't  go  as  soon  as  next  year,  it  will  be  from  some  circumstances 
that  I  do  not  now  know.  Perhaps  I  shall  not  go  at  all.  It  has  been 
my  intention  for  several  years,  however. 

14. — I  am  glad  to  hear  you  speak  as  you  do  of  going  with  me  to 
Germany.  As  I  remarked  before,  I  intend  to  go  before  a  great 
while,  but  at  what  particular  time  I  cannot  now  tell.  We  will  talk  it 
all  over  together  first. 

17. — Dear  Kate,  wonders  will  never  cease — I  am  going  home  at 
the  close  of  the  term,  but  will  return  and  spend  the  winter  here.  My 
mind  has  never  been  so  perplexed  before,  unless  it  were  about  this 
time  one  year  ago.  I  do  not  wish  to  go  to  a  new  place  where  I  know 
no  one,  and  a  physician  who  knows  all  about  me  thinks  I  would  be 
safe  in  remaining  here  if  I  attend  to  myself  properly.  I  told  Mr. 
Pearson  that  if  he  would  give  me  the  Department  of  Languages, 
raise  my  salary  to  $400  a  year,  and  allow  me  to  leave  any  time  during 
the  winter  that  I  might  choose,  provided  he  could  supply  my  place 
by  a  few  weeks'  notice,  I  would  remain.  He  agreed  to  it,  and  I 
shall  make  Ashland  my  home  for  the  winter.  I  told  him  that  this 
bargain  extended  no  farther  than  spring.    He  agreed. 

Harrisburg,  Pa.,  October  22. — Dr.  McClintock  has  given  me  con- 
siderable information  with  regard  to  German  Universities.  I  some- 
times think  it  is  so  hard  that  I  cannot  always  be  with  my  friends. 
Arbogast  says  we  shall  be  together  again  if  I  go  to  Germany  next 
year,  for  he  will  go  with  me. 

Ashland,  November  18. — I  think  it  is  a  settled  matter  with  me,  if 
my  health  last,  to  go  to  Germany.  I  have  been  making  arrangements 
to  that  effect  and  have  concluded  to  go. 

January  7,  1856. — I  was  very  busy  during  the  day  (New  Year's) 
at  German,  and  I  determined  to  finish  Wilhelm  Tell — the  best  play  of 
the  best  German  poet — before  Sunday.  I  finished  it  on  Saturday 
night,  and  at  reading  it  I  was  thrilled  and  delighted,  perhaps  more 
than  with  any  book  in  our  own  language.  This  gives  me  encourage- 
ment, and  I  am  able  to  some  degree  to  satisfy  my  early  longing  for  a 
knowledge  of  German  literature. 

February  18. — At  the  first  of  this  quarter  some  young  gentlemen 
came  to  me  and  wished  me  to  take  charge  of  a  Shakespeare  Club 
which  they  wished  to  form.  I  did  so,  as  they  were  the  finest  students 
here,  and  so  we  have  been  meeting  two  nights  in  the  week  ever  since. 

Just  about  this  time,  my  dear  Kate,  one  year  ago  I  was  sick,  as 
you  will  remember.  I  shall  always  think  of  you  for  your  kindness 
and  how  I  loved  you  in  my  pain.     Well,  those  are  old  days  now  to 

62  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

us  both,  and  we  can  look  back  upon  them  with  some  degree  of 
pleasure  in  spite  of  my  pain,  because  it  was  then  that  our  hearts  were 
forming  that  connection  which  death  alone  can  break.  Affliction 
c<  rtainly  helped  to  knit  my  heart  to  yours,  and  I  believe  it  helped  to 
unite  yours  to  me. 

26. — I  am  now  busy  on  my  lecture  before  the  "Mystic  Nine."  The 
subject  I  have  chosen  is,  "Why  Americans  Love  Shakespeare."  The 
subject,  I  think,  will  apply  to  the  object  of  the  Club,  and  I  hope  the 
matter  will  apply. 

March  9. — I  have  to  deliver  a  lecture  in  Catskill  at  the  close  of  the 
term  on  "  The  Origin  and  Nature  of  the  English  Language."  The 
subject  is  prescribed  and  the  lecture  requested  by  the  Teachers' 
Association  of  this  county.     I  think  I  have  my  hands  full,  don't  you? 

17. — I  had  bad  news  from  home  a  few  days  ago.  My  uncle's  only 
son  died.  I  think  he  was  about  six  years  old.  It  will  grieve  them 
almost  to  death.  I  wrote  Uncle  John  a  letter  to  comfort  him  as  much 
as  I  could,  but  a  father's  and  mother's  love  is  unappreciable  by  any 
but  themselves. 

Our  "Mystic  Nine"  will  have  their  exhibition  this  week  on  Thurs- 
day. I  have  my  address  done.  I  have  nearly  finished  my  essay  on 
"English  Language"  for  Catskill. 

21. — Last  night  we  had  our  "Mystic  Nine"  Exhibition.  The  read- 
ing Shakespeare  and  the  Farce  were  the  best  things  that  have  ever 
been  in  Ashland.  We  had  a  crowded  house,  more  than  were  ever  in 
the  Seminary  before.  The  reason  was  there  were  a  great  many 
invitations  sent  out  to  particular  people,  so  that  we  had  a  splendid 
audience  in  size  and  behavior.  My  address  was  twenty-five  minutes 

A  visit  with  Miss  La  Monte  at  Charlotteville,  on  her  return 
from  Liberty,  and  a  journey  to  Maryland  intervene.  Again 
he  writes : 

Cambridge,  May  3. — Just  fifteen  years  ago  my  mother  died.  Many 
sad  and  bright  scenes  have  passed  since  then,  and  before  another 
fifteen  years  shall  have  passed  I  may  be  with  my  mother  in  heaven. 
May  3,  it  will  be  hallowed  in  your  affections  as  it  is  in  mine. 

At  Home,  May  10. — There  is  great  opposition  here  at  home  to  my 
going  to  Germany  and  still  more  to  my  taking  anyone  with  me.  They 
think  it  would  really  be  injudicious. 

For  about  two  months  he  is  in  Carlisle,  preparing  for  his 
trip  to  Europe. 

Studying  German  at  Carlisle  63 

Carlisle,  May. — I  am  here  studying  German.  I  take  three  lessons 
a  week,  and  long  ones.  I  have  read  nearly  two  hundred  pages,  be- 
sides an  indefinite  number  in  the  grammar  since  I  came  here.  I  do 
not  think  I  shall  have  any  difficulty  after  getting  to  Germany  in 
understanding  the  lectures.  I  believe  I  told  you  what  steamer  we 
would  go  in — The  Washington — on  9th  August.  You  will  be 
benefited  by  the  voyage,  and  may  God  grant  that  our  stay  in  Germany 
may  better  fit  us  for  each  other  and  for  God. 

June  22. — Dr.  McClintock  preached  this  morning  in  chapel ;  it 
was  a  good  sermon,  of  course;  for  I  never  heard  him  preach  a  bad 
one.  Mr.  Arbogast  is  but  little  better.  I  took  him  out  riding  yester- 
day; this  morning  I  talked  with  him  about  going  to  Germany.  He 
expected  to  go  in  August  with  us,  but  I  told  him  that  the  doctor  had 
told  me  he  could  not  go  by  the  9th  August,  and  that  he  must  get  a 
great  deal  stronger  to  go  at  all.  He  has  not  strength  enough  to 
stand  the  sea  voyage,  and  possibly  he  would  be  subject  to  a  lingering 
illness  in  Germany.  He  asked  me  if  I  would  wait  for  him;  I  told 
him  I  could  not,  that  I  would  have  gone  in  April  or  May  if  it  had  not 
been  for  waiting  for  him,  and  that  he  might  be  a  great  deal  longer 
getting  well  or  have  a  relapse  and  prevent  me  from  employment  here 
and  going  away  altogether.  He  may,  perhaps,  think  hard  of  it,  but  I 
cannot  help  it. 

27. — I  am  glad  that  you  express  \our  willingness  to  go  with  me  to 
Germany.  It  is  a  task  to  leave  friends  and  relatives  for  so  long  a 
time  as  two  years,  yet  I  think  we  can  both  improve  ourselves  a  great 
deal  and,  if  nothing  especially  disastrous  happen,  we  will  return  in 
improved  health.  I  expect  my  sister  will  feel  the  trial  greatly,  but 
yet  she  submits  when  she  thinks  that  it  is  for  my  good. 

July  1. — Mr.  Arbogast  has  given  up  all  idea  of  going  to  Germany 
with  us.  He  cried  like  a  child  when  he  told  me  that  he  knew  he 
could  not  go.  I  think  it  is  almost  time  for  us  to  be  making  some  ar- 
rangements about  when  we  shall  be  married.  Now  I  cannot  go  to 
Charlotteville  much  before  the  3d  or  4th  August.  On  the  6th  we  had 
better  leave  Charlotteville  so  as  to  be  in  New  York  7th.  What  are 
you  willing  to  do?  Shall  we  be  married  the  night  before  leaving 
Charlotteville?  and  does  your  father  wish  a  company  at  his  house? 
or  had  we  better  be  married  in  the  church  and  just  afterward  take 
the  stage  for  Albany?  The  latter  I  prefer,  and  do  not  wish  any  party 
or  anything  of  the  kind;  but  I  leave  the  matter  in  your  hands  to  do 
as  you  feel  best  about.  One  thing,  we  must  be  in  New  York  on  8th 
August,  as  I  shall  perhaps  meet  some  friends  there.  The  probability 
is  that  I  shall  have  no  one  to  go  up  to  Charlotteville,  which  is  not 

6-j.  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

what  I  had  expected.  Whether  we  are  married  in  the  church  or  at 
your  father's  house,  wedding  cards  will  have  to  be  sent.  Had  I 
better  get  those  in  the  city?  and  what  must  be  put  on  them  will  be 
dependent  on  where  we  are  to  be  married.  I  am  afraid  I  cannot 
get  to  Charlotteville  in  time  to  send  them  to  a  distance,  but  will  be 
there  as  soon  as  Sallie  lets  me  leave  home.  How  many  will  you 
want  ? 

July  5. — Since  I  wrote  you  last  I  have  received  a  letter  from  "The 
Bremen  Line  of  Steamers"  agent.  I  shall  engage  a  stateroom  for 
us  at  once. 

You  ask :  "  When  may  I  expect  you  ?"  I  answer,  any  time  after  2d 
August.  I  can  hereafter  let  you  know  the  precise  day,  but  not  now. 
I  shall  have  some  business  to  attend  to  in  New  York,  which  I  will 
do  before  going  up  to  Charlotteville. 

I  imagine  that  we  shall  soon  feel  at  home  in  Germany.  I  shall 
have  a  number  of  letters  of  introduction  and  they  will  go  a  great 
way  toward  that. 

July  10. — I  am  pleased  with  your  arrangement,  but  do  not  know 
how  you  will  be  married  in  white  silk  and  travel  at  once.  I  am  very 
well,  and  start  for  home  in  the  morning. 


The  Engagement  Prolonged 

The  strength  of  the  tie  which  bound  these  two  hearts  in 
hope,  in  purpose,  and  in  love  was  suddenly  and  powerfully 
tested  by  the  issue  presented  between  the  nearly  perfected  plans 
for  the  wedding  and  the  strong  convictions  of  his  sister  and  her 
husband,  and  his  Uncle  John,  that  a  wiser  plan  and  one  more 
conducive  to  their  united  interests  for  the  future  would  be  to 
postpone  marriage.  How  well  this  test  was  met,  and  how  suc- 
cessfully though  painfully  passed,  may  be  learned  from  the 
letters  written  at  this  juncture : 

Cambridge,  Md.,  July  14,  1856. — I  reached  home  on  Saturday.  On 
Friday  I  met  my  uncle  in  Baltimore.  He  had  heard  of  my  getting  mar- 

The  Lover  65 

ried  through  my  sister.  You  know  that  my  idea  was  not  to  get  married 
when  I  passed  through  Baltimore  last  on  my  way  to  Carlisle,  but  since 
your  father's  proposition  of  a  loan  of  money  I  had  determined  to  ac- 
cept it  and  be  married.  My  uncle  had  just  heard  of  it  and  I  had 
desisted  writing  because  I  chose  to  speak  to  him  in  person.  My  sister 
was  strongly  opposed  to  it  and  had  written  to  him  to  use  his  utmost 
influence  to  dissuade  me.  I  had  written  that  Mr.  Arbogast  would  not 
accompany  us.  The  very  idea  that  I  had  been  so  fondly  resting 
upon  for  nearly  two  months  was  bitterly  opposed  by  my  friends;  not, 
my  dear  Kate,  that  a  single  one  of  them  has  the  least  objection  to 
you,  but  that  they  wish  me  to  obtain  your  consent  to  postponing  the 
marriage  one  year.  This  is  not  my  wish ;  my  wishes  and  fondest 
hopes  would  be  realized  if  we  are  married  and  sail  immediately  for 
Europe.  You  have  made  every  preparation  for  it,  and  so  have  I.  I 
suppose  you  have  purchased  everything  necessary  for  our  immediate 
marriage.  I  have  even  gone  so  far  as  to  engage  passports  and 
passage  for  us  both. 

The  reasons  on  which  my  sister,  uncle,  and  Dr.  Kurtz  rest  their  ad- 
vice are  these :  they  all  think  that  I  should  not  marry  without  knowing 
exactly  what  will  be  my  field  of  labor,  and  that,  in  case  some  accident 
should  happen  to  me,  you  will  be  helpless  in  a  strange  land.  They 
are  equally  opposed  to  my  staying  two  years  abroad.  I  started  from 
Carlisle  with  the  hope  of  soon  possessing  you,  the  idol  of  my  heart 
and  almost  of  my  reason.  In  Baltimore  I  met  my  uncle's  strong  dis- 
approbation of  the  measure;  here,  at  my  sister's,  they  urge  the  same 
strong  reasons.  I  cannot  say  there  is  no  weight  in  their  reasons. 
Your  father's  consent  was  given  me  to  take  you  away  on  condition 
that  my  uncle  and  friends  agree.  They  have  never  heard  definitely 
of  it  until  very  recently,  as  we  ourselves  have  not,  and  it  has  only 
been  within  the  last  three  days  that  I  have  been  able  to  speak  face  to 
face  with  them  on  the  subject.  As  much  as  they  dislike  my  going  to 
Germany,  they  dislike  still  more  for  me  to  subject  you  to  any  unneces- 
sary trouble.  My  sister  gives  her  consent  to  my  going  to  Germany 
and  remaining  one  year,  after  which  that  on  my  return  I  marry  you 
and  both  come  down  among  my  friends  together.  It  is  the  ardent 
wish  of  my  only  sister,  the  advice  of  Dr.  Kurtz,  and  I  am  sure  will 
be  sanctioned  by  my  uncle.  Shall  we  yield  to  the  advice  of  my 
friends  ?  I  leave  the  question  to  you  and  your  kind  father  to  decide. 
It  is  sometimes  an  unpleasant  thing  to  yield  to  friends  and  their 
entreaties  of  love.  Nay,  I  go  farther,  it  is  sometimes  unpleasant  to 
have  friends.  The  friends  who  advise  me  to  do  as  I  now  propose  to 
do  are  true  friends  of  the  heart  and  wish  me  every  happiness,  and 

66  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

to  bring  to  you  the  same  conjugal  happiness.  I  can,  perhaps,  ac- 
complish my  object  in  one  year  of  hard  study  in  Germany.  With 
two  months'  study  of  German  in  Carlisle,  I  think  I  can  accomplish  a 
great  deal  in  Germany  in  one  year.  As  I  said,  my  friends  are  op- 
posed to  my  staying  any  longer.  If  we  get  married  next  summer  it 
will  have  been  two  years  and  three  months  since  we  were  engaged, 
not  then  as  long  as  I  anticipated  when  we  were  engaged  at  Ashland. 
Do  not  let  this  affect  you  much,  for  I  will  see  you  very  soon.  In  a 
few  days  after  I  get  an  answer  to  this  letter  I  will  start  for  Charlotte- 
ville.  I  want  you  to  come  into  the  family  without  a  single  objection; 
here  you  will  find  as  dear  a  sister  as  you  left  at  home,  and  as  kind 
friends  as  any  you  leave  behind,  except  those  that  exist  only  in  parents. 

I  suppose  you  have  written  to  some  of  your  friends  that  we  will 
soon  be  married.  I  have  done  the  same  and  have  invited  a  number 
of  my  friends  to  meet  us  in  New  York.  This  they  will  expect  to  do 
and,  if  you  agree  to  the  wishes  of  my  friends,  I  will  write  to  them 
the  contrary.  My  friends  have  no  objection  to  my  marrying  at 
once  if  I  do  not  go  to  Germany.  But  I  must  go  to  Germany;  for  I 
believe  it  will  be  far  better  for  us  both  in  after  life.  They  do  not 
wish  me  to  remain  more  than  a  year  in  Germany,  and  do  not  think 
that  I  should  postpone  the  marriage  any  longer  than  that.  Heaven 
knows  that  I  shall  not  be  happy  until  I  am  married  to  you.  Ever 
since  I  talked  with  my  uncle  I  have  had  but  little  enjoyment.  Even 
in  conversation,  in  my  private  moments  and  everywhere,  I  have  been 
thinking  of  the  sad  change  in  our  present  arrangements.  But  before 
I  see  my  own  friends  next  summer  I  shall  be  united  to  you,  and  we 
both  come  south  together.  Yes,  my  dear  Kate,  you  are  the  hope  of 
my  life.  There  is  a  sympathy — a  chain  which  unites  us  that  can 
never  be  broken.  My  friends  wish  to  lengthen  that  chain,  not  to 
break  it.  It  cannot  break  by  its  own  weight,  for  you  and  I  love  as 
long  as  we  live.  There  is  no  change  in  feeling,  no  change  in  the 
intensity  of  my  love.  It  is  as  lasting  and  as  constant  as  the  beatings 
of  my  own  heart.  Do  you  blame  me  for  what  I  advise,  namely,  that 
we  wait  one  year?  It  is  not  happiness  lost;  it  is  like  a  slow  but 
steady  spring;  summer  will  come.  I  believe  your  father  will  not 
blame  me,  and  if  he  will  only  look  at  the  matter  in  a  practical  point 
of  view  I  am  sure  it  will  be  best.  I  inclose  a  few  lines  to  your  father; 
they  are  about  the  same  that  I  have  written  to  you.  I  think  we  can 
take  a  ride  to  Cooperstown.  Please  write  your  own  convictions  of 
my  course.    Your  own  Tohx. 

I  will  start  almost  as  soon  as  an  answer  comes  from  you  and  your 

The  Lover  67 

His  letter  to  Dr.  La  Monte  of  same  date  inclosed  one  also 
from  Dr.  Kurtz,  his  brother-in-law,  both  briefly  stating  reasons 
for  deferring  marriage  until  his  return  from  Germany. 

Cambridge,  July  18. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

I  know  you  must  have  had  an  unhappy  time  for  two  or  three  days 
owing  to  my  last  letter.  Have  you  thought  it  unkind  in  me  to  write 
as  I  did?  I  do  not  believe  such  a  thought  will  cross  your  breast.  I 
hope  not,  for  your  happiness  is  my  great  aim.  Do  not  let  your  mind 
dwell  upon  what  I  have  written;  give  no  one  information  on  the 
subject;  just  let  the  matter  rest  until  I  get  to  Charlotteville ;  then  we 
will  do  whatever  will  make  us  most  happy  for  the  present  or  pros- 
pectively. Do  not  grieve,  do  not  let  sad  thoughts  possess  your  mind. 
I  tell  you  candidly  I  am  willing  to  do  whatever  will  increase  your 
happiness  and  try  to  give  all  due  weight  to  the  opinions  and  advices 
of  my  friends.  Whatever  will  make  you  most  happy,  I  will  do.  So 
do  not  give  way  to  sad  thoughts.  It  was  right  for  me  to  write  what 
I  did.  In  my  letter  I  tried  to  express  only  the  convictions  of  my 
friends.  When  I  see  you  I  will  express  my  own.  The  Doctor  and 
Sallie  think  a  great  deal  of  you.  I  was  visiting  last  night  with  them. 
Next  Thursday  (24)  I  will  try  to  start  from  here,  and  with  some 
effort  I  can  possibly  be  in  Charlotteville  on  Saturday,  26.  Do  not 
blame  me  for  having  written  that  letter,  no  matter  how  unexpected 
it  was.    I  send  a  rose ;  it  has  a  kiss  for  you.     Give  my  love  to  all. 

July  21. — I  cannot  make  all  my  arrangements  as  soon  as  I  had 
expected,  but  will  be  in  Charlotteville  as  early  next  week  as  possible. 
I  cannot  get  there  by  Saturday  night  this  week  as  I  had  hoped  and 
written  to  you.  I  love  you  constantly,  devotedly,  more,  if  such  a 
thing  can  be,  since  I  wrote  that  task  of  a  letter  than  before.  I  know 
that  during  my  year  in  Europe  I  shall  be  deprived  of  many  a  joy, 
but  yet  it  is  honorable  to  yield  to  friends  even  though  many  sacrifices 
must  be  made. 

July  25. — Here  at  home  I  live  in  a  careless  style.  Not  careless  as 
regards  you,  dear  Kate,  for  I  do  not  believe  a  thought  of  you  could 
occur  to  me  and  pass  by  without  a  care  that  you  may  be  happy  and  in 
excellent  health.  Yes,  you  are  always  an  object  of  solicitude,  and, 
however  far  we  may  be  separated,  you  are  the  same  to  me,  the  one 
whom  I  love  and  the  one  who  loves  me.  I  believe  every  word  you 
ever  told  me.  Could  I  disbelieve  a  word,  a  look,  from  you,  my  days 
would  be  unhappy.     Well,   I  did  not  get   from  home  as  soon  as  I 

68  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

expected,  otherwise  I  should  have  been  at  Charlotteville  before  you 
get  this  letter.  The  reason  I  did  not  get  off  a  few  days  sooner  is 
that  my  clothes  were  not  prepared  as  soon  as  they  were  promised. 
1  shall  start  from  here  on  Monday  if  nothing  happens.  Without 
delaying  two  hours  in  Baltimore,  I  shall  keep  on  to  Philadelphia  and 
be  in  New  York  Tuesday  morning.  So  by  Wednesday  night  you 
may  expect  me.  I  want  to  spend  all  my  time  with  you.  I  have  a 
world  to  tell  you  which  you  know  notdiing  of  now.  I  am  afraid  you 
have  given  yourself  too  much  uneasiness  about  Germany.  I  hope  not. 
I  have  prayed  that  the  matter  may  not  weigh  too  much  on  your  mind 
and  feelings.  I  believe  that  my  prayers  have  been  answered.  I  am 
determined  when  I  see  you  to  make  every  sacrifice,  any  sacrifice 
sooner  than  your  happiness  shall  be  interfered  with  in  the  least. 

The  pathos  of  this  ten  days'  visit  and  the  converse  of  these 
lovers  in  the  shadow  of  a  foreseen  separation  of  a  year  or  more 
cannot  here  be  traced.  Enough  to  know  they  both  faced  the 
disappointment  bravely  and  adjusted  their  plans  to  the  changed 
situation,  strong  in  a  mutual  confidence  and  fidelity  which  were 
never  diminished.  Before  starting  on  his  first  trip  across  the 
Atlantic  he  sent  this  word  to  Miss  La  Monte : 

Dey  Street  House,  New  York  City,  August  8. 
We  happened  to  reach  Albany  in  time  for  the  boat,  but  it  was 
merely  a  "  happen  "  and  not  the  particular  wish  of  the  stage  driver. 
This  morning  we  reached  the  city  about  seven,  after  a  delightful  ride 
down  the  river.  I  found  everything  right  and  have  a  stateroom 
which  I  expect  will  be  occupied  by  me  alone.  The  Washington  is  a 
huge-looking  vessel,  and  to  all  appearances  can  stand  anything.  I 
hope  you  will  anticipate  as  pleasant  a  time  as  I  do.  I  know  you 
feel,  but  remember  that  what  I  do  for  myself  is  also  for  you. 

The  Student-Tkayeler  69 

The  Student-Traveler 

A  Landlubber's  Log. — In  Brunswick 

His  departure  from  the  home  land,  his  first  ocean  voyage, 
and  his  first  German  home  in  Brunswick  are  described  in  his 
Journal  and  in  letters  to  Miss  La  Monte : 

New  York,  August  9. — Saturday — Dey  Street  House  overnight. 
Went  over  to  steamer  Washington  in  good  time,  and  was  fairly  ini- 
tiated into  German  life.  All  around  were  gabbling  Deutsch. 
Friends  were  bidding  each  other  good-bye  in  German.  Old  German 
women  were  carrying  their  children  in  German  and  sailors  of  the 
boat  were  fixing  the  rigging  in  German.  The  first  thing  I  was  told  on 
entering  the  boat  was,  "Clean  your  feet."  I  thought  that  was  a  good 
indication  of  cleanliness  on  the  steamer,  of  which  I  was  afterward 
disabused.  Crowds  were  gathering  on  the  wharf.  I  saw  no 
familiar  face,  while  almost  everyone  was  looking  (perhaps  for  the 
last  time)  his  friend  in  the  face,  who  had  shaken  hands  and  left  the 
boat.  At  last  I  saw  Professor  Schem,  of  Dickinson  College,  who 
had  been  apprised  of  my  departure.  How  glad  I  was  no  one  can  tell ! 
I  had  left  dear  friends  in  Maryland,  a  far  dearer  one  in  Charlotte- 
ville ;  but  no  long-tried  friend  gave  me  the  parting  hand,  the  parting 
kiss,  the  parting  look  as  I  stepped  on  board  the  steamer.  Professor 
Schem  gave  me  a  hearty  shake-hands  and  every  hope  of  success.  W  e 
sailed  at  twelve.  I  shed  no  tears.  I  had  none.  I  am  in  the  second 
cabin  among  the  Dutch,  low  Dutch.  Slept  well  during  night  and 
waked  up  with  no  point  of  land  to  rest  my  eyes  upon.  My  native 
land  though  not  in  view,  yet  no  less  dear  or  highly  prized. 

10. — Sunday  on  the  ocean — not  much  like  Sunday  in  a  quiet  New 
York  village  or  country  town  in  Maryland.  The  sailors  knew  no 
difference  or  acted  none.  Some  were  stretched  out  on  forward  deck 
with  head  on  a  piece  of  iron,  bunch  of  rope,  or  handspike,  sleeping 
away,  or  it  may  be  reading  a  New  York  Herald  and  smoking  an 
insufferably  stinking  Dutch  pipe.  We  had  no  service,  and  I  could 
scarcely  realize  it  was  the  Lord's  Day.  We  saw  a  number  of 
whales  playing  about  the  ship.     They  were  the  first  I  had  ever  seen, 

yo  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

and  their  long  sleek  hacks  and  streams  of  water  were  curious  enough. 
In  the  afternoon  a  fog  settled  over  the  sea,  and  almost  before  we 
were  aware  of  it  we  were  in  the  midst  of  it.  Went  to  sleep  with 
minute  whistle  in  my  ears. 

ii. — Rose  late.  The  fog  had  disappeared.  Played  a  game  of 
chess  with  an  Englishman  named  Coxherd  with  whom  I  have  formed 
a  very  pleasant  acquaintance.    He  is  a  fine  fellow. 

12. — Awoke  about  7  a.  m.  Had  a  fine  sleep  and  washed  in  salt 
sea  water  all  over,  as  on  previous  morning.  The  sailors  give  no  little 
annoyance  as  they  scrub  the  decks  just  over  my  berth.  Really  it 
seems  as  if  they  were  scrubbing  my  own  back  with  a  flesh  brush.  A 
raging  appetite  is  growing  upon  me.  The  meals  on  the  steamer  are 
so  decidedly  Dutch  that  I  can  scarcely  conform  to  them,  and  were  I 
not  so  insatiably  hungry  I  would  undertake  to  be  aristocratic  and 
dainty,  but  it  is  no  use  to  conceal  feelings.  Beat  the  Englishman  at 
chess.  Saw  a  beautiful  meteor  at  night.  It  is  now  late  at  night. 
The  sailors  are  singing  "Old  Dog  Tray/'  "God  Save  the  Queen," 
"Lilly  Dale,"  and  some  of  the  familiar  songs  of  my  own  native  land. 

13. — Rose  in  time  for  breakfast.  Some  of  us  in  the  room  came 
near  losing  our  breakfast,  as  but  one  could  dress  at  a  time.  Gradually 
becoming  acquainted  with  fellow  passengers  of  second  cabin.  Find 
myself  loading  with  cards  and  invitations  to  visit  at  Cassel,  Heil- 
bronn,  and  all  the  other  Dutch  places  inconceivably  hard  to  pro- 
nounce. The  meals  are  still  Dutch.  The  soup  had  macaroni.  I  find 
it  hard  to  eat.  Potato  salad  which  for  fear  of  forgetting  I  say  is 
made  up  of  sliced  cooked  potatoes,  oil,  onions,  and  vinegar,  and — but 
that  is  Dutch  enough  for  the  present.  Tried  to  translate  some 
German,  but  cannot  fix  my  mind  and  commenced  reading  Helen 
Lincoln  for  passing  time.  Read  my  Bible  regularly.  Was  invited 
strongly  and  repeatedly  by  my  English  friend  to  play  cards,  but  re- 
fused. He  is  not  so  anxious  to  play  chess,  however.  I  write  in  for- 
ward cabin.  Some  playing  cards,  children  are  crying  and  playing, 
some  drinking  lager,  and  others  looking  on,  while  all  are  talking 
Dutch,  French,  or  something  which  is  not  so  near  my  mother 
English.     I  like  my  language  more  and  more. 

14. — Sat  a  long  while  on  the  prow  of  the  boat  and  watched  the 
bounding  and  breaking  waves,  the  floating  polypi,  the  sailing  fish,  the 
distant  whales,  but  saw  no  land  and  could  only  love  and  remember 
scenes  in  my  native  land.  The  last  one  from  whom  I  had  taken  the 
parting  kiss  in  my  country  occupied  mostly  my  thought.  How  dear 
life  seems  to  me  when  I  know  that  some  one  loves  me ;  but  love  is 
on  the  land  and  I  am  on  the  sea.     Ah,  I  know  that  love  bears  me  up 

The  Student-Traveler  71 

and  the  prayers  put  up  to  heaven  from  a  loving  heart  in  my  distant 
mountain  home  bless  me  even  on  the  angry  waves.  O  may  I  be  able 
to  breathe  a  worthy  prayer  to  bless  the  soul  and  life  of  my  existence. 
Went  to  bed  amid  fog,  but  feel  a  calm  trust  in  God  that  I  am  safe 
and  would  be  permitted  to  return  home  with  improved  mind  and  more 
capacity  for  doing  good. 

15. — Watched  the  variegated  jelly-looking  fish.  Went  to  bed  in 
such  a  sea  that  I  was  completely  rocked  to  sleep  and  my  berth  was 
sidewise,  cradlelike. 

16. — Read  through  Children  of  the  Abbey.  Pretty  fair  story  if 
plot  constitutes  a  story.  Commenced  a  piece  for  Ladies'  Repository 
on  "The  Sea !  The  Sea !"  Don't  know  whether  or  not  will  finish. 
Great  rejoicing  that  the  fog  is  gone.     Commenced  letter  to  Kate. 

17. — Birthday  on  the  sea.  Captain  had  services  in  after-saloon  to 
which  forward  cabin  passengers  were  invited.  Captain  read  hymns, 
"  From  all  that  Dwell  below  the  Skies,"  and  "  From  Greenland's 
Icy  Mountains,"  one  of  Watson's  sermons,  and  prayers,  Episcopal 
Prayer  Book.  The  sailors  attended,  but  were  lively  enough  when 
Captain  did  not  see  them.  They  were  all  dressed  up  finely  enough. 
Afternoon  German  preaching  in  forward  cabin.  A  Hungarian  and 
Irishman  were  disorderly,  at  which  the  Captain  was  near  confining 
them  both  until  end  of  voyage.  The  day  was  quite  Sundaylike,  but 
O,  how  different  from  land !  Commenced  letter  to  sister  Sallie  and 
continued  Kate's. 

18. — Wrote  some  on  "The  Sea !  The  Sea !"  A  lecture  at  night  by 
Peit  Stenardonics,  a  Hungarian  exile,  a  good  speaker,  and  late 
captain  in  Hungarian  army. 

19. — Finished  "The  Sea !"  but  have  not  copied  it. 

20. — Wind  rises,  we  enter  English  Channel.  It  is  quite  stormy  for 
a  landsman. 

21. — Slept  but  little  during  the  night.  Rolled  about  in  my  berth. 
Every  joint  in  the  boat  seemed  to  creak.  The  boat  pitches  fearfully. 
Nearly  all  on  board  seasick.  I  ate  but  little,  to  guard  against  it.  All 
are  in  expectation  of  seeing  the  Scilly  Island  lights. 

22. — Got  up  in  the  night  thinking  it  was  day  and  I  would  see  a 
fine  sunrise,  but  alas!  on  rising  and  dressing  in  a  reel,  found  the 
boat  heaving  fearfully,  with  the  bright  heavens  and  the  sailors  on  the 
lookout  for  land.  About  9  a.  m.  made  Land's  End,  England.  No 
one  knows  but  those  in  the  same  situation  how  happy  I  felt  on  seeing 
land  once  more.  What  beautiful  chalk  cliffs  all  along  the  English 
coast !  Sometimes  we  were  far  out  of  sight  of  land,  but  soon  came 
in  front  of  an  abrupt  point  and  could  see  the  beautiful  green  fields 

j2  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

and  parks  of  Merrie  England.  It  was  night  when  we  passed  Hnrst 
Castle,  perhaps  the  home  of  my  fathers.  I  could  see  only  the  out- 
lines of  the  old  towers  by  moonlight.  It  was  beautiful  in  its  gloomy, 
silent  melancholy.  We  entered  the  Needles  without  getting  a  pilot. 
It  was  difficult  to  enter,  but  our  Captain  and  mate  risked  it.  We 
reached  Cowes  about  n  o'clock  at  night.  A  boat  came  after  con- 
siderable waiting  to  take  off  the  mails  and  passengers  for  Southamp- 
ton. I  was  a  little  sorry  to  see  some  of  the  passengers  leave,  but 
thus  acquaintance  is  formed  and  broken  all  through  life.  It  is  sel- 
dom that  traveling  acquaintances  are  permanent.  It  requires  some- 
thing more  than  mere  accident  to  perpetuate  acquaintance,  and  we 
have  but  little  faith  in  love  at  first  sight.  We  left  Cowes  about  three. 
Mailed  three  letters,  one  for  Kate,  another  for  Ladies'  Repository,  and 
third  for  sister. 

23. — Enjoyed  the  beautiful  scenery  of  England  very  much. 
Brighton,  the  great  bathing  place,  and  a  favorite  resort  of  the 
Queen,  presented  a  beautiful  appearance  through  the  spyglass. 
"Shakespeare  Rock"  was  of  chalk  where  King  Lear  didn't  jump  off. 
The  coast  of  France  in  the  distance.  Dover  is  a  beautiful  place — a 
large  city  and  has  splendid  buildings;  Dover  Castle  is  grand,  and  I 
hope  to  visit  it  before  leaving.  Hastings  is  fine,  and  William  the 
Conqueror  landed  there  in  1066.  The  great  battle  between  him  and 
Harold  occurred  close  by.  His  old  castle  is  on  the  hill  to  the  north. 
It  is  now  in  ruins.  Sailors,  officers,  and  all  have  been  continually 
talking  of  the  stormy  North  Sea. 

24. — The  sea  is  rather  quiet,  and  we  are  sailing  on  the  North  Sea 
with  all  sails  up.  Met  a  good  many  boats,  very  unlike  the  lonesome 
time  we  had  on  the  Atlantic.  A  number  of  storms  are  in  view.  We 
make  the  coast  of  Holland.  It  is  rather  low  in  appearance  and  in 
fact.  Saw  Heligoland  in  the  distance.  Its  inhabitants  never  leave 
the  island.    They  are  always  the  best  of  pilots  and  sailors. 

Steamer  Washington,  August  15. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

You  cannot  tell  my  feelings  when  I  stepped  aboard  the  steamer  in 
New  York  unaccompanied  by  anyone  save  the  avaricious  porter.  I 
say  you  cannot  tell  my  feelings,  but  you  can,  too ;  those  feelings  found 
a  response  in  your  heart  and  I  dare  say  you  watched  the  hours  of 
Saturday,  9th,  and  knew  as  well  as  I  did  when  12  o'clock  came.  I 
did  feel  as  though  I  would  like  to  see  some  familiar  face  and  grasp 
some  sincere  hand.  My  baggage  had  been  stored  away  and  I  was 
ready  to  leave,  only  I  wanted  to  see  some  friend.    While  I  was  thus 

The  Student-Traveler  -3 

watching  the  eager  crowd,  I  saw  one,  it  was  no  one  you  know,  but 
one  whom  I  thought  a  great  deal  of,  Professor  Schem,  of  Carlisle. 
I  had  not  seen  him  since  I  left  Carlisle,  but  he  knew  I  was  to  leave 
on  9th,  and  had  not  forgotten.  I  went  off  the  boat,  shook  hands,  and 
I  imagine  he  was  glad  to  see  me.  I  told  him  how  it  was  with  us ; 
he  thought  it  best  as  it  is,  and  said  that  I  could  accomplish  my  object 
in  a  year  abroad.  We  talked  till  just  before  the  boat  left.  He 
gave  me  a  hearty  grasp  and  earnest  hopes  of  success.  It  was  all  I 
wanted  then,  some  expression  of  sincerity  before  I  left. 

August  22. — I  have  felt,  my  dear  Kate,  that  your  prayers  have 
helped  me.  Almost  ever  since  I  left  you,  I  have  had  an  unusual 
trust  and  confidence  in  God.  Yes,  I  know  your  prayers  have  helped 
me ;  I  have  prayed  for  you,  but  I  feel  more  in  need  of  prayers  than  I 
know  you  are.  I  have  a  thousand  things  to  guard  against  that  you 
have  not  and  know  nothing  about.  I  am  so  much  afraid  that  you 
have  been  troubled  about  me.  O,  I  trust  not.  Since  I  remain  in 
Germany  but  one  year,  I  know  now  that  it  is  best  that  you  did  not 
come.  I  should  probably  have  kept  you  two  years  from  home  and 
without  having  employed  the  most  of  my  time  in  strict  study.  I 
might  have  lost  the  year  which  I  now  gain.  I  intend,  if  possible,  to 
accomplish  all  my  expectation  in  one  year's  time,  and  if  I  do  not  I 
shall  consider  that  God  knows  best  and  does  best. 

His  arrival  in  Bremen,  August  25,  was  little  more  than  a 
preliminary  to  a  hasty  departure  to  Brunswick,  from  which 
place,  after  securing  quarters,  he  writes  to  Miss  La  Monte 
August  3 1  : 

At  first  I  stopped  at  the  "Deutsches  Haus,"  but  it  was  in  a  narrow 
street  and  looked  rather  gloomy ;  so  it  has  been  something  of  a  relief 
for  me  to  get  into  a  private  family.  My  old  landlord  and  landlady 
are  really  funny  people.  They  can't  speak  a  word  of  English,  and  we 
have  great  times  to  understand  each  other.  He  sends  me  up  the 
German  newspapers  every  morning,  for  which  I  thank  the  boy  in  the 
best  German  I  can  command.  I  have  two  rooms  because  they  are 
both  small  and  are  connected.  Conscience  knows  how  old  the  house 
is.  It  is  half  bent  with  age,  and  instead  of  its  head  getting  gray,  it  is 
getting  green  as  fast  as  the  moss  can  cover  the  rough,  irregular  tiles. 
The  Dom  is  about  twenty  feet,  not  that  much,  from  my  room.  It  is 
an  old,  old  church,  full  of  pictures  and  arches  and  statues  built  by 
Henry  the  Lion.     He  is  buried  in  it,  and  I  believe  other  kings  also. 

74  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

My  breakfast  is  sent  to  me  at  7^2  in  the  morning.  It  always  con- 
sists of  delightful  coffee  (a  nice  pot  of  it),  six  rolls  and  butter.  I 
eat  all  up  commonly.  Yesterday  morning  they  sent  me  only  five  rolls, 
which  I  devoured  in  a  hurry.  I  go  to  Miss  Agnes  (Sach)  to  recite 
at  M  to  10;  go  to  the  same  house  at  dinner  and  supper.  We  always 
talk  German,  and  I  am  getting  along  pretty  finely. 

On  Foot  in  the  Harz  Mountains 

His  foot-journeys  and  the  life  of  the  open  air  formed  a  chief 
item  in  the  combined  pleasures  of  studious  observation  and  the 
recuperation  of  health.  This  habit  now  forming  was  strength- 
ened by  several  pedestrian  tours  during  his  first  stay  in  Europe. 
The  first  was  a  short  one,  from  Brunswick  to  Wolfenbuttel,  on 
September  10,  of  which  he  writes  (Journal)  when  beginning 
a  second  and  longer  one  in  the  Harz  Mountains : 

September  II,  Brunswick. — Had  a  pleasant  time  at  Wolfenbuttel. 
So  much  of  the  "charming  dust"  was  enough  to  fill  me  up  with  it  or 
rather  choke  me,  but  I  did  not  walk  home,  or  that  might  have  been 
the  case.  All  through  the  road  from  Brunswick  to  Wolfenbuttel  it 
was  grand — splendid  avenues  of  trees.  We  reached  hotel  in  the 
afternoon  by  railroad.  Took  late  dinner,  but  it  was  all  the  better  to 
make  up  for  it.  Had  chance  to  read  a  number  of  pages  in  Schiller's 
Fall  of  Netherlands,  when  Waite  and  Coit  (Joshua)  took  it  into 
their  heads  to  go  to  Harz  next  morning.  I  believe  I  was  the  first, 
however,  for  I  mentioned  that  it  would  be  a  good  idea ;  for  the 
weather  was  so  fine,  which  is  something  of  a  rarity  thus  far  in  Ger- 
many. Well,  I  slept  well  after  the  nine  miles  walk  of  the  day.  We 
took  railroad  to  Harzburg  which  is  situated  at  the  foot  of  the  Harz 
Mountains.  Coit,  Waite,  and  Registrator  Sach  were  company.  We 
then  commenced  the  ascent  of  the  Harz.  Of  course,  we  rested  occa- 
sionally. We  overtook  a  party  of  ladies  who  were  going  as  far  as 
the  old  castle  on  the  way  to  the  Brocken.  At  last  we  reached  a 
hotel  situated  by  the  ruins  of  an  old  castle  which  Julius  Caesar  is 
said  to  have  built,  but  more  probably   Henry   IV.     Gathered   some 

The  Student-Traveler  75 

little  flowers  from  the  old  castle  walls  to  send  to  Kate,  but  as  I  have 
gathered  so  many  on  the  way  and  mixed  them  I  can't  tell  which  is 
which.  We  went  out  of  the  way  a  mile  or  two  to  get  a  fine  view 
from  some  high  rocks.  We  met  a  party  on  mules,  who  had  just  come 
down  the  Harz.  There  was  a  pretty  girl  among  them.  I  went  into 
a  house  or  several  of  them  to  see  how  the  people  lived.  We  took  a 
guide  at  one  of  the  houses.  He  would  talk  very  loud,  and  as  I  asked 
him  to  tell  me  some  Brocken  yarns  he  would  tell  me  some  fine  ones, 
and  on  my  insisting  that  he  should  talk  slower  and  lower  he  would 
not  do  it.  He  was  clever,  and  I  had  some  fine  jokes  with  him  and 
his  frau  when  we  left  him.  I  believe  they  kept  the  cow  in  another 
room  of  the  dwelling.  Had  some  delicious  milk  here — it  was  just 
like  cream.  We  finally  reached  the  great  Brocken.  We  had  been 
walking  uphill  nearly  nine  hours  and  were  tired.  Had  a  grand  sunset. 
I  had  never  seen  the  like  before. 

12. — Rose  quite  early  and,  after  going  to  the  top  of  the  observatory 
and  witnessing  a  "Sunrise  on  the  Brocken,"  came  down  to  breakfast, 
or  rather  coffee  and  bread  alone,  as  is  the  custom  here  in  Germany. 
What  a  time  coming  down  the  hills !  No  one  can  tell  but  those  who 
have  undergone  the  same  experience.  My  legs  were  tired,  I  believe, 
more  than  in  going  up  the  evening  before,  because  different  muscles 
were  brought  into  play.  First  we  were  in  a  beautiful  vale  and  then 
on  some  grand  point.  The  way  to  Ilsenstein  was  very  pleasant  after 
I  gave  my  knapsack  to  a  boy  to  carry.  We  finally  reached  Ilsenstein, 
a  point  350  feet  over  the  vale  below  and  1,450  feet  above  the  level 
of  the  North  Sea.  We  did  not  go  to  Ilsenburg,  but  swept  on  our 
way  to  Wernigerode.  I  gathered  a  little  flower  that  was  peculiar  to 
the  land  over  which  I  traveled,  to  send  to  some  of  my  friends  and 
particularly  to  her  who  is  nearest  my  heart  and  whose  locket  I  bear 
about  with  me.  We  were  almost  worn  out,  and  every  five  minutes 
asked  the  Fuhrer  when  we  would  be  where  there  is  anything  to  eat. 
At  last  we  reached  a  Wirthshaus.  Huge  and  small  antlers  were  hung 
around  the  walls,  and  since  then  we  came  to  a  house  where  they  were 
so  arranged  on  the  walls  as  to  form  different  figures,  such  as  dia- 
monds and  others.  I  had  been  talking  on  the  way  with  some  German 
ladies  who  accompanied  us.  They  could  understand  me,  and  I  could 
partially  understand  them.  Here  at  the  Gast  Haus  we  had  sausage, 
black  bread,  and  milk,  which  quite  refreshed  us  all.  Then  we  started 
for  Wernigerode  again  and  had  a  good  echo  or  two  at  one  point  on 
the  way.  We  approached  the  city  within  a  mile,  when  a  delightful 
landscape  was  presented  to  the  view.  Below  us  the  vale  was  gradual 
and  presented  a  fine  appearance.     To  the  right  on  the  side  of  the 

j6  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

far-stretching  hills  were  peasants  laboring  in  the  barley  and  potato 
fields.  They  take  off  their  hats  at  the  approach  of  strangers,  and 
sometimes  they  dispatch  one  for  money.  In  front  of  this  beautiful 
landscape  is  the  old  castle  of  Elbingerode,  high  on  a  mountain  with 
the  village  below  and  between  us  and  it.  To  the  left  rises  the  peak 
of  the  Brocken.  For  real  beauty  this  landscape  surpassed  anything 
that  I  have  seen  in  Europe  or  America. 

We  stopped  all  together  at  the  Deutsches  Haus.  We  partook  of 
table  d'hote,  but  I  had  just  half-satisfied  myself  with  six  pears  that  I 
had  purchased  at  the  city  gate.  We  went  to  the  top  of  the  castle, 
which  is  at  present  occupied  by  the  court  of  the  city.  After  going 
up  a  long  high  mountain  side  we  came  to  the  outside  of  the  old 
castle.  A  woman  came  out  with  some  keys,  and  we  supposed  she 
was  going  to  carry  us  up  to  the  top  of  the  castle  and  let  us  see  the 
fine  landscape  that  we  had  just  viewed  from  a  more  retired  place; 
but,  no,  she  kept  carrying  us  around  and  around,  always  on  the 
ground  until  we  were  within  fifty  feet  from  the  top  of  the  building. 
We  saw  some  flowers  and.  grapevines  and  a  pretty  fair  view  below, 
considering  the  branches  of  the  trees  in  the  way.  At  last  we  came 
to  a  halt.  She  carried  us  through  an  old  stairway  or  two,  but  of  no 
observatory  did  we  see  the  inside.  On  the  whole  I  was  disappointed, 
but  gave  our  conductor  some  money  from  American  name  rather 
than  from  any  idea  of  benefit  or  pleasure  derived  from  the  old  castle. 
We  had  now  traveled  six  hours,  but  here  was  not  the  end,  and  we 
had  to  go  three  hours  more  to  Riibeland,  making  nine  hours  for  the 
day,  and,  counting  three  miles  to  the  hour,  twenty-seven  miles. 

Riibeland. — We  had  a  pretty  good  supper,  but  I  was  awfully  tired 
and  worn  out.  I  was  startled  at  times  in  my  sleep — one  time  I 
thought  myself  actually  sick,  but  up,  up  and  out,  no  time  for  dreams 
here.  We  visit  Bauman's  Cave,  and  the  iron  and  marble  works  a 
little  out  of  town. 

13. — Long,  long  we  go  till  away  in  the  afternoon  we  got  to  Ross- 
Trappe.  At  night  slept  at  bottom  of  Ross-Trappe  with  Hexentanzplatz 
behind  and  the  rolling  stream  in  view,  with  dark  mountains  behind  it. 

14. — Visit  Halberstadt,  and  now  at  night  I  am  so  tired,  here  in 
Brunswick,  that  I  must  go  to  bed. 

On  this  outing  in  the  Harz  Mountains  he  makes  these  com- 
ments : 

It  is  seldom  the  case  that  the  American  who  travels  in  Europe 
ever  cares  much  about  visiting  the  Harz  unless  he  does  it  to  gratify 

The  Student-Traveler  j~ 

his  taste  for  geology.  But  it  is  not  everyone  who  has  this  taste,  and 
hence  travelers  prefer  to  go  by  railroad  or  post  through  Europe  in- 
stead of  putting  up  with  some  inconveniences  and  doing  a  little  foot 
traveling.  For  those,  then,  who  intend  to  do  all  their  traveling  in  a 
car  or  coach  the  Harz  can  afford  no  inducement.  One  must  expect 
inconveniences  such  as  walking  up  a  great  many  mountain  sides,  a 
restless  night  from  too  much  exercise,  and  sometimes  a  little  hunger. 
Already  supplied  with  these  facts,  we  commenced  a  pedestrian  tour 
to  the  Harz,  and  for  all  the  inconveniences  I  suffered  I  now  feel 
amply  repaid. 


At  Old  Halle 

After  a  few  side  trips  to  Wolfenbiittel,  the  Harz  Mountains, 
and  Magdeburg,  mid-October  saw  our  young  student  settled 
in  Halle,  and  in  its  famous  university  we  find  him  matriculated 
October  31,  1856,  as  a  student  in  the  department  of  Theology, 
which  registered  four  hundred  and  forty-five  the  latter  half  of 
that  year.  Three  other  Americans  were  his  companions  in 
theological  study — William  Alvin  Bartlett,  of  Binghamton, 
New  York;  Joshua  Coit,  of  New  London,  Connecticut;  and 
Clarendon  Waite,  of  Worcester,  Massachusetts.  All  four  had 
their  home  at  6  Scharnngasse.  Another  American  was  one  of 
seventy-nine  students  in  the  department  of  Philosophy,  Henry 
Hedge  Mitchell,  of  Belfast,  Maine.  Halle  was  crowded  that 
year  with  seven  hundred  students,  of  whom  these  five  were 
the  only  Americans.  John  Fletcher  Hurst  was  listed  on  the 
rolls  of  Professor  Jacobi  in  Church  History,  of  Professor  Roe- 
diger  in  Introduction,  of  Professor  Tholuck  in  Encyclopaedia, 
and  probably  of  Professor  Julius  Miiller  in  Doctrinal  Theology. 
In  his  letters  and  Journal  his  own  pen  has  supplied  a  picture 
of  his  life  at  Halle,  and  on  some  excursions  to  other  places. 

j8>  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Halle,  October  19. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

The  next  morning,  after  arrival,  I  was  visiting  a  curious  building 
in  Halle,  and  fortunately  fell  in  with  an  American  by  the  name  of 
Bartlett.  I  found  him  to  be  a  very  good  fellow,  and  one  whom  I 
could  get  along  with  as  a  companion. 

October  22. — Bartlett  happened  to  be  living  in  the  same  house  that 
the  two  Puritans  had  just  entered,  and  it  was  very  close  to  the 
University  and  looked  out  on  a  beautiful  promenade  near  the  Uni- 
versity. There  was  but  one  room  vacant.  That  was  in  the  fourth 
story  and  at  the  back  part  of  the  building.  It  was  very  small,  and  a 
very  tall  person  would  have  considerable  difficulty  in  bending  his 
head  and  shoulders  for  the  many  angles  which  are  formed  by  the 
hip  roof  and  un-American  sort  of  window.  Independent  of  that  was 
the  little  bedroom  which  was  just  large  enough  to  come  out  of  the 
next  morning  the  same  way  one  goes  in  overnight,  without  turning 
around.  These  two  little  rooms  I  engaged,  at  about  $17,  till  next 
March,  with  heating  of  one  included.  Everything  else  I  have  is 
extra.  My  house  expenses  for  a  week  I  think  I  can  nearly  determine. 
One  half  bowl  of  loaf  sugar,  one  can  of  lamp  oil,  four  loaves  of 
brown  bread,  llA  plates  of  butter,  with  three  cups  of  coffee  every 
morning  and  three  cups  of  tea  at  night.  My  dinner  I  take  with  Bart- 
lett, in  a  little  eating  house  about  five  minutes'  walk  from  the  boarding 
house.  Generally  my  dinner  costs  about  thirteen  cents,  but  if  I  take 
rabbit  instead  of  beefsteak  it  is  something  more,  as  well  also  if  I 
have  the  daring  impudence  to  call  for  two  or  three  potatoes  more 
than  they  put  on  my  plate.  My  plates  of  food  I  keep  in  a  little  drawer 
in  my  room,  and  I  can  pull  the  bell  whenever  I  wish  any  more  brown 
bread,  or  a  little  turf  to  put  in  the  stove. 

The  professors,  too,  are  somewhat  different  from  the  overdignified 
manner  which  I  have  seen  in  colleges  at  home.  They  are  exceedingly 
kind.  The  two  Yankees,  Bartlett  and  I,  were  invited  to  Dr.  Tholuck's 
to  tea  the  other  evening.  We  had  a  pleasant  time,  and  Mrs.  Tholuck 
is  more  like  an  American  lady  than  anyone  I  have  seen  lately.  I 
heard  a  lecture  to-day,  but  the  professor  spoke  as  if  his  mouth  were 
full  of  brown  bread,  and  even  one  of  the  German  students  told  me 
that  he  was  hard  to  understand.  If  Dutch  can't  understand  Dutch,  I 
don't  know  what  will  become  of  English. 

His  purpose  to  see  the  historic  places  of  Europe  carries  him 
out  of  Halle  for  three  or  four  days  before  he  has  been  three 
weeks  within  its  classic  precincts. 

The  Student-Traveler  79 

November  1. — In  Weimar — the  home  of  Goethe,  Schiller,  and 

2. — In  Erfnrt,  where  Luther  was  a  monk ;  visited  the  cell  and 
bought  some  autographs — representations  of  Luther's  chirography  as 
well  as  Melanchthon's. 

3. — Visited  the  Thiiringer-wald,  Gotha — the  home  of  Prince  Albert 
— and  Eisenach,  where  I  drank  five  cups  of  tea,  smoked  a  cigar, 
talked  over  college  days,  the  compound  and  some  of  its  illustrious 
members,  as  well  as  over-sea  experiences.  Don't  feel  tired  much, 
although  have  walked  nearly  thirty  miles  to-day.1 

Halle,  November  5. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

While  you  are  all  together  some  evening  indulging  in  nice  cake 
and  other  such  luxuries,  I  am  away  up  here  in  a  back  attic  room 
reading  some  Dutch  books  and  every  few  minutes  taking  a  slice  of 
my  brown  bread,  if  it  is  mealtime  with  me,  or  speaking  bad  German 
to  some  student  visitor.    Well,  these  things  can't  last  forever. 

Halle,  November  24. 
To  John  Hurst: 

My  Dear  Uncle:  The  new  life  to  which  I  have  been  subjected 
and  the  study  which  I  must  perform  have  prevented  me  from  doing 
many  things  that  I  did  not  by  any  means  intend  to  neglect  when  I 
left  the  United  States.  One  of  them  was  to  write  to  you,  but  I 
believe  at  this  late  date  you  will  willingly  read  a  few  lines  on  what 
I  have  been  doing  since  I  have  been  here.  The  first  six  weeks  I 
spent  in  Brunswick,  one  of  the  oldest  and  handsomest  of  the  German 
cities,  where  I  lived  and  studied  German  in  a  nice  family  to  whom  I 
had  a  letter  of  introduction.  The  language  is  spoken  in  greater 
purity  in  Brunswick  than  in  any  other  part  of  Germany,  and  this 
was  no  little  inducement  to  spend  a  little  while  there  before  attending 
University  lectures.  During  the  four  weeks  that  I  have  been  listen- 
ing to  the  lectures  in  Halle  I  have  succeeded  in  getting  accustomed 
to  the  language  and  the  style  of  the  lectures,  so  that  at  this  time  I 
feel  that  I  am  deriving  profit  from  the  ideas  as  well  as  the  German' 
when  I  listen  to  a  long  lecture.  I  had  several  letters  to  professors 
here,  and  as  soon  as  I  became  fixed  in  a  boarding  house  I  paid  them 
calls  and  handed  my  letters  to  them.  That  was  enough  to  secure 
their  kindness  and  attention,  and  each  one  of  them  with  whom  I  am 
acquainted  has  acted  to  me  in  such  a  different  way  from  what  I  had 

1  For  an  interesting  account  of  this  outing  see  his  Life  and  Literature  in  the  Fatherland, 
pp.  396,  ft. 

8o  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

been  accustomed  to  at  home  that  I  felt  at  once  that  they  were  really 
kind  friends. 

Journal.  Christmas  Eve. — Studied  hard  all  day.  Had  been  hoping 
ever  since  I  had  been  in  Halle  that  Dr.  Tholuck  would  give  us 
American  students  an  invitation  to  his  celebrated  Christmas  Eve 
celebration.  On  the  morning  of  the  day  when  he  was  to  have  it.  he 
sent  out  his  bungling  invitation  to  one  of  the  members  who  was  off 
traveling,  which  was  likely  to  knock  the  remaining  ones  out  of  a 
good  time  unless  we  opened  the  letter  or  our  absent  friend  returned. 
Bartlett  opened  it,  and  there  was  an  invitation  for  us  all.    So  we  went. 

Christmas  Day. — Studied  pretty  hard  again.  At  night  we  English 
and  Americans  had  a  great  supper. 

December  26. — Started  in  cars  for  Dresden.  No  fire  in  the  cars. 
I  distributed  tracts  in  the  cars.  Almost  everyone  whom  I  gave  them 
to  seemed  very  glad  to  get  them,  but  one  fellow  in  the  corner  looked 
like  a  Jew,  and  I  noticed  him  very  curiously  to  see  what  he  would  do 
with  a  tract,  but  he  would  not  even  take  one.  The  one  who  sat  next 
to  him  handed  one  to  him,  but  he  refused,  and  when  he  saw  that 
nothing  was  charged  for  them  persisted  in  refusing.  In  Dresden  was 
almost  frozen.  Arrived  at  "Golden  Angel''  Hotel ;  finely  accommo- 
dated. Fell  in  with  a  fine  old  man  from  Gottingen,  who  is,  I  think, 
a  professor  there.  He  was  kind,  and  we  have  been  together  since. 
Sunday  heard  a  fine  half  of  a  sermon  in  a  Lutheran  church,  and  then 
went  to  the  great  Catholic  church,  where  there  was  a  greater  amount 
of  circumstance  and  show  than  I  had  before  seen.  It  is  now  Sunday 
night.  With  the  prayer  that  God  will  continue  to  bless  me,  and  my 
friends  at  home,  and  make  Germany  more  Christian,  I  here  drop 
my  pencil  and  sleep  at  peace  with  God  and  all  the  world. 

Dresden,  27. — What  have  I  really  seen  to-day  ?  The  Green  Vaults, 
the  Historical  Cabinets.  What  a  world  of  jewels,  silver  utensils,  gold, 
and  everything  else  that  reminds  one  of  luxury !  What  struck  me 
most  was  that  all  the  fine  articles  were  productions  of  the  middle  ages. 
And  then  the  Great  Armory,  the  coats  of  mail,  the  slippers  of  Kant 
and  Napoleon  with  them,  and  a  thousand  other  mementos  of  a  great 
many  other  great  men. 

28. — Visited  with  my  friend  the  Japanese  Gallery.  Had  much  joy 
in  visiting  these  antique  specimens  of  sculpture.  Visited  once  more, 
and  more  attentively,  the  picture  gallery,  and  gave  a  farewell  look 
at  the  Madonna. 

The  trip  to  Dresden  was  lengthened  to  take  in  Berlin,  Pots- 

The  Student-Traveler  8i 

dam,  and  Wittenberg.     This  is  the  way  he  plans  for  another 

tour  : 

Halle,  February  22,  1857. 
To  Miss  La  Monte: 

I  have  been  working  like  a  Turk  all  this  winter,  and  really  I  feel 
as  if  I  ought  to  rest  a  while.  We  shall  have  but  six  weeks  to  see 
the  cities  of  Eastern  Germany.  Dresden  I  have  already  seen,  but 
then  we  must  spend  a  couple  of  days  in  Prague,  three  or  four  in 
Vienna,  then  keep  on  to  Trieste,  take  the  steamer  from  there  to  Ven- 
ice, and  then  perhaps  direct  across  the  Apennines  to  Rome.  We  shall 
expect  to  make  a  hasty  visit  and  take  it  rough. 

Venice,  Italy,  March  18. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

How  I  did  hate  to  leave  Halle !  I  little  thought  that  I  could  get 
attached  to  such  a  rough-looking,  antiquated  place  as  Halle  is,  but 
so  it  was,  and  I  could  not  leave  without  sincere  regrets.  The  Wednes- 
day night  or  evening  before  I  left  Halle  I  spent  very  pleasantly  with 
Bartlett,  for  I  know  not  whether  I  shall  ever  see  him  again.  Next 
morning  I  bade  him  good-bye  in  bed,  and  my  heart  yearned  after  him 
when  I  gave  him  the  parting  hand.  My  books  were  all  packed  up 
and  put  in  charge  for  me  at  Halle  until  I  may  order  them  to  be  sent 
to  the  U.  S.,  with  whatever  additions  I  may  make  to  them  before 
leaving  Europe.  I  dislike  so  much  to  give  the  "Leben  sie  wohl"  to 
my  good  old  landlady  and  her  old  dissipated  husband.  The  girl  with 
dirty  hands,  who  used  to  make  my  fires,  had  grown  familiar  to  me,  and 
I  was  sad  even  in  giving  her  the  parting  words.  Another  girl,  who 
used  to  bring  me  my  bread  and  coffee,  had  such  a  pleasant  voice  and 
was  always  so  kind  that  I  disliked  very  much  to  leave  her.  The  old 
bootblack  came  to  see  me  the  day  before  I  was  to  leave,  to  see  if 
I  had  any  old  clothes  or  boot-legacies  for  him,  as  well  as  to  get 
his  last  Thaler  for  bootblacking.  I  didn't  want  to  leave  even  him. 
All  my  old  clothes  I  gave  to  my  fat  old  landlady  for  whatever  poor 
children  she  thought  might  need  them.  Yes,  I  drank  my  last  cup 
of  coffee,  ate  my  last  piece  of  bread,  and  stood  at  my  desk  for  the 
last  time  with  no  little  regret. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  W.  A.  Bartlett,  who  frequently  met  his  theo- 
logue  friend  in  after  life  and  who  was  pastor  of  the  New  York 
Avenue  Presbyterian  Church  in  Washington  during  the  first 
few  years  of  Bishop  Hurst's  residence  there,  gives  us  the  bene- 

82  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

fit  of  his  keen-eyed  observations  at  Halle  and  on  sundry  jour- 
neys with  our  student-traveler: 

Bishop  Hurst,  as  a  young  man  in  the  University  of  Halle,  was  a 
typical  American  youth  of  the  period.  He  had  the  push,  the  enthusi- 
asm, the  confident  ability,  and  the  good  nature  of  a  young  man  with 
a  future.  Forty-eight  years  ago,  the  students  from  the  States  were 
not  so  numerous  as  to-day  in  German  Universities. 

When  we  met  at  Halle,  in  the  fall  of  1856,  to  prosecute  our  the- 
ological studies  under  Julius  Miiller,  Tholuck,  and  Jacobi,  we  were  the 
sole  Americans  in  our  line  of  work,  although  soon  afterward  we  were 
joined  by  two  others.  Young  Hurst,  coming  from  the  Eastern  Shore, 
Maryland,  brought  its  peculiar  traditions  and  customs,  and  in  his 
hearty,  genial  manner  entertained  us  often  at  meals,  at  the  house  of 
Tholuck,  by  explaining  these  American  eccentricities.  At  this  time 
Hurst  was  a  robust,  hearty  boy,  kind,  earnest,  and  industrious ;  he 
mastered  rapidly  the  colloquial  German  and  took  his  notes  of  lectures 
in  German  schrift.  This  period  prophesied  his  future  success  and 
promotions ;  it  was  the  gate  which  opened  into  his  succeeding  occupa- 
tions, and  it  forecast  his  methods  of  work  and  their  characteristics. 
His  sturdy  faith  withstood  the  rationalism  of  Strauss  and  kept  him 
true  to  his  Christian  ideals  and  experience.  He  was  an  honest  disci- 
ple of  Tholuck,  who  dealt  the  Tubingen  school  its  deathblow.  We 
were  often  at  the  table  of  the  great  professor,  the  Saint  John  of  the 
Halle  apostolate.  He  was  a  favorite  companion  of  his  also  in  long 
and  instructive  walks,  in  which  theology  and  personal  piety  and  the 
grand  themes  of  life  and  eternity  were  discussed.  He  made  the  best 
use  of  his  time,  and  laid  the  foundation  of  those  high  qualities  which 
crowned  his  exalted  career. 

In  the  spring  of  1857  Hurst  and  myself  made  a  foot  tour  through 
the  Thuringian  and  Black  forests.  Galled  and  weary  footpads  require 
much  present  grace  in  time  of  need,  which  is  generally  late  in  the 
afternoon  after  weariness  of  the  flesh  in  sight-seeing,  and  demoraliz- 
ing fatigue.  I  think  as  I  look  back  to  that  sunlit  journey  we  stood  the 
test  of  our  piety  fairly  well  as  incipient  saints.  It  was  just  prior  to 
our  civil  war,  when  the  North  and  South  were  waxing  hot  over 
slavery.  It  would  not  be  exactly  fair  to  say  that  we  anticipated 
the  great  conflict,  but  I  recall  a  certain  sunset,  after  a  hard  day's 
tramp,  when  we  discussed  the  "  irrepressible  conflict "  with  some 
physical  and  energetic  arguments — an  argumentum  ad  hominem — 
which  caused  us  both  speedily  afterward  humiliation  and  repentance. 
Hurst  was  not  the  type  of  a  pietist  as  such,  but  rather  a  student  who 

Leaving  Halle  83 

set  out  to  prove  all  things  and  hold  fast  that  which  is  good.     His 
Godward  asceticism  was  warmed  by  human  contacts. 

We  met  often  enough  in  the  heat  and  burden  of  our  day's  work  to 
review  humorously  the  German  experiences. 

The  Rev.  Joshua  Coit,  corresponding  secretary  of  the  Massa- 
chusetts Home  Missionary  Society,  says  of  young  Hurst  at  this 
period : 

He  was  of  an  earnest,  eager  spirit,  strait-thinking  and  outspoken. 
His  mind  was  active  and  inquisitive.  He  was  positive  in  his  convic- 
tions as  to  right  and  wrong,  and  did  not  fall  in  with  much  of  the 
German  student  laxity,  but  withstood  manfully  temptations  to  let  down 
his  spiritual  life. 


From  Halle  to  Rome 

The  remaining  eight  months  of  his  stay  in  Europe  were 
divided  between  journeys  by  rail,  by  boat,  and  on  foot  through 
the  southern  and  central  countries  of  the  Continent  and  in 
England  and  Scotland,  and  two  brief  sojourns,  one  of  about 
five  and  the  other  about  three  weeks,  in  Heidelberg.  Brief 
excerpts  from  his  fascinating  accounts  (Journal)  of  this  really 
his  first  round  among  the  great  scenes  of  nature  and  of  human 
history  must  satisfy  us  : 

March  13,  1857. — Started  from  Halle  at  7  a.  m.  Met  my  company 
in  Dresden  and  proceeded  down  to  Prague.  In  the  evening  started 
for  Vienna.  Had  a  cold  ride  all  night.  Fortune  knows  how  many 
times  we  had  to  show  our  passports. 

14. — Vienna  we  reached  in  a  snowstorm.  I  walked  up  from  the 
cars.  The  hackman  carried  my  companions  to  the  wrong  hotel,  and 
I  had  some  difficulty  in  finding  them,  but  succeeded  at  last.  We  all 
put  up  at  the  "Golden  Lamb."  We  started  for  Saint  Stephen's 
Church.  How  much  we  enjoyed  it !  We  first  went  to  the  top  of  the 
high  tower  in  order  to  get  a  good  view  of  the  city. 

84  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

15. — Sunday  we  went  to  the  Church  of  Saint  Stephen's  and  the 
Imperial  Chapel.  The  melancholy  chanting  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
choirs  always  fills  me  with  emotions,  and  the  most  unfeeling  Prot- 
estant  cannot  look  at  the  poor  Catholic  as  he  approaches  a  picture 
of  the  Virgin  or  a  cross,  and  bows  as  if  in  earnest  longing  for  a 
better  and  happier  life,  without  being  impressed  with  the  sincerity 
of  his  heart. 

16. — We  started  early  in  the  morning  for  Trieste.  We  reached 
Laibach  late  at  night  and  ordered  the  coachman  to  take  us  to  the 
"Golden  Bell*'  Hotel,  but  he  did  not  do  it,  and  we  found  ourselves 
in  the  hotel  that  he  preferred.  We  told  the  hotel-keeper  that  we  would 
take  the  diligence  next  morning  for  Trieste.  He  awakened  us  at 
4^2  a.  m.,  but  after  eating  breakfast  and  getting  ready  to  leave  we 
found  ourselves  in  his  own  conveyance. 

17. — A  long  and  tedious  day  was  this  ! — jj  miles'  stage  ride  from 
Laibach  to  Trieste.  Our  stage  broke  down  and  we  had  rain  all  day. 
What  a  stew  we  were  in !  We  all  got  to  the  nearest  house  and 
squatted  around  an  old  woman's  brick  stove.  At  last  we  hurried  oft. 
We  had  a  good  many  omnibus  drivers  and  had  to  pay  all  trink-geld.  I 
sat  on  the  right  side  of  the  stage  next  to  the  broken  wheel  and  always 
watched  to  see  when  the  linchpin  was  slanting,  but  when  we  got  to  a 
blacksmith's  shop  we  got  all  things  fixed.  We  tried  many  ways  to 
pass  away  the  time.  I  shall  never  forget  the  games  and  stories  we 
employed.  At  last  we  saw  away  down  in  the  valley  below  us  a  world 
of  lights.  This  was  Trieste,  and  there  the  classic  Adriatic.  We  could 
see  the  lights  from  some  boats  on  the  water.  We  went  rapidly  down 
the  hill,  and  when  we  had  nearly  reached  its  bottom  we  saw  the  side 
of  the  mountain  studded  with  village  lights  like  a  casket  of  jewels. 

18. — We  started  from  Trieste  soon  in  the  morning  for  Venice.  O. 
what  a  glorious  sight  this  was !  There  were  the  grand  old  Apen- 
nines in  the  distance.  Here  we  are  sailing  on  the  old  Adriatic.  We 
had  a  good  breeze  and  reached  Venice  about  the  middle  of  the  day. 
A  flood  of  gondolas  came  crowding  around  the  boat,  and  we  char- 
tered one  to  take  us  ashore.  Ashore,  did  I  say  ?  No,  to  take  us  to 
our  hotel  steps,  for  we  did  not  step  on  ground,  but  on  the  steps  of 
our  hotel.  After  getting  something  to  eat — yes,  even  before  that — 
we  went  to  the  famous  Place  of  Saint  Mark's.  Here  was  the  Doge's 
Palace  and  the  Church  of  Saint  Mark.  Never  shall  I  forget  my  first 
view.  We  did  but  little  else  than  walk  about  and  look  at  the  canalled 
city  of  Venice.     The  inside  was  yet  to  be  seen. 

21. — Saw  last  of  Venice;  had  a  ride  for  the  last  time  in  a  gondola. 
Set  out  in  cars  for  Padua  with  Webber.     We  had  a  cold,   gloomy 

Padua,  Ferrara,  Bologna  85 

V/2  hours'  ride.  Arrived  in  rain  at  Padua,  found  no  carriage  to  carry 
us  to  hotel,  and  after  hiring  a  porter  wound  our  way  about  1V2  miles 
to  hotel,  "Golden  Eagle." 

22. — Webber  was  sick  abed,  and  I  had  a  gloomy  time  that  day. 
It  was  Sunday,  and  of  course  I  did  not  visit  the  curiosities  as  a  trav- 
eler. Went  to  the  Church  of  Saint  Anthony.  I  shall  never  forget 
how  I  was  moved  on  seeing  the  poor  people  bowing  on  the  cold  floors 
and  before  the  image  of  the  Virgin. 

27,. — At  one  we  started  on  vettura  for  Ferrara.  We  had  a  toler- 
ably comfortable  time  to  Rovigo.  I  shall  not  forget  the  flying  ferry- 
boats and  how  everyone  wanted  money  from  us.  Rovigo  was  a  dirty 
place,  and  we  went  to  the  hotel  to  which  our  vetturino  brought  us, 
as  we  hired  him  on  condition  that  he  pay  everything.  We  fixed  up 
pretty  well.  Had  pranzo  and  went  to  bed,  Webber  jumping  a  good 
deal  in  his  sleep,  probably  owing  to  apprehension  from  the  robbers ; 
for  we  all  knew  that  we  were  not  in  the  best  quarters. 

24. — We  rose  early  and  started  for  Ferrara.  It  rained  a  good  deal 
of  the  way,  but  we  reached  Ferrara  about  noon  and  went  to  see  the 
prison  where  Tasso  was  confined  in  his  madness.  I  shall  never  forget 
how  Byron's  name  looked  cut  on  the  outside.  We  passed  through 
lowlands  and  reached  Bologna  about  9  p.  m.,  stopping  at  the  Hotel 
Pellegrino,  a  nice  place  and  very  homelike.  The  landlord  and  his  wife 
were  as  kind  as  they  could  be.    We  felt  as  if  we  were  at  home. 

25. — We  went  around  first  in  the  old  University — to  the  dome — 
and  had  a  fine  view  of  Bologna  and  the  surrounding  mountains. 
Went  through  the  anatomical  collection  also,  and  then  to  the  Picture 
Gallery.  I  saw  there  the  Santa  Cecilia,  by  Raphael,  a  beautiful  pic- 
ture. The  faces  are  simple  and  yet  grand,  a  characteristic  of  Raphael. 
Saw  the  tomb  of  the  Volta  family  and  Napoleon's  sister.  Took  a  walk 
in  the  public  gardens.  Ate  some  famous  Bologna  sausage.  Heard 
our  landlord  tell  of  robber  dangers  between  Bologna  and  Florence. 
We  were  all  greatly  excited;  talked  over  the  dangers  and  trials  to 
which  travelers  are  subjected.  I  sewed  up  my  watch  in  my  coat 
collar,  but  it  stuck  out  so  plainly  that  I  took  it  out  and  packed  it  in 
my  carpetbag. 

26. — Rose  at  3  and  started  at  4  a.  m.  for  Florence.  Paid  out  our 
account,  took  leave  of  our  good  landlord,  and  then  walked  to  diligence 
office  and  started  out,  seven  in  banquette.  We  were  all  gratified  to 
see  that  we  had  an  escort  of  soldiers  to  guard  against  the  robbers. 
We  were  now  on  the  way  to  Florence,  riding  in  the  dark  and  subjected 
every  moment  to  robbers,  but  we  saw  and  heard  from  none.  We 
had  a  rainy  day.     We  came  in  the  course  of  afternoon  to  a  dirty 

86  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

hole  which  we  all  had  to  wralk  over.  I  was  the  first  one  to  find  a 
fire  in  a  rude  peasant  cot.  I  made  free  with  the  baby  and  got  warm. 
We  reached  Florence  at  ioM>  p.  m.,  sleepy,  tired,  and  worn  out. 

Of  this  day  and  the  spirit  of  one  of  the  company  Mr.  Coit 
says : 

I  recall  with  amusement  his  vigorous  determination  not  to  be 
robbed  by  brigands  the  day  we  started  from  Bologna  at  3  a.  m.  in  a 
vettura.  Our  road  was  dangerous,  though  it  had  been  several  weeks 
since  an  attack  had  been  made.  The  rest  of  our  party  thought  dis- 
cretion the  better  part  of  valor.  But  Hurst,  who  put  his  valuables 
in  his  stockings,  was  determined  to  fight  rather  than  be  robbed.-  But, 
alas  !  no  brigands  appeared. 

27. — I  strolled  over  the  classic  Arno  and  wandered  along  one  of 
the  streets  beyond  it.  One  of  the  first  things  that  struck  me  was  on 
a  door,  the  name  of  Powers,  sculptor.  How  glad  it  made  me  feel 
and  how  proud  to  think  that  I  had  a  fellow-countryman  abroad  who 
had  done  so  much  for  the  land  of  Washington ! 

28. — Rode  out  to  Fiesole. 

29. — Walked  a  long  distance  to  the  English  church.  How  my 
heart  rejoiced  once  more  to  hear  God  worshiped  in  my  native  tongue ! 

From  29th  March  to  Thursday,  April  9,  had  as  interesting  and 
pleasant  a  time  as  could  be  expected  in  visiting  and  reconnoitering 
Florence.  I  cannot  enumerate  half  what  I  saw,  but  Florence  will 
always  live  in  my  memory,  yes,  in  my  affections.  Wrhat  a  satisfac- 
tion we  all  had  in  visiting  the  studio  of  our  great  artist,  Powers,  the 
maker  of  the  Greek  Slave !  We  were  pleased  with  all  that  we  saw. 
Powers  himself  was  modest,  as  many  great  men  often  are,  and  as  kind 
and  inducing  to  stay  as  he  could  well  be.  We  recognized  around  his 
shelves  of  busts  many  of  our  American  great  men  and  felt  that 
really  we  were  in  the  studio  of  an  American.  The  order  to  visitors, 
"Don't  touch  the  work,"  was  in  English ;  reason  I  will  give  when 
asked.  We  registered  our  names  in  his  album  and  gave  his  son  a 
hearty  shake-hands  when  we  left.  Powers  himself  disappeared 
without  anyone  noticing  him. 

April  9. — On  Thursday  afternoon  we  started  from  Florence,  the 
flower-girl  stuck  the  last  flower  in  our  breast  coat,  and.  after  paying 
her  the  little  pittance,  we  left  in  very  unpleasant  and  second-class 
cars  for  Siena.  At  Siena  we  were  beset  by  beggars.  Next  morning 
we  walked  about  town  and  saw  the  principal  places  that  were  worth 

Accident  near  Rome  87 

seeing,  and  left  in  the  stage  for  Rome,  great  Rome.  Old  Journal,  I 
do  not  want  to  tell  you  all  about  a  stage  ride  of  nearly  two  days' 
length,  and  especially  put  down  such  a  melancholy  picture  as  I  would 
be  compelled  to  do.  Viterbo,  Acquapendente,  the  beautiful  lake,  the 
getting  out  and  walking,  all  would  deserve  a  notice.  All  is  classic 
ground  if  we  remember  that  the  Romans  and  Etruscans  and  Sabines 
once  lived. 

Many  a  hermit  or  shepherd's  hold  had  we  seen  in  the  ground,  and 
many  a  laden  ass  and  brigand-looking  Italian  had  we  met,  when  we 
came  in  sight  of  one  fine-looking  bridge,  narrow  in  the  middle  and 
wide  at  the  ends,  like  so  many  other  Roman  bridges.  I  had  identified 
this  bridge  as  the  one  where  Constantine  had  his  celebrated  dream, 
and  I  told  my  companion  so,  an  American  who  happened  to  ride  in 
the  banquette  at  my  side.  We  were  both  indulging  our  imagination 
on  the  subject  when  we  saw  that  we  would  come  in  contact  with  the 
left  side  of  it.  It  was  inevitable.  I  was  high  from  the  ground  and 
didn't  know  what  to  do.  It  seemed  like  a  dream  to  me.  I  looked  at 
the  precipice  below  to  the  left  and  to  the  hard  stones.  The  stage 
reeled,  I  jumped  to  the  right  and  fell  on  my  arms.  I  felt  injured  at 
once,  if  not  internally,  at  any  rate  badly  in  the  forehead  and  arms. 
The  passengers  all  appeared  very  much  concerned.  The  conductor 
declared  he  must  send  to  Rome  for  a  wheel  and  wagon  tongue,  as 
ours  were  both  broken.  Then  the  company  all  went  to  a  little  locanda 
to  sleep  until  called  for,  except  the  German,  and  he  stayed  with  me. 
I  shall  never  forget  how  restless  I  was,  and  how  kind  he  was  to  me. 
He  wrapped  me  up  in  shawls  and  his  cloak  and  allowed  me  to  lean 
upon  him.  How  many  passed  as  we  both  sat  there  alone,  the 
peasant  on  his  little  ass,  the  woman  driving  on  her  little  gang  of 
calves.  The  night  was  moonlight,  and  we  had  some  time  been  in 
sight  of  Saint  Peter's.  The  peasants  all  looked  curiously  through  the 
windows,  some  appeared  sorry,  others  looked  on  indifferently  as  if 
they  were  glad  it  was  not  they,  and  thus  they  passed  along.  Time 
passed  slowly  by,  and  at  last  the  wheel  and  tongue  came,  like  am- 
bassadors from  the  Eternal  City,  to  receive  us.  We  started  slowly, 
the  postilions  seemed  more  careful,  if  indeed  they  were  the  same  ones, 
and  thus  we  wound  up  the  hill.  We  called  at  the  locanda,  took  in 
our  associates,  and  went  along  our  way  to  Rome. 

Half  the  horizon  seemed  to  be  what  the  Germans  call  a  Morgen 
Roth.  Indeed,  I  had  never  seen  a  more  beautiful  view  in  all  my  life, 
I  mean  an  early  morning  view.  The  old  Saint  Peter's  stood  in  the 
distance  before  us;  the  Capitol  and  all  that  once  made  Rome  so 
grand  at  home  and  so  influential  abroad.     My  head  was  racked  with 

88  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

pain.  I  was  dreadfully  pained  in  every  limb  and  muscle,  and  so  I 
made  my  entrance  to  the  Eternal  City.  I  thank  God  that  I  was  not 
killed.  (Professor  G.  N.  Webber,  of  Smith  College,  who  was  with 
him,  says,  "The  accident  might  easily  have  been  a  fatal  one.")  His 
mercy  I  will  try  to  bear  in  mind  more  hereafter  than  I  have  ever 
done  before.  We  reached  the  diligence  office,  had  our  baggage  over- 
hauled, and  I  was  in  great  confusion  to  know  to  what  hotel  I  could 
go,  so  I  started  off  alone  to  Hotel  d'Amerique.  No  lodging  there. 
All  was  full.  I  asked  if  I  could  not  be  allowed  to  use  or  take  an 
American's  room  for  a  few  minutes,  not  to  sleep,  but  to  dress  my 
forehead.  No,  the  most  of  them  were  not  yet  up,  and  there  was  no 
chance.  They  referred  me  to  Spillman's,  and  after  walking  up  and 
down  many  flights  of  stairs  I  could  not  find  Spillman.  Went  to 
Hotel  dAllemagne  then.  Waited  a  long  while,  and  at  last  a  room 
was  given  me  for  a  few  hours  until  the  owner  came  back.  It,  too, 
was  at  the  top  of  the  house,  but  I  was  glad  enough  to  get  any  place 
to  dress  my  wounds.  I  was  shocked  to  find  my  cuts  so  severe,  but  I 
kept  a  good  heart  and  dressed  them  as  well  as  I  could,  then  went  out 
in  search  of  a  private  apartment,  but  all  efforts  were  fruitless. 
Finally  went  to  a  coffeehouse  and  drank  coffee.  My  bandaged  head 
attracts  the  attention  of  everyone.  About  n  went  up  the  steps  in 
Piazza  di  Spagna  and  found  Webber  and  the  German.  We  then 
went  out  again  to  coffeehouse  and  afterward  hunted  after  rooms,  but 
I  was  too  weak ;  could  walk  no  more,  and  the  German  was  so  kind  to 
me  that  he  gave  me  the  use  of  his  room  and  bed;  and  so  I  took  a 
pleasant  nap.  I  had  a  physician  soon.  He  told  me  not  to  be  alarmed, 
as  there  was  no  danger.  Webber  got  a  good  pair  of  rooms,  and  I 
thanked  him  in  my  heart  for  getting  them. 

Easter  Sunday,  19. — Went  to  Saint  Peter's  Church  and  got  a  good 
place  to  see  the  ceremonies  and,  after  all  the  ceremony  was  con- 
cluded, to  see  the  Pope  give  the  benediction  to  the  assembled  multi- 
tudes. This  was  an  impressive  scene.  The  Pope  is  a  kind-looking 
old  man,  and  I  dare  say  he  is  really  a  good  man  if  his  government  is 
a  weak  one. 

20. — Visited  the  Pyramid  of  Cestius  and  the  Protestant  burial 
ground.  Stood  by  the  graves  of  Shelley  and  Keats,  and  plucked  some 
flowers  for  a  memento  for  my  friends  at  home.  This  was  a  beautiful 
scene :  the  mountain  made  of  earthenware,  the  houses  covered  with 
it  at  the  foot  of  the  hill,  the  distant  Saint  Paul's,  the  feeding  cattle, 
the  cross  of  the  hill,  the  Pyramid,  the  burial  ground  and  cypress  and 
monuments,  the  Saint  Peter's,  all  of  it  hid  but  the  dome,  the  distant 
mountains,    the    Capitol,   the    Forum    in    front,    were   all    enchanting 

At  Heidelberg  89 

enough.    The  return  home  was  by  the  Tarpeian  Rock  and  the  foot  of 
the  ruins  of  the  Palace  of  the  Cassars. 

23. — Ascended  the  cupola  of  Saint  Peter's.  Finished  all  our  sight- 
seeing, had  wandered  for  the  last  time  through  the  living  Vatican, 
had  taken  another  look  at  the  Coliseum,  the  Saint  Peter's,  the  Guido's 
Aurora.  A  great  time  in  my  life  were  the  two  weeks  in  Rome,  never 
to  be  forgotten. 

From  Rome  to  Glasgow  and  Homeward 

April  25,  1857. — Reached  Naples. 

28. — Visited  Pompeii  and  Herculaneum. 

29. — Saw  and  ascended  Vesuvius. 

30. — Sailed  to  Capri  and  saw  the  "Blue  Grotto."  At  night  slept  in 
the  Hotel  Tasso. 

May  2. — Started  from  Naples  and  bade  farewell  to  the  south  of 

3. — Anniversary  of  my  mother's  death.  May  I  never  forget  it,  and 
hallow  her  memory  and  love,  for  a  mother's  love  is  eternal.  Left 
Civita  Vecchia  in  the  evening  for  Leghorn. 

4. — Reached  Leghorn  early  in  the  morning.  Went  ashore  to  Pisa. 
Returned  in  time  to  take  the  boat  for  Genoa. 

5. — Found  ourselves  in  Genoa  harbor. 

6. — Started  for  Arona,  the  southern  point  of  Maggiore,  and  passed 
through  Alessandria.    Stayed  in  Arona. 

7. — Went  to  Luino  on  a  cloudy  day  up  Maggiore.  From  Luino  to 
Lugano,  across  the  lake  and  then  to  Como. 

8. — Went  up  and  down  the  lake  and  back  to  Milan. 

11. — Started  for  Chiavenna.  Left  Chiavenna  and  crossed  the 
Spliigen  Pass.     Slept  and  rode  all  night  in  a  Swiss  diligence. 

13. — Crossed  Lake  Constance  and  kept  on  to  Munich. 

16. — Started  for  and  reached  Heidelberg,  received  letters,  read 
them  and  then  got  a  room.  6y  Hauptstrasse. 

17. — Attended  church  with  Bartlett.  From  to-day  for  one  week  I 
have  scarcely  done  a  thing  except  write  letters.    My  mind  is  off  study. 

He  wrote  two  excellent  articles  for  the  Christian  Advocate, 
on  Easter  in  Rome,  and  on  Old  Rome,  while  he  tarried  for  a 

90  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

month  or  more  in  Heidelberg,  whose  natural  and  literary  at- 
tractions hold  him  in  leash  until  with  fresh  vigor  he  starts 
first  for  a  Rhine  trip  and  a  little  later  for  the  Alps.  Of  his 
enchantment  with  the  scenery  of  the  place,  where  he  had  in- 
tended to  matriculate  and  take  lectures  regularly,  and  of  his 
consequent  delay  in  beginning  his  attendance  at  the  university 
until  it  was  too  late  to  go  to  more  than  a  very  few  and  to  these 
only  as  a  visitor,  he  makes  his  naive  confession  in  his  Life  and 
Literature  in  the  Fatherland.' 

Heidelberg,  May  18,  1857. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

I  have  a  nice  pair  of  rooms,  as  nice  as  I  ever  had  in  my  life.  They 
are  just  what  I  wished.  I  can  look  from  my  bedroom  upon  the  old 
castle.  This  town  is  good  for  my  health.  I  don't  mean  to  say  that  I 
have  poor  health  now,  but  that  it  will  be  a  great  thing  for  my 

June  7. — Heidelberg  is  a  very  little  place,  as  you  can  see  from  the 
picture.  I  have  drawn  a  mark  on  what  I  believe  is  the  very  house  I 
live  in.  Another  place  which  I  have  marked  is  called  the  Molkenkur, 
and,  although  it  is  not  the  highest  of  the  peaks,  yet  I  think  it  far  the 
most  beautiful.  I  often  go  up  there  and  sit  an  hour  or  two  at  the 
close  of  the  day.  Then  I  can  hear  the  music  from  the  castle  below, 
and  look  to  the  west  where  the  Neckar  and  the  Rhine  unite  in  that 
charming  vale,  and  toward  where  I  cannot  see,  but  where  I  can  love 
my  own  dear  friends  at  home. 

I  anticipate  no  little  pleasure  in  going  up  the  Rhine.  My  studies 
will  necessarily  be  very  much  broken  in  upon.  Here  I  have  lost 
considerable  by  not  getting  back  sooner  from  Italy.  My  tour  along 
the  Rhine  will  take  me  a  couple  of  weeks.  Then  after  that  is  over  I 
must  start  for  Switzerland  on  a  pedestrian  tour;  from  there  to  Paris, 
to  London — home.  I  think  it  would  be  better  to  see  these  countries 
than  to  go  home  without  doing — it  would  be  to  me  a  source  of  con- 
stant regret  to  do  so,  and  in  traveling  one  gets  what  he  could  never 
learn  in  his  room.  I  shall  have  done  all  I  could  expect  by  October. 
I  shall  have  gained  a  knowledge  of  the  German  language,  besides  a 
fair  idea  of  Italian,  some  experience  in  speaking  the  French,  to  say 
nothing  of  the  Hebrew  which  I  studied  last  winter  in  Halle  and  the 
substance  matter  of  the  lectures,  as  well  as  the  customs,  manners, 

1  See  p.  116. 

At  Heidelberg  91 

and  conditions  of  the  country  and  people  I  shall  have  seen.  That,  I 
think,  ought  to  be  a  source  of  gratification  to  me.  I  am  thankful  that 
I  have  been  able  to  do  as  I  have.  It  will  always  be  a  source  of 
pleasure  and  profit  to  me,  and  I  trust  to  you.  Neither  of  us  should 
regret  it. 

Heidelberg  is  more  like  a  watering  place  than  a  German  village, 
and  this  takes  away  a  great  deal  of  the  enjoyment  that  I  would  have. 

June  8. — Almost  every  morning  I  get  up  at  seven  or  thereabouts 
and  walk  to  the  castle.  The  birds  sing  cheerily,  and  everything  is 
fresh  and  pleasant.  By  the  way,  we  have  nightingales  here.  Did 
you  ever  hear  them  sing  ?  Professor  Hundeshagen  is  very  clever 
and  kind  to  me.  How  much  I  want  to  see  my  own  land  again !  I 
could  stay  much  longer  in  Europe  and  to  advantage,  but  I  am  eager 
to  get  home,  and  I  feel  sometimes  as  if  I  would  get  right  up  and  start 
to-morrow.    My  heart  and  feelings  all  prompt  me  to  it. 

These  bright  days  in  Heidelberg  brought  again  to  his  hand 
his  coy  muse,  and  from  his  six  stanzas  on  Heidelberg  Castle 
this  is  the  third : 

I  see  that  castle  as  I  write, 

I  see  its  statues  resting  there, 
Each  represents  an  armored  knight 

Who  fights  for  faith  and  lady  fair. 
Since  knightly  days  has  love  grown  purer? 
O,  is  it  true  that  hearts  are  truer? 

June  23. — Left  Heidelberg  for  Worms.  Saw  tree  under  which 
Luther  slept.  Then  went  to  Mainz.  Walked  in  the  Anlage  and  visited 
the  summer  theater. 

24. — Saw  the  house  where  printing  was  invented.  Went  to 
Wiesbaden  and  saw  the  gaming.     Went  in  afternoon  to  Kreuznach. 

25. — Left  Mainz  and  stopped  at  "Bingen  on  the  Rhine."  Returned 
to  Bingen  about  dusk. 

26. — Walked  to  Niederwald  and  Rudesheim.  Returned  to  Bingen 
and  took  boat  for  Goarshausen.  Walked  up  the  Lurlei,  and  there  I 

27. — Went  to  the  Reichenberg  and  returned  over  the  hill  opposite 
Rheinstein.  Visited  Rheinstein  in  Saint  Goar  and  went  on  to  Boppard 
and  there  I  stayed  all  night. 

28. — Took  first  boat  to  Coblenz.  Met  an  Englishman  at  Ehren- 

29. — Walked  to  Ems.    ■ 

92  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Haarlem,  Holland,  July  5. 
To  Miss  La  Monte: 

I  have  had  a  very  pleasant  time  since  leaving  Coblenz.  You  must 
read  that  part  of  Childe  Harold  referring  to  the  Rhine.  I  have  seen 
and  stood  on  every  hill  and  by  every  place  that  is  mentioned. 

July  23. — Left  Heidelberg  for  Freiburg. 

24. — Walked  from  Freiburg  to  Hof,  and  rode  in  diligence  to 

25. — Saw  Schaffhausen  and  Falls  of  the  Rhine,  and  then  went  to 

26. — Attended  English  church,  went  bathing,  and  walked  up  to 

27. — Walked  from  Uetliberg  to  Albis,  where  I  took  breakfast. 
From  there  to  Zug.  Crossed  Zug  to  Arth.  Ascended  the  Rigi — a 
big  day's  work. 

28. — From  Rigi  down  to  Lucerne.  With  Paton  called  on  Bryant, 
the  poet,  and  family. 

29. — Crossed  the  Lake  of  Lucerne  to  Fliielen,  passed  Tell's  Chapel 
and  the  place  where  he  shot  the  apple  from  his  son's  head.  Slept  that 
night  in  Goschenen. 

30. — Crossed  the  Gothard  Pass  to  Hospenthal.  Slept  that  night  on 
the  Furka. 

31. — Passed  the  Rhone  Glacier  and  took  breakfast  at  its  foot. 
Walked  to  Grimsel  and  spent  four  hours  on  the  Aar  Glacier.  Slept 
in  Guttannen. 

August  I. — Ascended  the  Reichenbach  Fall  and  walked  on  the 
Rosenlaui  Glacier.     Slept  on  the  Great  Scheidegg. 

2. — Witnessed  the  Swiss  peasants'  Schwingfest.  Ascended  the 
Faulhorn.     Grand  scenes. 

3. — Came  down  and  took  breakfast  in  Grindelwald.  Parted  with 
Paton  and  Dale  at  the  Little  Scheidegg,  where  I  spent  the  night. 

His  next  two  weeks  covered  a  stop  at  Interlaken  and  sail 
up  and  down  Lakes  Thun  and  Brienz :  walks  over  Gemmi  Pass, 
to  Zermatt,  over  Saint  Theodule  to  Chatillon,  to  Courmajeur, 
to  Chamouny,  and  to  Geneva.  Eight  days  he  was  in  Geneva. 
He  says,  "So  charming  was  Geneva  that  I  felt  like  spending 
all  my  days  there."  Two  weeks  he  gave  to  Paris,  and  thence 
by  Rouen  to  Havre  and  London.     Here  he  tarried  eight  days 

A  Pioneer  Student  93 

and  then  to  Oxford  (one  day),  by  rail  to  Warwick,  on  foot 
to  Stratford-on-Avon  (night),  back  to  Warwick  Castle;  then 
a  walk  with  heavy  pack  to  Kenilworth  Castle  and  a  ride  to 
Birmingham  (September  24).  Thence  he  goes  to  Manchester 
and,  after  a  short  trip  in  Scotland,  leaves  Glasgow  on  the 
Edinburgh,  October  3.  On  the  homeward  voyage  he  reads 
Noctes  Ambrosianae. 

William  Wells  of  the  laity  and  Wrilliam  F.  Warren  of  the 
ministry  were  probably  the  only  Methodists  from  America  who 
preceded  him  in  European  study.    Dr.  Buttz  says : 

Bishop  Hurst's  visit  to  Europe  in  1856-57  was  of  the  utmost  value 
to  himself  and  the  church.  He  was  among  the  pioneers  of  our 
Methodist  scholars  in  Germany  and  in  foreign  travel.  In  his  inten- 
tion to  go  to  Germany  at  that  time  he  showed  a  discrimination  of 
the  importance  of  contact  with  the  world  which  was  of  great  value 
to  him  in  his  subsequent  life,  and  it  gave  him  the  outlook  which 
produced  his  work  on  the  History  of  Rationalism,  and  undoubtedly 
tended  to  enlarge  his  view  of  the  value  of  literature  and  theological 
thought  which  manifested  itself  in  his  numerous  and  valuable  con- 
tributions to  the  literature  of  the  church.  I  think  it  was  also  very 
valuable  farther  in  the  fact  that  it  enlarged  his  appreciation  of  the 
educational  work  in  which  he  afterward  took  so  prominent  a  place. 
It  seems  to  me  his  going  abroad  at  that  time  and  his  experiences  were 
the  foundation  of  much  of  the  most  valuable  services  which  he 
rendered  the  church. 

04  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 


The  Itinerant 

Two    Months  of    Busy   Waiting. — Preaching  "Under   the    Elder." — Head- 
quarters at  Mechanicsburg 

Upon  his  arrival  at  home  his  conviction  that  he  should  enter 
the  ministry  of  the  gospel,  which  had  ripened  into  a  clear  call  to 
that  high  vocation,  led  him  to  seek  for  a  field  where  he  might 
find  employment  for  the  gifts  and  graces  which  many  leaders 
of  the  church  saw  and  knew  to  be  his.  The  Rev.  Dr.  Jesse  T. 
Peck,  then  a  pastor  in  Xew  York,  took  a  personal  interest  in 
the  young  man  from  "  Piney  Neck,"  and  wrote  to  Pennell 
Coombe,  a  presiding  elder  of  the  Philadelphia  Conference,  on 
October  21  : 

It  gives  me  pleasure  to  introduce  to  you  the  bearer,  Brother  John 
F.  Hurst,  a  graduate  of  Dickinson  College,  who  has  just  returned 
from  a  year's  study  and  travel  in  Europe.  He  is  now  ready,  if 
Providence  favor,  to  enter  the  ministry  and  prefers  Philadelphia 
Conference.  I  knew  him  well  in  college  and  have  great  confidence 
in  him  and  expect  a  very  useful  life  from  him  in  the  great  itinerant 

After  a  short  visit  to  Charlotteville  he  hastens  to  Cam- 
bridge, where  he  preached  his  first  sermon,  December  6,  1857, 
at  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church,  from  Psa.  130.  7,  "The 
Hope  of  Israel."  He  had  some  notes,  but  was  so  confused  he 
could  not  see  them,  and  so  they  proved  more  of  a  hindrance 
than  a  help.  This  text  he  used  afterward  on  three  occasions : 
his  first  sermon  on  Carlisle  Circuit,  at  New  Cumberland,  Penn- 
sylvania, on  January  3.  1858;  at  Mechanicsburg.  January  4, 
and  at  Irvington.  New  Jersey,  October  24.  He  writes  to  Miss 
La  Monte  from  Baltimore,  on  November  4: 

A  Busy  Waiting  95 

In  New  York  I  met  Dr.  McClintock  on  the  street  and  on  a  pressing 
invitation  I  called  on  him.  We  spent  an  hour  or  two  of  pleasant 
conversation.  He  is  anxious  for  me  to  join  the  New  Jersey  Con- 
ference, and  promised  his  assistance,  which  I  told  him  he  might 
use  for  me. 

And  again  from  Cambridge  on  November  14: 

It  may  be  that  I  give  a  course  of  lectures  here  in  Cambridge,  but 
still  I  am  not  sure.  In  case  I  have  sufficient  encouragement  to  do  so, 
I  will  commence  next  week.  My  friends  all  say  without  exception 
that  I  have  grown  fat  and  well-looking.  Now,  I  don't  want  you  to 
infer  that  they  think  me  good-looking.  Sallie  says  I  have  grown 
ugly  and  fat;  now  I  could  stand  that,  but  when  she  says  I  have  the 
German  brogue  I  think  that  is  too  much  for  my  good  nature.  Now, 
have  I  any  German  brogue?  I  don't  believe  you  will  acknowledge 
that.  I  visited  a  few  days  ago  the  little  village  schoolhouse  where  I 
went  to  school  six  or  seven  years.  It  looked  very  much  smaller  than 
it  used  to  look — it  is  like  a  little  cocoanut-shell.  I  saw  the  pictures  I 
cut  on  the  benches  a  long  while  ago — I  would  have  recognized  them 
had  it  been  in  China.  Now,  don't  laugh  when  I  tell  you  about  cutting 
pictures.  You  said  my  picture  of  the  old  church  in  Coventry  was 
like  a  cat.  Now,  wasn't  that  a  compliment?  You  really  didn't  do  me 

How  his  pen  had  already  acquired  the  busy  habit  is  seen 
from  parts  of  these  two  letters  to  Miss  La  Monte,  from 
Cambridge : 

November  23. — I  have  been  writing  in  fits  and  starts  since  I  came 
here.  If  I  give  a  course  of  lectures,  as  I  may  do,  then  I  shall  be  all 
ready.  I  have  three  long  ones  already  done.  I  shall  write  no  more 
on  the  course  until  I  know  whether  or  not  I  give  them. 

November  26. — I  am  writing  some  every  day,  first  Memories  of  the 
Rhine,  and  then  something  else  of  my  own  experience.  I  do  not 
want  these  things  to  escape  my  memory.  I  have  never  known  what 
it  is  until  recently  to  have  good  health. 

His  correspondence  in  December  gives  us  some  interesting 
items  concerning  his  last  month  of  waiting  for  an  opening. 
To  Miss  La  Monte  he  writes  from  Cambridge  on  the  eighth  : 

96  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

I  have  great  difficulty  in  finding  a  vacancy  in  the  New  Jersey  and 
Philadelphia  Conferences.  I  cannot  tell  as  yet  where  I  shall  go.  I 
am  in  a  great  difficulty  about  the  matter,  and  were  it  not  for  the 
climate  I  should  regret  that  I  had  not  accepted  a  professorship  in 
Charlotteville  Seminary.  But  God  does  all  things  well.  I  have  an 
invitation  from  Dr.  Collins  to  come  to  Carlisle  and  talk  over  matters. 

Carlisle,  Pa.,  14. — From  here  I  shall  go  to  Philadelphia  in  all 
probability,  and  if  a  vacancy  can  be  found  in  the  New  Jersey  Con- 
ference I  shall  get  it.  I  am  now  ready  for  work  once  more.  Did  I 
tell  you  that  I  preached  in  Cambridge  before  I  left,  on  "  Let  Israel 
Hope  in  the  Lord  "  ? 

Carlisle,  16. 
To  Dr.  William  La  Monte: 

I  expect  to  commence  preaching  on  this  District  in  January;  but  I 
will  write  particulars  to  Kate  in  a  few  days. 

Washington,  D.  C,  17. 
To  Miss  La  Monte: 

I  have  taken  or  at  least  promised  to  take  a  place  on  the  Carlisle 
Circuit,  to  preach.  The  town  of  Carlisle  is  not  embraced  in  the 
circuit;  that  is  a  station,  and  I  think  the  circuit  by  no  means  a 
pleasant  post  to  fill ;  but  it  will  only  be  for  a  while. 

His  Journal  and  contemporary  letters  give  glimpses  of  the 
external  circumstances  and  internal  battles,  with  more  victories 
than  defeats,  of  the  young  preacher  while  he  was  undergoing 
the  process  of  "  breaking  in  "  within  the  bounds  of  the  newly 
formed  East  Baltimore  Conference : 

January  1,  1858. — In  Philadelphia  on  way  to  Mechanicsburg. 
Talked  in  La  Pierre  Hotel  with  an  old  traveler  and  had  much 
pleasure  from  it.  Came  near  missing  the  train.  Thoughts  on 
Heaven  and  Hell. 

2. — Rode  during  the  night  to  Harrisburg — went  to  market  early  in 
morning — went  to  Mechanicsburg — found  Reese  Marlatt  and  my 
future  colleagues  Norris  and  Dunlap — like  them  very  much. 
Quarterly  meeting.     Put  up  at  Dr.  Day's. 

3. — Attended  quarterly  meeting.  Spoke  in  love  feast,  and  had  a 
good  time — told  my  experience.  Had  communion  after  Dr. 
Dougherty's  sermon.     Afternoon  took  horse  and  rode  down  to  New 

A  Circuit  Preacher  97 

Cumberland.  Preached  at  night  to  an  attentive  and  large  congrega- 
tion, from  "Let  Israel  Hope  in  the  Lord."    Had  pretty  good  freedom. 

4. — Walked  around  New  Cumberland  and  became  acquainted  with 
a  number  of  people.  Returned  to  Mechanicsburg  and  preached  at 
night  with  but  little  freedom  because  I  had  less  faith.  Had  quite  a 
number  at  altar,  but  it  was  owing  to  Norris's  exhortation.  God  give 
me  faith  next  time. 

5. — At  night  had  a  glorious  time — about  twelve  at  the  altar. 
Talked  with  a  great  many  of  the  careless  young  men — one  promised 
to  come  to  the  altar.  Felt  a  peace  of  God  in  my  heart  which  makes 
me  feel  good  again  like  old  times. 

6. — Good  meeting  at  night.  Talked  with  a  good  many  of  the 

Dr.  Day  loaned  him  a  saddle  horse  for  his  use  on  the  thirty- 
mile  circuit.  The  record  is  that  the  horse  put  in  as  hard  a  three 
months'  service  as  was  good  for  him,  and  that  the  splendid 
animal  needed  a  vacation  at  its  close. 

7. — Preached  at  night  with  more  faith  and  liberty  than  I  had  ever 
experienced  before — text,  "The  Prodigal  Son."  Had  a  few  mourners 
— supplicated  with  many  to  come — young  men  too,  but  they  would 
not  come. 

8. — Slept  but  little  overnight.  Did  me  good  to  hear  that  I  had 
preached  acceptably. 

9. — Made  preparation  to  start  out  on  a  long  horseback  ride — Norris 
with  me.  We  went  to  Coover's  and  dined,  then  went  down  to  Lis- 
burn,  name  of  the  town  from  Lizzy  Burn,  who  gave  a  graveyard  to 
the  place.  Stopped  at  Lloyd's.  Preached  on  Prodigal  Son — felt  more 
than  satisfied  with  my  high  and  holy  calling.  Life's  a  joy  when  you 
lead  it  right. 

10. — Started  early  in  the  morning  for  Lewisburg.  Preached  on 
the  Samaritan  Woman — did  better  than  I  had  any  right  to  expect — 
felt  well  during  the  exercises.  Had  good  dinner  and  started  for 
Wellsville.    Preached  on  the  Samaritan  Woman — felt  freedom. 

11. — Felt  greatly  rejoiced  when  one  of  the  young  workmen  told 
me  that  he  had  been  thinking  a  good  deal  on  what  I  had  said  the 
other  night  on  the  Christian  living  a  separate  life  from  the  sinner. 
Did  me  good.    Led  class  in  evening  and  had  a  good  one. 

12. — Ride  home — fourteen  miles.  Norris  preached — fifteen  mourn- 
ers at  the  altar.    Felt  sleepy,  but  talked  some  to  the  mourners. 

13. — Wrote  on  sermon  nearly  all  day.  At  night  talked  to  the  sin- 

98  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  BiOGRArnv 

ners.  "I  guess  you  know  who  I  am,"  said  a  sinner  who  was  con- 
verted and  who  promised  me  to  come  to  the  altar  a  week  ago.  Had 
a  good  deal  of  faith.    Prayed  a  loud  prayer  at  meeting  after  sermon. 

To  Miss  La  Monte  he  wrote  on  January  14: 

I  have  reason  to  feel  encouraged  by  what  I  have  done  so  far, 
although  I  see  that  I  have  yet  a  great  deal  to  do  and  struggle  for.  I 
find  that  the  horseback  riding  helps  me  amazingly.  My  colleagues 
are  both  very  fine  fellows  and  good  preachers.  I  am  perfectly 
delighted  with  them  both  and  would  consider  it  lucky  if  I  could  have 
such  ones  next  year,  but  I  intend  to  leave  this  Conference  and  join 
New  Jersey  Conference. 

14. — In  evening  preached  on  "Awake,  Awake,  O  Arm  of  the  Lord," 
in  Mechanicsburg.    Had  liberty. 

16. — Wrote  some  on  "Rationalism."  Started  with  Norris  and 
Lippincott  for  Papertown,  stopping  at  Boiling  Springs. 

17. — Papertown.  Slept  with  Norris.  Both  woke  up  with  sore 
throats  and  hard  colds.  Preached  on  "Living  Waters."  Hadn't  much 
freedom — throat,  bad  cold,  and  want  of  faith  all  had  share  in  failure. 

18. — Ate  oysters  after  service  with  Norris — had  a  real  good  time. 
What  a  world  of  sorrow  oysters  can  hide ! 

19. — Attended  church  at  night — three  mourners  at  the  altar.  Two 
men  drunken  in  the  church — led  them  both  out. 

20. — Preached  at  night  on  "  The  Value  of  the  Soul  " — had  liberty, 
but  a  sore  throat — was  told  by  Norris  sermon  was  a  good  one. 

21. — Read  some  in  History  of  Rationalism.  Had  much  peace  in 
God.    God  blesses  me  and  I  feel  and  know  it. 

24. — Woke  early  in  morning  thinking  about  preaching.  Preached 
on  "Worship  God."  A  great  deal  of  feeling  was  manifested,  and  it 
was  decidedly  the  best  sermon  I  have  preached.  The  Spirit  of  the 
Lord  was  with  me. 

25. — Zug  said  rode  his  horse  too  fast.  Had  several  intimations  that 
I  had  improved  in  preaching.  Afternoon  wrote  some  and  read  on 
Rationalism.  The  Lord  help  me  to  make  a  good  article  for  the 
Quarterly  on  that  subject. 

26. — Started  for  Carlisle.  Dinner  with  Bishop  Waugh.  Heard 
Bishop  Waugh  talk  to  new  converts  and  preach  afterward  from  the 
"Jailer."    Called  on  to  pray — failed  because  of  no  faith. 

27. — Traveled  with  Bishop  Waugh  and  Dorsheimer  to  Mechanics- 

Licensed  to  Preach  99 

29. — Am  getting  gradually  initiated  into  the  ways  and  doings  of 
the  Methodists. 

30. — Dillstown.  Preached  at  night  on  "Revive  Thy  Work."  In- 
vited mourners  to  the  altar — none  came,  but  I  believe  the  Lord  will 
bless  and  revive  us  and  his  work  in  this  place. 

31. — Went  at  nine  to  love  feast — Father  Bennett  officiated.  I  spoke 
and  the  Lord  blessed  me. 

February  4. — Read  assiduously  all  day.  Had  but  little  faith  during 
day,  and  could  not  pray  as  much  as  I  wished  to — the  devil  still  holding 
me  by  the  ears  by  pride.  Retired  to  my  room  and  tried  earnestly  to 
have  faith,  but  not  much  of  it  had  I.  Went  to  church  and  experienced 
some  pleasure  and  pain  by  talking  to  young  men.  Lord,  help  me  to 
get  some  of  them  on  a  good  track. 

Mechanicsburg,  February  5. 
To  Miss  La  Monte: 

I  expect,  if  God  permit,  to  join  the  Newark  Conference  in  April. 
I  think  my  chances  for  success  are  better  there.  I  would  perhaps 
join  the  Baltimore  Conference,  as  I  have  had  flattering  offers  al- 
ready, but  that  Conference  will  not  admit  me  on  as  favorable  circum- 
stances as  one  farther  north.  I  think  you  must  have  a  strange  idea 
of  riding  a  circuit  on  horseback — now,  that  is  a  capital  plan — I  only 
wish  you  could  see  me  on  a  good  horse.  I  tell  you  the  boys  clear  the 
track  when  "the  preacher  is  coming'' ! 

6. — Fiddled  and  fooled  around  town  till  dinner.  Rode  down  to 
Lisburn  with  Brother  Dunlap  and  heard  him  preach  on  "Seek  the 
Lord  while  he  may  be  found."  I  exhorted  afterward.  Felt  well — 
had  liberty,  as  Norris  says. 

7. — Preached  on  "Worship  God,"  but  had  not  so  much  liberty  as  I 
could  have  wished — it  is  all  of  faith.  Rode  back  to  Lisburn — blessed 
on  the  road — the  Lord  gave  me  liberty  at  night  on  "Lord,  Revive 
Thy  Work."    Some  sinners  were  convicted. 

8. — Visited  a  poor  consumptive  young  man.  He  was  a  lesson  to 
sinners.  I  prayed  with  him  and  consoled  him  to  the  best  of  my 
ability.  Evening  preached,  and  here  saw  first  the  labors  crowned 
with  success — three  souls  struggling  for  liberty. 

10. — Mechanicsburg.  Went  to  Carlisle  and  there  passed  my  ex- 
amination for  license  to  preach  and  recommendation  to  traveling 
connection.  Passed  a  fair  one.  When  I  retired  for  the  stewards  to 
vote  on  my  case,  A.  A.  Reese,  the  elder,  remarked  that  he  "thought 
there  was  a  preach  in  me."    Lord,  grant  it,  and  make  it  possible ! 

11. — Started  late  in  afternoon  to  Lisburn.     Preached  with  liberty 

-•..    - 

ioo  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

on  "For  every  man  shall  bear  his  own  burden."     The  Lord  gave  me 
liberty,  and  three  mourners  were  at  the  altar. 

12. — Read  and  wrote  and  had  a  great  deal  of  faith.  Norris 
preached  at  night  from  "What  will  you  say?"  A  good  sermon.  Four 
mourners  at  the  altar. 

13. — Worked  hard  and  finished  Beranger. 

14. — Rode  to  Lisburn  in  the  snow.  Shivered  and  shook  after  get- 
ting to  Costello's.  Preached  tolerably.  In  afternoon  back  to 
Coover's,  and  preached  same  sermon  on  "Arise,  young  man !"  Very 
little  faith  in  the  people  or  myself. 

Mechanicsburg,  February  15. 
To  Miss  La  Monte: 

I  have  reason  to  think  I  am  acceptable  here  in  my  efforts  to  please 
God  and  save  souls.  They  are  anxious  for  me  to  return  here  after 
Conference,  and,  were  it  not  that  young  preachers  can't  get  married 
in  this  Conference,  T  think  I  should  join  it.  I  fear  one  farther  north 
will  not  agree  so  well  with  my  health.  Poor  Bishop  Waugh  is  dead ! 
I  had  a  railroad  ride  with  him  only  a  few  days  before  his  death.  He 
was  ready  to  die.  No  one  could  be  with  him  ten  minutes  without 
feeling  and  seeing  that  he  was  as  fit  for  heaven  as  any  man  who 
lives  on  earth.  A  few  days  ago  I  stood  my  examination  for  admit- 
tance into  Conference.  How  unworthy  I  feel  in  entering  upon  the 
responsible  work  of  the  ministry.  May  God  give  me  a  Christian 
heart  and  a  fervent  devotional  spirit. 

18. — Preached  in  Lisburn  on  "Her  ways  are  ways  of  pleasantness." 
Not  much  liberty.  Two  converted — three  at  altar.  God  help  the 
last  one ! 

20. — Lewisburg.  Preached  at  night  to  a  good  audience  on  "Lord, 
Revive  Thy  Work."  Not  much  liberty.  The  Lord  gave  me  some 
faith,  however. 

24. — Studied  in  Watson's  Institutes  until  1  o'clock. 

25. — Read  34  pages  in  Watson's  Institutes,  and  a  little  in  Fisk's 
Travels.  O,  how  glorious  a  thing  it  is  to  feel  the  truth  growing  and 
bedding  itself  in  the  mind.    Lord,  give  the  truth  a  big  taproot. 

Mechanicsburg,  February  25. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

Our  two  preachers  are  going  to  Conference  in  a  few  days,  and  at 
their  request  and  that  of  the  church  I  will  remain  here  until  they 
return  from  Conference.  I  consented,  though  I  fear  it  will  interfere 
with  my  visiting  the  Eastern  Shore  before  going  into  New  Jersey. 

The  Itinerant  ioi 

I  was  just  looking  over  my  dry  bones  (skeletons),  and  find  that  I 
have  preached  just  twenty-one  times  and  have  eleven  complete 
skeletons  all  jointed,  varnished,  and  hung  up  by  the  neck. 

2J. — Lord,  help  me  to  set  a  good  watchman  on  my  lips. 

March  i. — Read  in  Upham's  Interior  Life;  also  in  Moore's  Lalla 
Rookh,  and  Fletcher's  Appeal. 

2. — Read  some  in  Watson.  Wrote  commencement  on  Rationalism. 
Smoked  at  night — determined  not  to  smoke  until  after  dinner. 

3. — Can't  get  mind  fixed  on  prayer  as  I  pray.  Lord,  help  me  to 
conquer  all  my  difficulties. 

7. — Lisburn.  Rode  to  Lewisburg.  Preached  with  not  much  liberty 
on  "Christian  Army."  Rode  to  Wellsville.  Preached  on  "Christian 

9. — Mechanicsburg.    Wrote  until  dark  on  Rationalism. 

10. — Before  going  to  bed  felt  an  unusual  trust  in  God. 

11. — Wrote  all  morning  on  Rationalism.  May  it  be  useful  and  tell 
the  truth. 

12. — Went  in  evening  to  Harrisburg  and  heard  Everett  lecture  on 
the  character  of  Washington.  May  we  imitate  him  !  Coming  home 
had  an  accident  and  narrow  escape  from  falling  in  the  river. 

13. — Packed  up  to  leave. 

14. — Preached  last  sermon  in  Mechanicsburg  on  "War  a  Good 
Warfare."  Tried  to  do  something  and  had  a  complete  failure. 
Chagrin,  disgust,  thoughts  of  failing  possessed  my  heart  and  harrowed 
up  the  soul  within  me.  Lectured  a  little  while  at  Sunday  school,  and 
in  evening  at  prayer  meeting.    The  Lord  give  me  freedom. 

Cambridge,  March  19  or  20. 
To  Miss  La  Monte: 

I  know  not  what  sort  of  a  place  I  shall  get — perhaps  a  circuit,  per- 
haps a  little  station.  The  Lord  can  do  with  me  as  he  chooses.  I  am 
in  his  hands  and  try  to  be  willing  to  labor  in  whatever  place  he 
pleases.  I  am  writing  with  a  gold  pen  which  was  given  me  before 
leaving  Mechanicsburg.  It  is  a  very  nice  gold  pen  and  pencil,  and  I 
think  more  of  it  than  I  would  of  a  suit  of  clothes. 

He  preached  on  Carlisle  Circuit  thirty-four  sermons  from 
eleven  texts,  in  eleven  weeks,  at  nine  different  places,  as  fol- 
lows: New  Cumberland  once,  Mechanicsburg  six  times,  Lis- 
burn eight  times,  Lewisburg  six  times,  Wellsville  twice,  Paper- 

102  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

town  twice,  Dillstown  five  times,  Bethel  three  times,  Boiling- 
Springs  once.  During  these  eleven  weeks  of  circuit  riding  he 
traveled  on  horseback  one  hundred  and  eighty-four  miles,  and 
used  these  eleven  subjects  and  texts : 

The  Hope  of  Israel,  Psa.  130.  7,  twice; 

The  Prodigal  Son,  Luke  15.  18,  four  times; 

The  Samaritan  Woman,  John  4.  14,  four  times; 

Awake,  Arm  of  the  Lord,  Isa.  51.9,  three  times ; 

Value  of  the  Soul,  Matt.  16.  26,  three  times; 

Worship  of  One  God,  Exod.  20.  3,  five  times ; 

Revival  of  God's  Work,  Hab.  3.  2,  three  times ; 

Personal  Responsibility,  Gal.  6.  5,  three  times; 

Young  Man,  Arise,  Luke  7.  14,  twice; 

Pleasantness  of  Wisdom's  Ways,  Prov.  3.  17,  once; 

The  Good  Warfare,  1  Tim.  1.  18,  four  times. 

At  Irvington  103 

The  Pastor 

At  Irvington 

Of  his  reception  into  the  Newark  Conference,  his  introduc- 
tion to  his  first  pastorate  at  Irvington,  a  village  just  south  of 
Newark,  and  his  experiences  there,  as  well  as  in  the  four  other 
pastorates  which  followed,  his  own  Journal  and  letters  tell  very 
nearly  all  the  story : 

March  15,  1858. — Mechanicsburg.  Made  some  calls  for  last  time. 
Took  morning  train  for  Baltimore.     Slept  at  Maltby  House. 

16. — Bonnie  Brook.  Started  from  Baltimore  at  7.  Retired  early 
and  slept  superbly. 

20. — Read  in  evening  Homer  and  his  translators.  Lord,  give  me 
strength  of  body  and  mind. 

25. — Philadelphia.  Started  early  from  Bonnie  Brook  by  stage  for 
Bridgeville.     Enjoyed  rest  very  much  at  Saint  Lawrence  Hotel. 

26. — Newark.  Started  in  10  a.  m.  train  for  the  unknown  town  of 
Newark.  Finished  Oliver  Twist  on  the  road.  May  it  be  of  use  to 
me.  Went  to  Presiding  Elder  J.  S.  Porter.  Found  him  a  blunt,  per- 
haps warm-hearted  man. 

March  26. 
To  Miss  La  Monte: 

Here  I  am  in  Newark — I  found  the  Presiding  Elder  of  the  Newark 
District  first.  He  is  a  very  kind,  clever  man — I  was  surprised  to  find 
him  a  Marylander  by  birth.  What  is  more  singular,  he  knew  my 
father  and  all  my  friends  long  before  I  can  remember. 

I  have  not  been  so  well  since  I  left  Pennsylvania.  I  had  a  dreadful 
cold  in  Maryland  and  still  feel  the  effects  of  it.  The  wind  blows 
strongly  here  this  morning  and  my  right  lung  pains  me  some  little.  I 
trust  it  will  be  all  right.  I  would  not  like  a  return  of  my  old  complaint 
which  used  to  trouble  me  before  going  to  Europe. 

27. — Rose  early.    All  morning  wrote  on  sermon  for  Sunday. 
28. — Walked  a  long  way  to  West  Broad  Street  Mission  and  en- 
joyed love  feast.     Preached  to  a  small  congregation.     Had  consider- 

104  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

able  liberty.     Brother   Porter,   P.   E.,  behind  me.     He  gave  me  but 
little  encouragement  to  join  the  Conference. 

29. — Received  $10  for  article  on  Tholuck — the  first  money  ever  re- 
ceived for  anything  I  have  written. 

30. — Rode  to  Morristown. 

31. — Morristown.  Was  benefited  and  improved  from  seeing  the 
Conference  proceedings  for  first  time. 

April  1. — Went  to  Conference  and  attended  closely  to  all  the  pro- 

2. — Attended  Conference.  Admitted.  May  I  never  be  otherwise  as 
long  as  breath  warms  my  body ! 

5. — Irvington.  Conference  adjourned  in  morning.  I  was  on  the 
tiptoe  of  expectation  until  my  name  was  read  off  for  Irvington.  I 
thank  God  for  the  appointment,  and  pray  to  him  that  I  may  be  useful 
here.  Came  on  to  Irvington  and  strolled  over  the  town.  Called  on 
some  of  the  members.     Pleased  with  the  church  amazingly. 

6. — Called  on  a  great  many  persons. 

April  7. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

I  have  some  fear  as  to  my  health ;  my  appetite  is  good,  but  I  cannot 
say  that  I  have  reason  to  think  I  shall  be  vigorous  and  strong.  This 
year  will  decide  with  me  whether  I  shall  succeed  beyond  the  shadow 
of  doubt  or  not — I  mean  in  case  of  health  and  strength. 

9. — Slight  pains  in  right  lung. 

11. — In  the  morning  preached  my  first  sermon  in  Irvington,  on 
"  Justification  by  Faith,"  and  I  believe  the  Lord  strengthened  me. 

12. — Commenced  to  read  prayerfully  Clarke's  Commentary  through. 

17. — Had  power  in  praying  with  some  of  the  families. 

19. — Low-spirited  and  but  little  life  and  ambition. 

21. — Read  in  Augustine's  Confessions,  and  in  Pascal's  Pensees. 

25. — Greatly  blessed  in  my  room.  Preached  with  some  liberty  from 
"Thou  shalt  have  no  other  gods  before  me."  South  Orange  (p.  m.), 
preached  on  "Faith."  Had  a  good  time.  The  people  shouted 

27. — Keep  up  my  regular  hours  in  reading  Clarke's  Commentary, 
two  hours  a  day. 

30. — Love  of  God  still  warming  my  unworthy  heart. 

May  I. — Had  great  satisfaction  in  reading  Thomas  a  Kempis's 
Imitation  of  Christ. 

4. — Evening.  Some  liberty,  and  I  foolishly  called  on  a  young  man 
to  exhort,  who  talked  a  long  while  without  any  effect. 

At  Irvington  105 

7. — An  old  lady,  Sister  Eaton,  told  me  some  of  my  pulpit  errors. 
She  seemed  to  know  more  about  preaching  than  I  did.  I  know  but 
little.    Help  those  who  are  worse  than  I. 

9. — Ten  persons  baptized. 

13. — Met  Brother  Vincent  (John  H.),  former  pastor  of  the  church. 
Pleased  with  him. 

15. — Talked  with  Vincent  until  late  during  night. 

16. — Six  joined  church — two  on  probation — four  by  certificate. 

May  17. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

I  would  rather  be  the  humble  instrument  in  God's  hands  of  leading 
one  soul  to  repentance  than  be  Napoleon.  I  expect  to  preach  as  long 
as  my  health  will  allow,  and  when  I  can't  preach  it  seems  to  me  I 
would  rather  the  Lord  would  call  me  to  live  with  him. 

18. — Had  a  sermon  from  Vincent — five  persons  rose  for  prayers. 

19. — Loath  to  bid  Vincent  "Good-bye." 

23. — Strong  joy  all  day.     Somebody  must  be  praying  for  me. 

26. — Practiced  nearly  two  hours  as  usual  in  reading  aloud  and  get- 
ting sound  of  words.    Will  it  ever  be  that  I  can  enunciate  correctly  ? 

27. — Manumitted  Tom  and  sent  papers  to  Cambridge. 

29. — Received  proof  sheets  for  piece  on  Beranger.  Lord,  help  my 
writing  to  be  useful  to  my  fellow  men. 

May  29. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

I  am  trying  to  learn  a  number  of  new  things — one  is  to  talk  to 
children  in  Sunday  school.  I  find  it  a  difficult  thing  to  combine  the 
interesting  and  the  useful.  Now,  don't  laugh — I  am  going  to  take 
lessons  in  vocal  music.  I  think  it  will  be  of  use  to  me  in  more  ways 
than  one. 

June  I. — Three  young  ladies  converted  at  our  prayer  meeting. 

2. — In  evening  went  up  to  see  C ,  and  found  him  a  converted 


4. — In  evening  commenced  notes  of  Life  of  Luther. 

7. — Ilsley,  the  music  teacher,  told  me  it  was  doubtful  whether  I 
could  ever  learn  to  sing.  But,  by  the  help  of  God,  I  will  learn  to  sing 
and  preach  too. 

On  this  day  he  wrote  to  his  former  senior  preacher,  Richard 
Norris : 

io6  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

I  find  the  ministers  and  laity  much  more  warm-hearted  than  I  ex- 
pected, and,  unless  something  that  I  can  by  no  means  foresee  should 
happen,  I  shall  spend  my  life  in  this  Conference.  There  were  41 
members  when  I  came  here,  since  then  I  have  taken  in  seven  more; 
and  last  week  four  more  persons  have  professed  conversion.  The 
most  of  my  members  were  women,  but  we  have  been  making  havoc 
in  the  devil's  ranks  by  managing  to  get  some  of  their  husbands  con- 
verted. Three  prominent,  wealthy,  and  influential  men  have  joined 
us  in  the  short  time  that  I  have  been  here.  By  the  blessing  of  God 
there  is  new  life  in  the  members.  There  is  a  regular  Universalist 
preaching  or  lecturing  here,  an  Arian  or  Unitarian  church,  a  Meth- 
odist, and  Dutch  Reformed. 

11. — Wrote  lines  on  Bethlehem  for  my  Palestine  class. 
15. — Had  a  largely  attended  prayer  meeting — two  at  the  altar  and 
two  rose  for  prayer. 

To  Miss  La  Monte :  ■* 

My  teacher  says  if  I  have  patience  I  will  yet  learn  to  sing.  I  know 
you  laugh  at  my  taking  singing  lessons,  but  I'll  laugh  at  you  if  you 
don't  ride  well.  Yesterday  our  choir  made  three  mistakes — say,  I  am 
not  getting  to  be  a  critic  ! 

To  Miss  La  Monte : 

Yesterday  I  preached  the  two  poorest  sermons  I  have  as  yet  under- 
taken to  preach.  I  sometimes  think  I  will  give  up.  It  seems  to  me 
that  my  tour  in  Europe  is  of  more  real  use  to  me  than  all  my  other 
life  put  together. 

29. — Read  Manfred  with  beans  in  my  mouth.  Now  I  understand 
why  Demosthenes  practiced  articulation  in  a  cave.  The  beans  made 
me  open  my  throat. 

To  Miss  La  Monte :  J    X  5- 

Last  evening  I  preached  in  Clinton  Street  Church.  I  had  had  but 
little  sleep  on  Saturday  night,  and  my  Sunday  school  labors  were 
equal  to  a  sermon,  and  by  the  time  night  came  I  was  not  only  hoarse, 
but  had  a  severe  headache.  Preaching,  I  suppose,  will  never  go 
easily  with  me.    It  will  always  make  me  nervous. 

July  8. — The  huge  dimensions  of  my  lips  with  my  bronchial  throat 
may,  after  all  my  labors,  debar  all  great  progress  in  oratory.  But  I 
shall  strive  on.  "Genius  is  labor."  If  the  man  who  said  that  told  the 
truth,  then,  by  the  help  of  God,  I'll  be  a  genius,  I  hope. 

At  Irvington  107 

Dickinson   College   on   this   date  conferred   upon  him   the 
degree  of  Master  of  Arts. 

10. — Some  gleams  of  light  from  God's  throne  shot  down  into  the 
gloomy  caverns  of  my  soul.    Help  me  to  preach  thy  word  with  power. 

July  12. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

I  have  had  a  severe  difficulty  with  one  of  our  new  converts.  He 
was  too  self-conceited,  and  his  religion  or  professed  religion  did  not 
seem  to  take  away  any  of  his  egotism.  He  had  shown  it  several 
different  ways,  and  a  short  time  ago  he  began  to  tell  me  that  my 
management  of  the  church  was  not  right.  It  was  more  than  I  could 
stand  without  reproof.  He  went  off  and  told  egregious  falsehoods, 
whether  intentional  or  not  I  will  not  say,  about  me.  They  circulated 
around  pretty  freely,  but  I  trust  they  will  not  injure  the  cause  of 
Christ  to  any  extent  appreciable.  I  find  it  my  greatest  difficulty  to 
conquer  my  own  evil  nature.  I  used  to  think  before  I  became  a 
minister  that  I  would  have  less  of  the  troubles  of  life;  but  my  severest 
conflicts  have  been  since  I  have  been  trying  to  serve  God  in  my 
present  calling. 

16. — My  voice  is  a  great  perplexity.  I  have  broken  myself,  or  I 
think  so,  from  talking  and  speaking  whiningly  through  my  nose. 
Then,  I  spoke  throaty,  and  I  believe  by  using  green  grapes  in  my 
mouth  I  have  partially  broken  myself  of  that.  When  shall  I  get  to 
speak  clear,  sonorous,  heart-searching  words  right  from  my  lung?' 
cellar  and  basement? 

18. — Lord,  make  me  useful,  and  give  me  a  hand  in  tearing  down 
some  of  the  brazen  doors  of  Satan's  hundreds  of  Bastilles. 

22. — I  have  received  some  valuable  hints  from  Stevens's  Preaching 
Required  by  the  Times. 

July  26. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

I  preached  in  the  morning  at  Chatham,  from  "The  Choice  of 
Moses."  After  church  I  went  home  with  a  man  (Jacobus)  four 
miles  in  the  country  and  preached  in  afternoon  in  a  tent  which  stands 
beside  a  church  now  in  process  of  erection  (Livingston).  In  the 
evening  I  preached  again,  and  with  more  acceptation  than  at  any 
time  during  the  day.  I  wound  up  with  a  severe  headache  and  nervous- 
ness. I  fear  I  shall  never  get  over  my  nervousness.  It  must  be  the 
remains  of  my  Italian  accident.  My  paper  on  Beranger  is  not  a  deep 
piece — I  have  contempt  for  such  writing.     I  would  rather  write  a 

io8  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

page   so  that   everybody  can   understand   me   than  to  write  a  dozen 
folios  of  hieroglyphics. 

August  5. — In  afternoon  read  Carlyle's  Hero  Worship.  There  are 
gems  of  truth  in  all  Carlyle's  mud. 

j. — I  feel  very  unwell  and  have  done  so  for  six  weeks.  If  I  can  get 
a  check  cashed  I  will  go  away. 

To  Miss  La  Monte :  August  8. 

I  preached  with  feeling,  although  I  could  hardly  stand  up.  You 
must  have  prayed  for  me. 

10. — Went  to  Long  Branch  and  remained  until  August  19. 

To  Miss  La  Monte :  LoNG  Branch,  August  16. 

I  am  better  than  when  I  left  Irvington — I  have  now  a  good  ap- 
petite, but  my  head  aches  whenever  I  attempt  to  read  or  write. 

17. — A  gloomy  birthday  at  Long  Branch.  I  would  like  to  read 
Macaulay's  England  through  again.  I  mean  the  first  two  volumes, 
and  for  the  first  time  the  last  two.  This  would  improve  my  style. 
Then  I  would  like  to  study  Tacitus,  Livy,  Xenophon,  closely.  Let  it 
be  my  life  to  be  instrumental  in  converting  souls  and  writing  a  good 
church  history — which  shall  show  God's  hand  in  the  development  of 
Christianity.    God  help  me,  but  shall  I  live  ? 

To  Miss  La  Monte:  Irvington,  N.  J.,  August  22. 

I  do  not  think  my  visit  to  Long  Branch  has  done  me  much  good. 
It  was  a  relief  from  study,  but  my  headache  returned  yesterday  with 
redoubled  severity.  The  doctor  thinks  it  occurs  from  my  severe 
accident  in  Italy,  together  with  overtaxed  brain. 

26. — It  peels  me  to  be  criticised,  but  the  Lord  will  help  me.  O  Lord, 
deliver  me  from  my  faults. 

To  Miss  La  Monte:  August  29. 

I  am  glad  to  say  that  I  am  better  now  than  when  I  wrote  you  last, 
but  I  am  far  from  well.  I  haven't  the  severe  headache  I  had,  but  am 
weak.  I  preached  this  morning  with  but  little  power.  I  fear  the 
people  went  to  their  homes  but  little  profited  and  interested.  What 
a  melancholy  sometimes  seizes  my  mind !  O  Kate,  let  us  fly  fre- 
quently to  the  outstretched  arms  of  our  dear  Redeemer. 

September  2. — Mr.  Ilsley,  my  teacher,  says  I  can  yet  learn  how  to 

At  Irvington  109 

sing.  Perhaps  I  will.  Have  thought  a  great  deal  over  consecrating 
my  property  as  well  as  my  mind  to  the  cause  of  God.  I  owe  the 
Lord  at  least  a  tithe.     Have  I  been  asleep? 

3. — Went  to  see  Brown,  an  elocution  professor  in  New  York.  He 
says  I  have  great  faults  to  be  remedied.  Engaged  to  take  lessons 
from  him  at  $20  for  15  lessons.  My  music  and  elocution  lessons  will 
conflict  with  my  purse,  but  what  accomplishes  me  helps  to  save  souls, 
I  trust. 

8. — Went  into  the  woods  and  practiced  elocution. 

10. — Committed  Quarrel  of  Brutus  and  Cassius  for  elocution  prac- 

13. — Took  music  lessons.  My  teacher,  Mr.  Ilsley,  said  it  would 
be  lost  time  for  me  to  try  to  study  vocal  music — that  I  had  neither 
voice  nor  ear.  If  1  live,  ask  in  ten  years  if  I  have  a  voice.  I  paid 
him  his  charge  for  9  lessons,  $5.63,  and  left  him. 

16. — Took  elocution  lesson  of  Mr.  Brown  in  New  York.  I  feel 
that  it  is  in  me  to  make  an  effective  speaker.  Nobody  believes  it,  but 
I  do  believe  by  the  blessing  of  God  I  shall  be  able  to  influence  an 
audience  in  course  of  time. 

17. — Practiced  on  Hamlet's  Soliloquy,  and  Spartacus's  Address  to 
the  Gladiators  at  Capua.    My  voice  seems  to  have  increased  in  power. 

19. — In  morning  preached  on  "Sabbath  Day"  with  more  preparation 
than  liberty. 

20. — Bought  old  Herbert's  poems. 

21. — Read  a  little  in  Aurora  Leigh.  .  .  .  Poor  people  have  more 
in  them  than  the  world  thinks. 

September  23. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

I  have  just  come  from  a  first-rate  prayer  meeting.  It  was  in  a 
private  family.  I  have  a  public  church  prayer  meeting  on  Tuesday 
evening,  on  Wednesday  evening  I  have  a  class  meeting,  and  on 
Thursday  evening  I  have  prayer  meetings  in  different  parts  of  my 
charge  in  families.  I  find  these  last  very  successful  and  influential. 
There  is  less  of  stiffness  and  reserve  at  them  than  there  is  at  some 
of  the  others,  and  altogether  I  think  them  more  fraught  with  interest. 

25. — Heard  from  my  long-expected  books  in  Halle.  They  are  all 
bound  and  are  now  on  the  way  here.  But  what  a  bill ! — $253.  I 
only  expected  about  $150.  I  feel  badly  about  it,  for  it  will  interfere 
materially  with  my  plan  for  beneficence.     Sawed  some  wood  to-day. 

26. — In  afternoon  I  went  to  see  a  sick  old  bad  man.  He  is  serious 
and  convicted  of  sin.     I  believe  thou  wilt  bless  him,  O  Lord,  for 

no  Toiin  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

thou  wouldst  never  have  convicted  him   unless  thou  hadst  intended 
his  good. 

October  3. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

I  was  in  Newark,  October  1,  at  a  missionary  meeting  where  Rev. 
S.  L.  Baldwin  was  ordained  elder  for  the  China  Mission.  We  had  an 
address  from  Rev.  F.  Burns  (colored).  Bishop  of  Liberia.  1  confess 
I  did  not  like  to  see  him  rise  and  address  a  missionary  meeting,  but 
so  appropriate  and  correct  was  all  he  said  that  I  considered  his  the 
speech  of  the  evening.  That  night,  Friday  night,  I  stayed  with  an 
Englishman  named  Simpson.  His  wife  has  a  great  many  of  the 
manuscripts  and  letters  of  the  Wesleys.  Coke,  Fletcher,  Watson, 
Clarke,  and  other  distinguished  Methodist  divines,  as  well  as  of  other 
noted  men.     I  was  interested  with  them  very  much. 

October  4. — Spent  an  hour  in  Reeves's  antiquarian  bookstore  over- 
hauling old  editions  of  Seneca.  Bought  a  translation  of  Seneca. 
Was  much  encouraged  by  my  elocution  master. 

6. — Practiced  elocution  by  reading  Byron's  Isles  of  Greece. 

7. — Reached  elocutionist  before  he  was  dressed.  Had  but  little 
spirit,  but  he  encouraged  me  a  great  deal.  I  think  it  will  terminate 
in  much  good.  I  paid  him  $20  for  twelve  lessons.  I  wonder  if  I 
ought  not  to  have  paid  that  amount  to  the  missionary  cause. 

12. — Practiced  declamation  as  usual.  My  throat  seems  to  be  a 
little  smoother  than  a  nutmeg  grater. 

16. — It  is  my  ambition  and,  by  God's  help,  I  shall  make  both  a 
speaker  and  a  writer  before  I  die. 

17. — In  evening  preached  to  the  young  men  from  the  text,  "Where- 
withal shall  a  young  man  cleanse  his  way  ?"  Had  a  good  many  young 
men  out.     God  bless  every  young  man  who  heard  me ! 

18. — Met  to  form  a  singing  school  under  Mr.  Ilsley,  who  said  he 
could  not  teach  me  anything. 

20. — Have  received  the  Memoirs  and  Remains  of  R.  A.  Vaughan. 
Dr.  Whedon  has  asked  me  to  write  a  review  of  it.  ...  I  believe 
that  the  Lord  will  make  a  preacher  yet  of  me,  after  all.  Why  do 
I  not  sleep  o'  nights?  I  feel  restless.  I  want  in  my  half-conscious 
dreams  to  be  speaking  before  great  audiences  and  enchanting  multi- 
tudes. Strange  that  I  should  have  this  constant  thirst  and  so  little 
adaptation  to  satisfy  it.  The  fangs  of  the  adder  are  suited  to  his 
nature;  the  teeth  of  the  lion  to  his  rapacity;  the  claws  of  the  sloth 
to  his  propensities  and  nature ;  but  should  I,  one  of  God's  creatures, 
too,  have  no  adaptation  of  my  powers  to  my  thirst?     The  lawyer 

At  Irvington  hi 

can  speak  with  boldness  and  efficiency  before  the  jury  of  twelve  for 
his  client.  Why  should  I  not  be  able  to  speak  effectively  before  my 
little  church  half  full  of  people  for  my  God?  I  will  do  it.  If  it  is 
in  me  it  shall  come  out.     It  must  come  out. 

26. — Why  were  thousands  converted  under  the  influence  of  White- 
field  and  but  half  dozens  under  the  preaching  of  many  an  obscure 
pastor  who  was  a  better  student  ?  There  was  a  power  of  eloquence 
and  a  power  from  heaven,  a  human  and  a  divine  power,  united  to 
produce  the  marvelous  effect.  Now,  Lord,  I  do  trust  thou  wilt  give 
me  both.  I  will  do  what  I  can  toward  getting  the  human.  Wilt  thou 
not  only  increase  that,  but  confer  the  divine? 

28. — I  think  something  will  come  from  my  throat  yet.  The  head, 
heart,  throat,  and  tongue  must  harmonize  to  make  me  a  successful 

30. — I  do  not  use  the  pebbles  in  my  mouth  as  much  as  I  did. 
I  used  to  run  my  words  together  too  much.  Mr.  Brown  thinks  I 
now  make  too  much  of  a  pause  between  my  words.  This  is  the  other 

November  1. — Mr.  Brown  says  I  am  improving.  I  begin  to  think 
there  is  not  so  much  value  in  what  he  says.  Yet  my  increasing  con- 
gregation says  something.  Wrote  to  my  friend  Paton.  of  Sheffield, 
plans  of  writing  an  edition  of  Seneca.  Attended  stewards'  meeting 
at  which  two  novelties  happened — all  there  in  time  and  their  minister 

November  1. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

Yesterday  I  preached  from  the  Ministry  of  Angels,  and  in  evening 
from  Saint  Paul's  Conversion.  I  had  an  unusually  good  time.  My 
congregation  was  larger  than  it  had  been  at  all  before.  I  think  that, 
though  I  fail  sometimes,  I  shall  succeed.  I  see  not  far  ahead  of  us 
a  bright  future — I  thank  God  for  the  vision. 

2. — I  think  I  am  improving  in  speaking.  Freeman  gave  me  an 
idea,  namely,  speaking  from  my  abdomen.  I  think  I  shall  now  be 
able  to  try  it,  through  his  hint  of  getting  a  richness ;  but  dare  I  say 
such  a  word  of  my  voice? 

7. — Preached  a.  m.  on  Faith  and  Works.  My  tongue  was  tied. 
I  stammered  at  times,  but  I  got  along;  yet.  if  I  had  been  one  of  the 
congregation,  I  do  think  I  would  have  left  the  church  without  having 
felt  that  I  had  learned  anything  by  coming. 

8. — Mr.  Brown  says  I  am  improving.  I  would  rather  see  it — I  mean 
feel  it.     Still,  my  voice  is  not  so  much  like  a  rasp  as  it  was.     The 

ii2  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

words  scraped  against  the  sides  of  my  throat  six  months  ago  like 
a  flint  along  a  file. 

9. — Wrote  to  Gould  and  Lincoln  on  Vaughan.  I  would  like  to  edit 
an  edition  of  the  young  man's  works. 

11. — Hoarseness  all  the  week.  When  God  says  so  I  can  go  no 
farther.  Until  he  says  this  I  shall  try  to  improve  my  throat.  In 
early  life  I  lost  many  hours  of  improvement  because  I  had  no  hope  of 
reaching  twenty-one  years  of  age.  Lord,  help  me  to  improve  moments 
in  thought.     I  find  it  so  hard  to  think  without  my  pen  in  my  hand. 

13. — Sent  my  critique  on  Studien  und  Kritiken  to  Dr.  Whedon. 

14. — Preached  this  morning  on  Religion  and  Education — Wisdom 
and  Knowledge  shall  be  the  stability  of  the  times.  I  made  a  fist  of 
it — a  dreadful  fist.  I  hope  I  shall  never  keep  people  from  reading, 
or  hearing,  or  visiting,  by  as  unprofitable  a  sermon  as  this  was. 

15. — Saw  Sheldon,  Blakeman  &  Co.  about  editing  Vaughan's  Hours 
with  the  Mystics. 

November  15. 
To  Miss  La  Monte: 

When  I  remember  that  I  have  been  preaching  nearly  a  year  I 
wonder  that  I  have  not  improved  myself  more.  But  it  takes  time 
for  an  acorn  to  make  an  oak — sometimes  it  dies  in  the  ground. 

November  21. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

I  preached  on  Thanksgiving  Day  and  had  a  better  congregation 
than  is  usual  on  such  occasions.  I  read  my  sermon,  the  first  that  I 
have  done  since  I  have  been  here.  I  made  Righteousness  a  crown 
with  three  precious  jewels  set  in  it.  These  jewels  were  Prayer, 
Patriotism,  and  Praise — and  these  were  the  branches  of  my  subject. 
I  was  more  satisfied  than  I  usually  am. 

22. — Started  for  home.  Cold.  Took  Vaughan's  Essays  and  Remains 
with  me,  and  slept  at  night  in  a  dirty  bed  at  Bridgeville. 

He  spent  ten  days  at  his  sister's,  "Bonnie  Brook." 

December  5. — My  people  really  seemed  glad  to  see  me  back  again. 
There  is  comfort  in  that. 

December  15. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

On  Monday  I  read  my  Evangelism  in  Germany  before  Preachers' 
Association.  Some  encomiums  were  heaped  on  it.  What  did  me 
good  was  that  some  of  our  older  preachers  thought  well  of  it. 

At  Irvington  113 

January  2,  1859. — Preached  in  evening  on  Joy  in  Heaven  over  One 
Sinner  that  Repenteth.  Decided  on  this  text  as  sun  was  going  down. 
Never  in  such  a  fix  before. 

January  6. 
To  Miss  La  Monte  : 

Look  not  upon  the  gloomy  and  desponding  side — God  tells  us  to 
hope.  The  stars  shine  it,  the  flowers  teach  it,  the  birds  sing  it,  the 
very  sleigh  bells,  that  I  now  hear  ringing  past  my  narrow  window, 
preach  it. 

7. — My  voice  is  getting  to  be  a  little  more  manageable.  I  think 
by  the  end  of  five  years'  constant  labor  I  shall  have  been  able  to 
improve  it  a  great  deal.  If  people  with  good  voices  would  work  on 
them  as  much  as  I  do  with  my  bad  one,  we  would  have  many  a 
Demosthenes,  Cicero,  and  Chrysostom.  Labor  is  intended  for  a  rich 
field  as  well  as  for  a  poor  one. 

9. — Preached  on  The  Christian's  Duty  to  the  Sinner,  in  morning 
— I  Sam.  12.  24.  Thought  I  made  an  awful  fist  of  it;  felt  so  badly 
I  could  hardly  conclude  with  prayer. 

11. — Heard  my  sermon  on  Sunday  morning  very  highly  spoken  of. 
Why  is  it  I  am  no  judge  of  what  I  preach? 

19. — I  am  endeavoring  now  to  cultivate  the  low  tones  of  my  voice. 
How  complex  a  thing  is  the  voice  of  man !  Of  nine  perfect  tones, 
but  17,592,186,044,515  different  sounds;  thus  14  muscles  alone,  or  to- 
gether, produce  16,383;  thirty  indirect  muscles  ditto  73,741,823;  and 
all  in  cooperation  produce  the  number  I  have  mentioned ;  and  these 
independent  of  different  degrees  of  intensity.  What  a  power  is  in 
the  voice,  if  such  is  the  number  of  tones  of  which  it  is  capable ! 

January  27. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

My  health,  I  am  thankful  to  God,  has  greatly  improved.  My  pros- 
pect of  life  and  labor  is  now  very  good. 

31. — Through  labor  much  can  be  done.     And  this  is  not  so  much 

the  desperate  efforts  as  the  constant  efforts.     Be  it  mine  to  be  doing 

something  with  my  grating  diseased  throat,  every  day.     Practicing 

some  pieces  in  Shakespeare :  Marullus  to  the  Roman  populace ;  Marcus 

Brutus  on  the  death  of  Caesar;  Mark  Antony  to  the  people  on  Caesar's 

death.     Have   practiced   these   a   great   deal.     I   believe   they   have 

assisted  me,  but  the  minister  has  more  than  mere  excitement  to  help 

him — he  has  the  Holy  Spirit. 

H4  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

February  2. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

My  people  are  apparently  anxious  for  me  to  remain  with  them.  I 
have  never  told  them  the  greatest  reason  (for  leaving),  that  I  wish 
to  be  married.  I  have  given  them  one,  that  I  think  a  young  man 
ought  not  to  stay  more  than  one  year  in  a  place,  if  he  would  improve. 

7. — Worked  on  a  review  of  last  number  of  Studien  und  Kritiken 
which  Dr.  Whedon  requested  of  me.  It  was  hard  work  indeed,  for 
no  pay  and  no  name.     But  it  is  all  right  if  it  does  good. 

8. — Worked  a  little  on  review  of  the  Kritiken.  It  is  hard  work 
to  get  sense  out  of  what  has  but  little.  Why  can't  a  German,  if  he 
has  thoughts,  write  them  down  so  that  people  will  read  them  ?  Surely 
it  is  worthy  the  language  of  Luther  to  frame  it  well. 

10. — Preached  in  evening  on  "Awake,  thou  that  sleepest" — not 
much  spirit  manifested.  One  converted.  That  is  worth  a  thousand 

13. — Preached  with  tolerable  liberty  a  Missionary  Sermon.  Felt 
rejoiced  when  people  gave  about  $50 — nearly  double  their  custom. 

16. — Concluded  review  of  Hours  with  the  Mystics  and  corrected 
former  part  of  it  so  as  to  get  it  into  Dr.  Whedon's  hands  at  an  early 

February  17. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

I  fear  for  my  situation  next  year,  not  on  my  own  account,  for 
wherever  there  is  a  congregation,  there  it  is  my  business  to  go  and 

23. — Talked  with  Rev.  Mr.  McElvey  (Dutch  Reformed)  this  week 
on  the  subject  of  eloquence.  He  says  I  speak  too  fast  and  made  other 
strictures,  which,  though  not  so  pleasant,  yet  did  not  come  with  ill 
feeling,  but  with  kindness  and  I  dare  say  with  truth.  He  gave  me 
some  hints  which  he  seemed  to  think  I  had  never  heard  of,  but  which 
I  well  knew.  He  says  he  does  not  practice ;  he  thinks  everybody  ought 
to  exercise  his  voice  as  much  as  Vb  hour  every  day.  He  little  thought, 
nor  did  I  tell  him,  that  he  was  talking  with  one  who  had  spent 
nearly  400  hours  on  his  voice  the  past  year. 

February  24. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

I  shall  soon  leave  here,  I  believe,  respected  and  loved  by  my  people 
and  congregation.  To  think  that  I  have  done  some  good  will  be 
the  pleasantest  treasure  I  can  bear  away  with  me.     In  our  prayer 

At  Irvington  i  15 

meeting  last  night  one  penitent  was  at  the  altar.  I  find  the  people, 
many  of  them,  strongly  objecting  to  my  leaving.  A  blacksmith,  an 
ignorant  man  and  a  member  of  no  church,  says  he  thinks  he  will 
have  to  go  to  Conference  and  petition  for  me  to  return.  This  I 
consider  a  compliment — the  greatest  one  I  have  had  from  any  source. 
If  the  common  people  can  understand  me,  I  do  feel  that  my  labors 
have  been  useful. 

28. — Went  to  Astor  Library  and  read  Davies's  Holland  in  prep- 
aration for  my  lecture  on  Holland. 

March  3. 
To  Miss  La  Monte  : 

I  have  been  writing  a  lecture  on  Holland  to  deliver  in  this  village. 
It  is  one  of  a  course  by  different  persons.  I  have  studied  the  matter 
very  closely,  and,  with  the  addition  of  my  experience  in  that  country, 
I  hope  to  give  something  of  interest  to-morrow  evening.  I  have 
just  finished  it — it  will  be  over  an  hour  long  in  the  delivery.  Either 
it  will  be  a  very  great  bore  or  it  will  be  something  of  a  treat. 

I  have  no  idea  of  where  I  shall  go  after  leaving  here — perhaps  back 
in  the  mountains,  though  I  do  hope  not,  on  your  account  as  well  as 
my  own.  But  I  trust  we  shall  not  have  to  stay  in  the  mountains  long, 
at  any  rate,  should  we  even  have  to  go  there. 

March  10. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

Well,  my  lecture  on  Holland  is  over.  I  had  a  large  and  flattering 
audience — the  largest  according  to  the  weather  that  has  been  at  any 
of  the  lectures.  It  was  highly  spoken  of,  more  so  than  I  would  like 
to  write  you ;  I  would  write  you,  but  I  know  very  well  that  you 
would  not  burn  it,  even  though  I  should  request  it. 

March  17. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

Last  night,  after  I  had  taken  tea  with  one  of  the  most  prominent 
members,  about  eight  o'clock  in  marched  couple  after  couple  until  the 
room  was  filled.  Then  commenced  a  speech  to  me  by  one  of  the  men. 
After  finishing  he  handed  me  a  purse  "in  the  name  of  the  ladies  of 
the  church."  I  replied,  of  course,  as  they  seemed  to  expect  one.  After 
that  we  had  music,  refreshments,  and  a  very  pleasant  time.  The  purse 
was  afterward  counted  and  found  to  contain  more  than  $50.  Some- 
times presents  are  made  to  ministers,  which  from  the  manner  of  doing 
make  him  feel  more  like  a  beggar  than  otherwise.  But  this  was  done 
well.  I  had  a  hint  that  something  was  on  the  carpet,  but  still  I  was 
surprised.    It  affords  me  no  little  gratification  to  know  that  they  wish 

n6  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

me  to  return.     In  fact,  I  have  had  to  defend  my  course  every  day 
for  three  weeks  now.    But  the  people  will  not  swallow  what  I  say. 

17. — Told  Brother  Porter  I  wanted  to  be  married  and  wished  a 
married  man's  appointment.     He  talked  pleasantly  and  assented. 

26. — Had  a  surprise  of  a  little  storybook  from  two  girls.  They 
wanted  to  give  me  something  and  knew  not  what  better.  I  appre- 
ciated it  as  if  it  had  been  a  lost  book  of  Livy. 

On  the  twenty-seventh  a  class  of  ten  girls  gave  him  a  copy 
of  Stevens's  History  of  Methodism,  in  three  volumes,  "as  a 
memento  of  affection  for  one  who  cared  for  the  'Lambs  of  the 
Flock.'  " 

28. — In  looking  back  on  the  Conference  year  now  ending  I  am 
glad  to  see  that  the  spiritual  condition  of  the  church  is  much  better, 
their  benevolent  contributions  more  than  double,  and  their  pastor's 
salary  seventy  dollars  ahead  of  the  previous  year.  One  of  the  greatest 
things  I  have  learned  is  to  work,  even  though  I  cannot  see  success 
ahead,  as  though  it  were  there.  The  greatest  acquisition  of  the  year 
is  a  taste  for  preaching.  It  goes  very  hard  now  sometimes,  yet  I 
no  longer  look  upon  the  ministry  as  below  the  other  professions,  but 
now  as  the  most  honorable. 

April  4. — Started  for  Conference  this  morning.  Reached  Haver- 
straw  and  put  up  at  the  house  of  Leonard  Gurnell — a  very  pleasant 

5. — To-day  examined  on  Watson's  Institutes,  Wesley's  Perfection, 
geography,  grammar,  and  sermon. 

6. — Bishop  Simpson  looked  very  feeble,  but  I  think  many  prayers 
went  up  for  his  speedy  restoration  to  good  health.  There  was  an 
affecting  time  at  the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper. 

7. — Conference  proceedings  were  conducted  in  the  calmest  spirit  of 
Christian  love. 

9. — Walked  up,  with  Dr.  Crane  and  several  others,  the  Great  Thorn, 
the  mountain  that  rises  back  of  Haverstraw — a  beautiful  view  we  had 
of  the  Hudson  and  the  fields  back  of  the  mountain. 

11. — Appointments  read  out — mine  at  Passaic,  Xew  Jersey.  Very 
unfavorable  reports  of  it,  but  still  I  hope  to  do  some  good  there. 
Slept  but  little.  Not  satisfied  with  appointment,  but  say  nothing. 
Hope  to  see  the  day  when  my  appointment  will  depend  less  on  the 
dictum  of  elders  and  bishops  than  the  will  of  the  people.  But  God 
knows  what  is  right. 

From  daguerreotype,  taken  in  1859,  soon  after  their  marriage. 


At  Passaic  117 


At  Passaic 

April  13,  1859. — Find  my  new  place  small,  neglected.  The  Meth- 
odists in  the  background,  the  congregation  a  handful. 

14. — Bad  cold. — Fear  that  all  my  elocution  lessons  will  do  me 
little  good.  But  still  I  may  have  some  power  after  all  to  do  something 
in  the  way  of  public  speaking.  During  the  last  year  I  thought  it 
would  be  next  to  impossible  for  me  to  do  anything  but  write  a  little, 
yet  I  know  not  that  either  my  tongue  or  pen  will  ever  do  anything 
worth  the  world's  remembrance.    But  as  God  will. 

Passaic,  N.  J.,  April  14. 
To  Miss  La  Monte: 

Though  urged,  I  may  say  to  the  last,  to  return  to  Irvington,  I  still 
refused  and  determined  to  take  a  married  man's  appointment.  That 
appointment  is  Passaic,  a  small  village  on  the  New  York  and  Erie 
Railroad,  about  twelve  miles  or  a  half-hour's  ride  from  Jersey  City. 
There  are  not  more  than  half  the  members  here  that  I  had  at  Irving- 
ton,  and  in  many  other  respects  it  is  not  so  desirable  a  place  to  live  at. 
The  church  is  not  so  neat,  but  equally  as  commodious.  The  place 
is  made  up  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  altogether.  They  have  the  power 
and  wealth.  The  parsonage  adjoins  the  church.  It  is  a  neat  little 
house,  much  better  than  the  parsonages  of  larger  places.  It  is  fur- 
nished to  a  great  extent.  The  latter  part  of  week  after  next,  or  about 
Tuesday  the  3d  of  May,  we  will,  if  it  suits  you  and  we  are  spared, 
be  married.  I  want  you  to  have  as  good  a  home  as  possible,  but 
I  cannot  promise  you  much  in  this  place.  We  must  get  along  as  best 
we  can  and  hope  for  a  better  residence  after  leaving  here.  My  salary 
is  not  very  large  here — $400.     I  think  you  will  be  happy  here. 

17. — Preached  in  the  morning  to  38  people  on  the  Ascension  of 
Christ.  Sunday  school,  30.  Throat  choky.  Maybe  that  throat  will, 
after  all,  do  nothing  but  guzzle  down.    I  wish  it  may  thrill  up. 

18. — At  Dr.  Howe's  doing  a  mere  nothing,  not  even  thinking,  or 
reading,  or  scarcely  living. 

April  20. 
To  Miss  La  Monte : 

To-day  the  former  pastor  has  left  the  parsonage,  and  they  have 
commenced  to  clean  it  throughout.  It  will  be  done  by  Saturday  night 
next.  I  think  we  can  be  married  next  week.  ...  I  like  Passaic 
better  than  at  first. 

n8  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

23. — Nothing  done  again  this  week.  I  must  make  up  for  it  somehow 
when  I  get  settled  in  parsonage  with  a  wife.  The  Lord  make  me 
happy  when  I  get  one. 

Sunday,  24. — In  evening  preached  on  the  Sower  and  the  Seed. 
Congregation  much  larger  than  before. 

25. — Started  for  Charlotteville  to  get  married.  Met  Wellington, 
Kate's  brother,  on  street.    We  took  Albany  boat  at  6  p.  m. 

26. — In  morning  found  ourselves  aground  10  miles  below  Albany. 
Reached  Albany  too  late  for  Charlotteville  stage. 

27. — Stage  for  Charlotteville.  A  long,  tedious  day — 10^  at  Char- 

28. — Married  at  7  o'clock  in  morning  by  David  La  Monte,  Kate's 
uncle.    Started  immediately  for  Albany.    Stopped  at  Delavan  House. 

29. — Paid  $8  for  night's  lodging.  Took  New  York  boat.  As  fine 
a  day  as  I  ever  saw.  The  Hudson  was  glorious.  In  evening  at  home, 
where  we  found  a  company  ready  to  receive  us.    Supper  ready. 

30. — A  few  people  called  in,  but  they  were  very  slow  about  it. 

Mr.  Charles  M.  Howe,  of  Passaic,  says : 

In  addition  to  his  regular  church  work,  he  went  quite  regularly  to 
the  "Notch"  and  preached  on  Sundays  in  the  afternoon.  "Notch"  ap- 
pointment was  a  neighborhood  some  four  miles  from  Passaic,  or 
Aquackanonck,  as  it  was  then  called.  Whenever  the  pastor  was 
unable  to  go,  Dr.  Howe  went  himself  and  would  preach.  Often  there 
would  be  an  audience  of  only  from  four  to  ten  people  present.  The 
church  and  parsonage  were  about  one  mile  from  the  center  of  the 
village  and,  although  I  was  only  a  young  boy,  I  well  remember  walking 
down  with  our  school  teacher  every  night  to  sleep  in  the  parsonage 
as  protectors,  while  the  pastor  was  away  on  his  wedding  trip.  The 
life  and  preaching  of  Mr.  Hurst  were  of  such  a  high  standard,  and 
made  such  an  impression  on  our  village,  that  for  years  his  services 
have  always  been  referred  to  with  marked  kindness  and  regard. 

May  1. — Rode  with  Dr.  Howe  over  to  Boiling  Spring  to  recon- 
noiter  the  ground  a  little.  In  evening  had  a  large  congregation  and 
preached  on  Reading. 

2. — This  week  betook  myself  to  study  in  earnest.  Practiced  elo- 
cution every  day. 

3. — On  Sunday  morning  I  find  my  thoughts  greatly  exalted  by  speak- 
ing Coleridge's  Ode  in  Chamouny.  It  elevates  my  feelings  and  often 
puts  me  in  a  preaching  frame. 

6. — This  week  getting  naturalized  to  my  books  once  more — the  car- 
penter is  looking  over  his  handled,  loved  tools  again. 

At  Passaic  119 

7. — Practiced  elocution  in  morning  and  sawed  wood  in  the  after- 
noon.   Was  all  in  a  sweat  from  it. 

12. — (New  York)  Tract  Society  Anniversary.  Speeches  by  Dr. 
Kirk,  Missionary  Vrooman,  and  Henry  Ward  Beecher.  The  last  was 
a  great  one  and  well  done.  It  was  a  rebuke  to  the  American  Tract 
Society  on  slavery  issues.  He  far  surpasses  Spurgeon  in  several 
characteristics  of  greatness.  Without  indorsing  his  antislavery  ultra- 
ism,  I  admire  his  boldness  and  steadfastness  of  purpose.  He  preaches 
with  an  aim. 

15. — I  preached  on  Christ  raised  as  Moses  raised  the  serpent — at 
Germantown.  Talked  to  Germans  in  their  own  language  for  the  first 

16. — Believe  that  my  voice  is  improving  some  little.  Have  given 
myself  more  to  the  Lord.  His  giving  me  health  and  a  desire  to  build 
up  my  voice  seems  to  be  an  indication  that  he  intends  at  least  to 
make  something  out  of  me. 

19. — I  am  trying  to  make  arrangements  to  have  the  backs  put  on 
the  benches  in  the  basement  of  the  church.  People  must  be  made 
comfortable,  or  they  will  stay  at  home. 

22. — Preached  in  the  morning  on  Christ  the  Vine.  Led  the  Sunday 
school  class.  Preached  in  German  at  Germantown.  and  in  evening 
to  young  men.  I  think  it  the  hardest  day's  work  I  have  ever  done. 
Some  pain  in  my  chest  after  all  over. 

27. — In  New  York  trying  to  make  arrangements  for  a  German 
preacher  for  Germantown. 

30. — Elmore  (brother-in-law)  told  me  my  voice  was  melodious — 
the  first  praise  it  has  ever  received  in  my  hearing.  I  fear  he  was 

June  13. — Went  to  Germantown  to  see  about  getting  a  new  church 
for  the  Germans. 

17. — Went  to  Boiling  Spring  to  meet  German  preacher.  In  rain 
few  hours. 

19. — Preached  with  more  earnestness  than  thought. 

21. — Commenced  attending  lessons  with  Professor  Taverner,  of  New 
York,  teacher  of  Drs.  Bellows,  Chapin,  McClintock,  Crooks,  and  Mil- 
burn.  He  is  very  theoretical ;  still  I  hope  to  be  very  materially 

27. — Had  the  blues  most  dreadfully.  In  my  room  without  doing 
anything  save  looking  out  of  my  window  into  my  back  yard. 

July  1. — Tried  more  than  ever  I  did  to  think  out  a  sermon.  Extem- 
pore writing  is  worthless. 

22. — My  mind  has  been  more  than  ordinarily  impressed  with  the 

120  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

holiness  and  sacrifice  of  my  calling.  I  think  C7od  has  never  shown 
me  hefore  its  extreme  responsibility — perhaps  because  he,  the  All- 
Wise,  knew  that  it  would  be  overpowering  unless  he  showed  it  to  me 
more  gradually.  Whitefield's  zealous,  burning  heart  has  impressed 
me  wonderfully.  It  is  a  scorching  rebuke  to  unworthy,  inactive  me. 
I  have,  notwithstanding  a  defective  elocution  and  weak  lungs,  deter- 
mined resolutely  that  I  will  not  compromise  my  calling  by  dabbling 
in  literary  sketches  to  the  neglect  of  my  ministry.  I  have,  it  is  true, 
a  small  parish — not  thirty  souls  all  told,  who  are  members  of  my 
church.  This  was  very  discouraging  at  first.  It  is  now  sometimes. 
But  they  are  souls,  and  for  them  I  am  bound  to  labor.  They  need 
far  more  than  I  can  give  them,  and  therefore  they  are  entitled  to 
all  I  can  do  for  them.  I  will  try  to  do  the  work  of  an  evangelist. 
But  I  am  not  what  I  ought  to  be.  I  have  not  felt  in  my  own  soul 
the  higher  enjoyment  which  I  really  believe  is  permitted  to  those  who 
seek  it.  I  wish  sanctification  (for  that  is  what  I  mean)  had  some 
other  name  that  would  be  less  startling  to  me.  But  purity  of  heart 
I  have  never  had  as  some  have  enjoyed.  I  must  commence  what 
I  left  off  in  the  early  part  of  my  college  course  under  Dr.  J.  T. 
Peck.  God  help  me  now  to  begin  again  to  labor  in  earnest  for  it. 
The  use  of  tobacco  I  must  forever  relinquish.  It  is  injurious  to  my 
throat  and  necessarily  interferes  with  my  speech.  May  I  lay  aside 
every  weight  and  the  sin  that  most  easily  besets  me !  Thou,  God,  art 
the  only  witness  of  my  heart  at  this  time.  Give  me  grace  to  persevere 
in  my  duty  and  obligations  and  resolutions. 

From  the  third  of  January,  i860,  I  begin  to  write  up  the  neglected 
spaces  in  this  Journal  from  July,  1859.  Here  is  a  period  of  nearly 
six  months,  and  in  this  are  embraced  some  of  the  most  important 
events  of  my  life.  I  can  safely  say  that  my  difficulties  have  been 
in  a  certain  sense  the  sorest  in  all  my  experiences,  as  this  account  will 
show.  Yet  what  I  have  done  and  resolved  to  do  will  perhaps  have 
a  more  decided  influence  on  my  future  labor  than  my  previous  prep- 

My  small  congregation  has  had  a  very  depressing  influence  upon  me. 
The  Dutch  Reformed  Church  having  evening  services  in  the  winter, 
I  have  been  deprived  of  their  congregation,  with  a  part  of  which 
I  had  been  favored  once  on  Sabbath  in  the  summer  months.  My  con- 
gregation scarcely  averages  fifty,  perhaps  not  more  than  forty.  With 
every  desire  to  be  successful,  and  only  successful  in  the  measure  of 
usefulness  to  God,  I  have  tried  to  increase  the  number  of  my  auditors. 
I  cannot  get  full  seats.  Yet  I  will  labor  on  and  pray  much  to  God 
that  I  mav  be  instrumental  in  salvation.     I  need  not  conceal  that  the 

At  Passaic  121 

slender  audience  I  have  has  been  a  saddening  cause  of  religious 
despondency.  It  seems  as  if  I  do  no  good  whatever,  as  if  I  am  worth- 
less, that  I  shall  never  be  useful.  I  have  consequently  become  very 
much  dissatisfied  with  my  situation  at  Passaic.  I  always  think  of 
leaving,  and  yet  I  have  refused  all  overtures  to  go  elsewhere.  I 
think  I  have  as  much  reason  to  be  chained  here  and  yet  preach  as 
Paul  had,  while  fastened  to  a  Roman  soldier. 

I  merit  no  more  hearers  than  I  have ;  alas,  they  are  enough  souls 
to  answer  for  at  the  judgment  bar,  and  enough  to  feed  with  spiritual 
truth.  I  cannot  depend  on  my  audience,  therefore,  for  inspiration. 
My  help  must  come  from  God.  Frequently  my  audience  is  not  over 
twenty-five.  To-night  (7th)  my  wife  says  we  had  a  good  congre- 
gation last  Sabbath.  "Yes,"  said  I,  "I  counted  thirty."  I  had  been 
forming  habits  of  thought  for  use  in  addressing  audiences,  but  since 
I  have  been  in  Passaic  it  has  been  almost  impossible  for  me  to  think 
in  my  hours  of  solitude  of  expressions  and  ideas  to  use  to  my  people 
on  the  next  Sabbath.  I  cannot  study  and  observe  with  the  reference 
to  my  pulpit  that  I  would  like.  Yet  I  find  it  easier  to  preach  to  a 
handful  of  people  than  when  I  first  commenced  dealing  with  such  a 
quantity.  A  few  weeks  ago  I  preached  at  Bloomfield  for  the  Rev. 
S.  H.  Opdyke.  His  congregation  numbered  70,  and  afterward  he 
regretted  to  me  the  small  number.  I  told  him  I  felt  quite  inspired  in 
addressing  them  because  they  so  far  exceeded  my  own.  Thus  I  find 
I  can  adapt  myself  better  to  a  few  than  before. 

To  the  same  cause,  a  small  congregation,  I  must  attribute  my 
diminishing  attention  to  the  study  of  elocution.  I  have  bought  Bautain 
on  Extempore  Speaking  and  am  reading  it  now.  I  think  it  the  best 
work  that  I  have  ever  examined,  tending  to  improve  the  elocutionary 
powers.  Every  day  before  dinner  I  read  ten  pages  of  Paradise  Lost, 
sometimes  sitting,  but  oftener  standing.  This  I  read  more  for  the 
maintenance  of  my  strength  of  voice  than  for  the  acquisition  of  more. 
I  cannot  improve  and  nurse  my  voice  with  that  interest  which  I 
exercised  formerly,  simply  because  my  auditors  are  so  few.  I  can 
work  against  nature  in  the  cultivation  of  my  vocal  organs,  but  it 
seems  more  than  I  can  do  to  recite  soliloquies  and  dramatic  scenes 
as  I  did  in  Irvington,  and  have  but  a  handful  of  auditors  next  Sab- 
bath. But  perhaps  it  is  well  that  I  quit  this,  and  maybe  my  handful 
are  blessing  me  with  a  richer  gift  than  Trinity  Church  could  confer. 
I  will  try  to  think  so,  at  least.  Yet  I  intend  to  continue  reading  to 
my  wife  from  some  work  of  poetry  or  history,  so  that  my  voice  may 
not  be  like  an  undrawn  and  rusty  sword  on  the  coming  Sabbath  day. 
This  I  shall  do,  because  I  think  it  mv  dutv  both  for  my  health  and 

122  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

future  success.  I  have  a  belief  that  in  time  I  shall  have  more  people 
to  visit  and  be  improved  by  in  the  work,  as  well  as  to  preach  to  on 
the  Sabbath.  If  I  deserve,  the  Lord  will  give  them;  if  not,  may  he 
keep  me  in  Passaic  till  the  day  of  my  death !  I  think,  however,  that 
the  kind  Being  who  has  bent  me  into  a  vocation  so  much  against  my 
will  and  restored  my  health  against  my  or  my  friends'  expectation 
and  led  me  to  improve  an  almost  incorrigible  voice,  at  least  somewhat, 
will  still  be  my  protector,  and  will  not  allow  my  feet  to  slip.  This 
is  my  prayer,  yea,  my  faith;  I  shall  battle  on.  Soon  the  spring  will 
be  here,  and  then  my  congregation  will  grow  perhaps  from  a  new 
bleaching  factory,  erected  half  a  mile  from  the  church,  together  with 
some  of  the  Dutch  whose  hour  of  evening  worship  will  be  changed 
to  the  afternoon.  How  much  I  think  of  one  who  comes  to  my 
church  !  I  meet  a  man  next  day  and  give  him  a  warm  wish  for  happi- 
ness as  I  grasp  his  hand.  But  God  leads  me  down  into  the  valley  to 
show  me  where  my  strength  lies.  Still,  I  will  not  say  that  I  compre- 
hend the  Providence  that  has  brought  me  to  Passaic — that  I  must 
leave  for  the  future. 

In  regard  to  my  spiritual  experience.  My  mind  has  been  much 
employed  in  the  investigation  of  the  doctrine  of  sanctification.  I 
have  always  had  a  prejudice  to  that  portion  of  Methodist  doctrine, 
based,  of  course,  on  an  entire  disbelief  in  the  power  of  acquiring  such 
a  blessing.  Nor  have  I  been  free  from  this  since  my  entrance  into 
the  ministry.  I  have  been  more  convinced  by  the  holy  life  of  individ- 
uals than  by  doctrinal  statements  of  the  subject  that  there  is  a  very 
lofty  position  in  Christian  life  which  most  religious  people  never  reach. 
Fletcher's  life  and  deeds  are  more  to  my  satisfaction  than  both  his 
and  Wesley's  writings.  I  will  not  depreciate  a  work  which  I  have 
lately  read  on  the  subject.  Peck's  Christian  Perfection.  I  think 
it  a  most  admirable  book  and  highly  satisfactory,  though  I  regret 
that  so  much  space  has  been  employed  in  controversy  and  clearing 
the  way  to  his  more  positive  arguments  and  experience.  These  are 
what  we  need,  what  Methodism  needs,  what  the  world  needs  for  the 
active  employment  and  enjoyment  of  this  great  truth.  To  the  men- 
tioned work  I  feel  indebted  to  a  great  extent,  but  as  yet  I  am  in  the 
dark,  and  I  know  not  when  I  shall  be  admitted  to  the  full  light  of 
religion.  I  pray  some  days  very  ardently  for  this  great  blessing,  then 
again  its  importance  does  not  press  upon  me  for  some  time.  What 
I  need  is  a  constant  sense  of  its  necessity  to  my  usefulness  and  the 
development  of  my  spiritual  nature.  I  see  so  much  that  I  could 
remedy  if  relieved  of  sin.  O  that  sin  were  eradicated  from  my  heart, 
that  I  might  not  suffer  by  these  uprisings  of  passion  and  feeling! 

At  Passaic  123 

Now,  when  made  holy,  sin  will  be  cast  out,  the  viper  gone,  though 
I  am  sure  that  temptation  will  be  presented  to  me  all  along  my  path 
in  life.  I  now  have  the  power  to  conquer  every  spiritual  foe,  but  I 
want  to  be  relieved  as  much  as  possible  of  the  struggle.  Do  I  mistake 
the  doctrine  ?  I  hope  not.  This  much  I  know ;  there  is  such  a  truth 
as  holiness  for  man.  Prayer  will  make  an  application  of  the  boon 
to  me.  Why  need  I  stop  to  question  how  all  this  is  to  be  done? 
God  in  his  good  pleasure  will  devise  a  means  for  my  salvation,  if 
I  act  according  to  my  present  light.  The  Israelites  did  right  in 
marching  directly  down  to  the  shore  of  the  Red  Sea.  It  was  not 
their  place  to  inquire  how  the  Lord  would  save  them  and  destroy 
their  pursuing  enemy.  Now  I  am  determined  by  the  grace  of  God 
to  go  on  in  the  pursuit  of  holiness.  I  pray  God  to  give  me  strength 
and  a  continued  purpose  that  I  may  continue,  if  for  life,  the  ardent 
struggle  for  the  great  boon. 

In  composition  have  been  doing  a  little.  Hours  with  the  Mystics 
has  lain  in  Dr.  Whedon's  drawer  for  a  year,  he  telling  me  frequently 
that  he  hoped  soon  to  be  able  to  use  it.  The  other  day  he  told  me 
that  he  would  like  me  to  take  it  home  and  after  reading  in  Blair's 
Rhetoric  his  chapters  on  the  Structure  of  Sentences  to  revise  it.  I 
have  read  those  chapters  and  am  thankful  from  the  bottom  of  my 
heart  for  the  Doctor's  advice.  I  soon  after  read  over  my  article  and, 
as  highly  labored  as  it  undoubtedly  was,  I  would  not  have  seen  it 
in  print  for  anything.  Indeed,  I  am  startled  that  I  had  let  such 
a  composition  leave  my  room.  I  made  the  resolution  to  think  more 
and  write  less  some  months  ago,  but  I  can  only  perceive  a  very  slight 
improvement.  Yet  in  this,  as  in  other  difficulties,  by  prayer  and 
steady  effort  I  think  I  shall  be  successful. 

Some  weeks  ago  I  paid  a  visit  to  my  friend  Rev.  W.  A.  Bartlett, 
of  the  Brooklyn  Tabernacle.  He  told  me  much  of  his  great  success, 
his  multitudes  for  a  congregation,  his  salary,  his  preaching.  How 
little  I  felt  as  he  told  me  these  things.  We  are  both  travelers  abroad, 
and  both  alike  in  many  respects.  Now  he  is  popular,  courted,  lectur- 
ing everywhere,  living  like  a  lord;  and  I  am  in  a  country  village,  with 
but  forty  for  a  congregation,  $450  for  a  salary,  and  no  personal 
sympathy  scarcely  from  any  people  in  the  community.  Must  I  freeze 
at  this  rate?  Am  I  to  vegetate  like  a  weed  and  shed  no  fragrance 
on  any  circle  of  humanity?  It  sometimes  seems  to  me  as  if  I  am 
nothing  and  can  be  nothing.  Then,  again,  I  think  that  God  has  not 
made  me  to  swing  my  little  lamp  in  a  gloomy  mine,  but  has  made 
me  able  to  build  a  beacon-light  on  some  grand  mountain  cliff.  How 
impenetrable  is  the  future!     Can  it  be  seen?     No,  I  cannot  guess  at 

124  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

it  even.  God  make  me  influential  for  good!  If  power,  influence 
would  alienate  me,  then  make  me  as  the  chaff  which  the  wind  drives 
away.  How  I  would  like  to  lead  such  a  noble  life  as  Robert  Hall's! 
He  suffered  almost  continually,  and  yet  how  persistent  in  the  cause 
of  truth,  how  filled  with  an  idea  of  his  impotence,  how  full  of  the 
Spirit  of  Christ !  Some  are  masters  of  the  pen,  some  are  gifted  in 
many  other  respects,  but  he  was  a  master  in  the  art  of  thinking.  Ay, 
that  is  an  art ;  happy  he  who  learns  it. 

One  reason  why  I  have  succeeded  no  better  in  the  pulpit  exists 
in  my  desire  to  do  too  many  things.  I  wish  sometimes  I  had  not  so 
many  books.  I  was  seized  the  other  day  with  a  desire  to  commence 
the  reading  of  Schlosser's  World  History.  It  would  never  do  for 
me  to  do  that.  True,  it  would  be  storing  my  mind  with  facts,  but 
in  the  same  time  I  could  master  several  commentaries  more  profitably 
to  the  wants  of  sinful  men.  So  I  have  determined  to  use  Schlosser 
only  for  reference.  Neither  can  I  write  on  any  subject  that  fancy 
may  light  upon.  I  can  do  most  when  I  write  and  think  and  read 
on  kindred  subjects. 

When  I  was  in  college  I  was  made  to  believe  that  I  was  somewhat 
of  a  writer.  But  of  late  I  have  begun  to  think  myself  very  indirect, 
pointless,  and  inaccurate  in  my  writing.  Dr.  Whedon,  too,  is  very 
severe  on  me,  and  I  feel  quite  downhearted  after  every  conversation 
with  him.  My  only  source  of  encouragement  is  simply  this — I  like 
to  wrrite.  There  is  nothing,  save  warm  preaching  to  an  attentive 
congregation,  that  makes  me  forget  time  and  self,  like  writing.  Let  it 
lie  a  while.  I  then  wonder  at  my  folly.  Perhaps  the  whole  sketch 
would  disgrace  my  name  forever  in  this  life  if  it  were  published.  I 
must  take  more  time;  study  good  models.  Then  I  will  do  more.  I 
trust  that  God  may  teach  me  how  to  work  in  the  true  way  to  do  the 
most  good. 

Sunday,  January  I,  i860. — I  have  been  impressed  very  seriously 
by  reading  Barnes's  Comment  on  the  First  Chapter  of  John's  Gospel. 
He  there  lays  it  down  as  a  principle  that  a  minister  must  place  Christ 
first  of  all,  not  himself.  I  fear  that  this  idea  has  not  been  prominent 
enough  in  my  preaching.  May  I  forget  myself  in  the  magnitude  of 
my  message  received  from  God  my  Father  ! 

January  27. — I  have  of  late  found  out  a  very  great  error  of  mine 
in  the  preparation  of  sermons :  I  had  always  something  of  a  plan 
in  mind  before  commencing,  but  it  was  not  full  enough.  I  had  not 
taken  enough  views  of  the  subject.  My  design  was  to  develop  one 
idea  of  the  text  instead  of  bringing  out  as  many  ideas  as  the  text 
contained.     I  am  trying  now  to  remedy  this  defect.    I  am  learning  to 

At  Passaic  12 


be  more  judicious  in  my  remarks  about  others.  Perhaps  I  have 
been  too  communicative  and  free  in  my  manner.  I  will  not  indulge 
in  too  much  levity,  but  try  to  live  in  all  soberness  with  the  fear  of 
God  before  my  eyes.  I  have  held  myself  aloof  from  the  un-Methodist 
portion  of  this  little  community  hitherto;  and  I  trust  for  the  last  time. 
But  I  must  learn  my  duty  so  slowly !  I  would  that  I  could  know  my 
whole  field  of  duty  in  one  short  hour.  O  God,  I  beseech  thee  to 
grant  me  some  years  of  life  after  thou  hast  shown  me  my  whole  field 
of  duty. 

My  plan  of  study  at  present  is : 

5^4  a.  M. — Rise — Prayer — Meditation — Reading  Watson's  Theology. 

7^2  a.  M. — Breakfast — Reading  N.  Y.  Times — 2  chapters  in  Old 
Testament — 2  chapters  in  Kitto,  corresponding  thereto  as  nearly  as 
may  be — 1  chapter  in  Barnes's  Notes.  These  I  try  to  finish  by 
10  a.  m.  or  thereabout. 

10. — Study  of  sermons. 

12. — Theological  studies — mostly  doctrinal. 

1  Vz  p.  m. — Reading  Milton — Declamation  or  some  vocal  exercise. 

2. — Dinner. 

3. — Pastoral  work.  Miscellaneous  reading.  Church  duties,  or  the 
study  of  homiletics. 

This  rule  I  vary  somewhat,  for  the  mind  will  not  do  machine  work. 

January  30. — I  have  received  great  advantage  from  a  Scotchman 
residing  in  our  village — a  teacher  named  Duncan  Campbell.  He  excels 
in  three  respects :  the  faculty  of  teaching,  a  knowledge  of  scriptural 
facts,  a  very  correct  use  of  language.  The  greatest  service  I  have 
derived  from  Mr.  Campbell  is  in  respect  to  my  use  of  words.-  I  felt 
badly  at  some  of  his  corrections.  Indeed,  I  thought,  as  to  some  of 
the  phrases  attributed  to  me,  that  I  did  not  use  them  in  speech  at 
all.  Behold  he  was  right,  for  I  subsequently  found  myself  using  the 
same  expressions.  In  another  sense  has  Mr.  Campbell  improved  me: 
he  has  corrected  me  where  his  opinion  was  the  reverse  of  mine  as 
to  the  propriety  of  the  matter;  but  on  deliberation  I  have  invariably 
come  to  the  conclusion  that  he  was  right.  In  this  connection  I  cannot 
forget  the  feelings  instilled  into  my  mind  by  the  reading  of  Dr. 
Macduff's  Footsteps  of  St.  Paul.  I  thank  God  it  has  fallen  into  my 
hands.    It  was  loaned  me  by  a  dying  old  man. 

My  friends  in  this  place  are  kinder  than  I  deserve.  Some  days  ago 
sausage  was  sent  in  to  us  by  our  friends ;  then  coal,  then  pork  and 
other  things.  Not  the  value  of  gifts,  but  the  heart  which  they  betoken, 
is  of  importance  to  me. 

I  have  of  late  read  Ruskin's  Lamps  of  Architecture.    How  beauti- 

126  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

fully  does  he  introduce  and  explain  a  Scripture  truth  with  his  secular 
cause!  I  would  that  I  could  build  such  beautiful  temples  on  such 
noble  foundations.  But  my  work  is  greater  than  his.  I  would  rather 
lead  one  soul  to  Christ  than  build  enough  stately  churches  for  the 
world's  worship,  or  to  be  Giotto  or  Angelo.  I  like  much  Hugh  Miller. 
I  have  been  reading  aloud  his  Testimony  of  the  Rocks;  how  grand 
and  gorgeous  is  his  language ;  how  rational  his  conclusions  !  Worthy 
such  an  author  of  human  memory  and  love.  God  be  thanked  that 
he  could  not  destroy  what  he  had  performed.  One  may  end  his  life, 
but  he  cannot  end  his  works.  I  hope  to  become  a  tolerable  potter 
of  English.  I  would  only  become  such  in  order  to  make  people  love 
the  Lord  more. 

February  10. — My  friends  at  my  little  Notch  appointment  have 
raised  a  purse  of  $15  and  given  it  to  me  as  a  token  of  their  esteem. 

March  1. — O  for  seals  to  my  ministry!  I  sometimes  wish  that  I 
had  to  preach  every  day  in  one  place  or  another.  When  I  consider 
how  lifeless  I  am,  how  seldom  I  preach,  how  ineffective  even  in  the 
pulpit,  I  feel  like  casting  my  books  into  the  flames  and  rushing  forth 
to  preach  on  street  corners  and  on  wharves,  anywhere,  to  be  the  means 
of  saving  some  immortal  souls.  But  I  will  wait  and  mayhap  God  will 
show  me  something  more  to  do. 

8. — Jersey  City.  Heard  H.  Grattan  Guinness  preach.  His  great- 
ness, in  my  opinion,  consists  in  his  frequent  quotations  from  the 
Scriptures,  surprising  you  with  one  after  his  statement  of  a  truth. 
Also  he  is  so  lucid  in  his  words,  so  natural  and  withal  so  really  but 
not  vehemently  earnest.  Maybe  God  will  give  me  a  quiver  and  bow 
some  day. 

12. — Attended  Preachers'  Association.  Read  my  essay  on  Ether- 
idge's  Adam  Clarke.     Returned  home  refreshed  in  spirit. 

14. — Requested  by  Committee  to  make  one  of  the  addresses  of  the 
Bible  anniversary  at  Conference.    I  consented  with  reluctance. 

16. — In  evening  Mrs.  H.  and  I  were  surprised  by  a  visit  from  about 
thirty  of  our  friends,  nearly  all  outside  of  the  church.  When  the 
company  left  we  found  ourselves  possessed  of  $31  in  money,  some 
provisions,  and  a  fine  rooster.  A  pleasant  episode  this  in  our  monot- 
onous Passaic  life. 

18. — In  view  of  my  repeated  failures  to  keep  my  appetite  in  sub- 
jection, I  form  this  solemn  resolution,  asking  God's  assistance  toward 
its  strict  observance : 

1.  Before  each  meal  to  pray  to  God  to  help  me  to  be  temperate  at 
the  table  and  eat  nothing  that  I  know  to  disagree  with  me ;  also  to  be 
very  sparing  of  what  does  suit  me. 

At  Passaic  127 

2.  To  eat  nothing  between  my  meals,  not  even  a  bonbon. 

3.  To  eat  no  meat  at  supper,  very  sparingly  of  preserved  fruits,  no 
rich  cake. 

4.  To  eat  nothing  before  retiring  to  bed. 

April  4. — Hackettstown.  Conference  opened  this  morning.  Bible 
meeting  to-day.  The  speakers  were  J.  O.  Winner,  J.  F.  Hurst,  T.  H. 
Landon,  J.  R.  Bryan,  and  W.  Dwight,  of  Constantinople.  I  didn't  fail, 
but  came  a  very  short  distance  from  it. 

7. — Spent  the  evening  at  home  and  thought  over  my  morrow's 

8. — Afternoon  rode  over  with  four  other  candidates  for  deacon's 
orders  to  Vienna.  The  sermon  was  delivered  by  James  Ayres  on 
Giving  a  Reason  for  the  Hope  Within  You.  Afterward  Bishop  Scott 
ordained  us  to  the  holy  office  of  the  ministry. 

He  was  reappointed  to  Passaic. 

11.  New  York. — Made  purchases  of  Macknight  on  the  Epistles. 
The  author  is  Calvinistic  and  thus  renders  some  passages,  but  he  gives 
the  sinew  of  the  truth  of  God. 

May  14. — Boy  (John  La  Monte)  born  at  11^2  a.  m.  Perfect  and 
well.    That  night  at  family  prayer  we  dedicated  him  to  God. 

July  2. — This  day  married  my  first  couple.  In  afternoon  the  dear 
baby  was  baptized  by  Dr.  John  S.  Porter. 

Mr.  F.  A.  Wilcox,  of  New  York,  says : 

I  recall  spending  a  most  happy  Fourth  of  July  as  a  guest  at  the 
Bishop's  modest  home  at  Passaic  Bridge.  I  had  been  thrown  into 
the  somewhat  Bohemian  life  of  a  New  York  law  student  at  that  period, 
with  restraints  a  little  slackened,  but  was  greatly  impressed  with  the 
beautiful  Christian  atmosphere  that  pervaded  that  happy  household. 
It  was  an  incentive  to  good  which  had  a  lasting  effect  on  me. 

August  19. — Should  I  die  without  the  time  for  witnessing  let  this 
be  known :  I  die  with  Christ,  consequently  I  expect  to  live  with  him. 

He  made  his  first  trip  to  Niagara  Falls  in  late  August, 
taking  in  Trenton  Falls  and  Sharon  Springs  on  his  return. 

November  26. — Within  the  last  two  months  I  have  spent  some  six 
dollars  more  than  I  ought  to  have  done.  May  God  pardon  me  for 
my  extravagance  and  lead  me  to  better  deeds. 

December  1. — To-day  sent  off  my  first  article  on  Foreign  Religious 
Literature  to  the  Methodist. 


Of  his  work  in  Passaic  Dr.  John  M.  Howe  says : 

Methodism,  up  to  this  pastorate,  had  made  but  little  impression 
upon  the  community.  Mr.  Hurst's  influence  helped  us  somewhat  with 
those  who  had  previously  looked  down  upon  us.  His  handsome  de- 
portment and  services  essentially  promoted  the  welfare  of  the  church. 


At  Eiizabethport,  Fulton  Street 

His  assignment  at  the  Conference  session  of  1861  to  Fulton 
Street  Church,  Eiizabethport,  was  a  distinct  promotion  and 
recognition  of  the  growing  power  of  the  zealous  and  indus- 
trious young  pastor.  Mrs.  M.  A.  Huntsman,  one  of  his  most 
helpful  and  efficient  members  here,  gives  the  following  testi- 
mony of  this  pastorate : 

When  he  arrived  here  we  had  only  one  stove,  in  a  rented  parsonage, 
and  no  money  in  the  treasury.  Brother  Hurst  appeared  not  at  all 
discouraged.  It  was  about  four  weeks  before  we  got  things  arranged 
for  proper  housekeeping.  Very  soon  he  became  acquainted  with  all 
the  members  of  our  church  as  well  as  the  general  public  who  were 
not  members,  particularly  the  young  people,  with  whom  he  was  a  great 
favorite.  The  attendance  increased  and  his  work  was  blessed  by 
adding  many  members  to  our  church. 

His  position  and  influence  during  these  troublous  days  of 
the  republic  are  well  set  forth  by  W.  W.  Park,  a  member  of 
this  church,  who  also  gives  loving  tribute  to  his  pastor's  work 
and  character : 

The  stirring  times  of  '61  and  '62  were  fraught  with  much  concern 
to  the  church  as  well  as  our  country.  He,  being  a  young  man,  was 
fired  with  zeal  for  God,  church,  and  country,  and  well  do  I  remember 
the  stirring  appeals  made  by  him  from  pulpit  and  rostrum  in  behalf 
of  the  union  of  the  states.  These  were  heroic  utterances,  in  a  heroic 
time,  of  a  heroic  man,  and  it  required  a  man  of  sterling  qualities  to 

At  Elizabeth  port  129 

stem  the  disloyal  spirit  that  prevailed  in  this  section  of  Jersey  at  that 

The  quiet,  thoughtful  demeanor  of  John  F.  Hurst  as  pastor,  student, 
scholar,  teacher — for  he  was  a  preacher  in  every  sense,  a  teacher  of 
the  Word,  deep  in  thought,  impressive  in  delivery,  simple  and  childlike 
in  manner — left  an  impress  on  the  minds  and  hearts  of  all  who 
listened,  which  remains  to  this  day.  I  remember  on  one  occasion, 
when  he  was  preaching  on  loyalty  to  God  and  country,  a  man  occupy- 
ing a  seat  in  the  gallery  followed  him  sotto  voce,  through  the  entire 
discourse,  to  his  annoyance.  In  closing  he  arose  in  majesty  and,  with 
a  keen  wit  cutting  to  the  quick,  administered  such  a  rebuke  to  that 
disturber  that  he  quailed  before  it,  sneaked  away,  and  never  annoyed 

A  congregation  of  three  or  four  hundred  greeted  him,  and  often 
more.  The  pent-up  powers  of  mind  and  heart  burst  forth  in  all  their 
eloquence,  grace,  and  spirit.  Here  he  organized  the  first  young  peo- 
ple's class,  he  being  its  first  president  or  leader.  That  class  was  a 
grand  success,  and  its  influence  remains  to  this  day.  There  was  much 
opposition  to  its  formation.  It  was  thought  to  be  an  innovation 
upon  the  right  and  discipline  of  the  church.  But  withal  it  lived,  thrived, 
and  is  a  strong  auxiliary  to  the  church  to-day.  When  we  think  of 
the  great  work  of  the  young  people's  societies  of  to-day,  and  the 
wonderful  progress  they  have  made  in  the  various  lines  of  good  in 
the  church  and  world,  may  we  not  claim  for  our  beloved  pastor,  John 
F.  Hurst,  the  honor  of  first  organizing  the  young  people  for  work, 
in  the  early  sixties? 

Another  phase  of  his  struggle  with  the  question  of  writing 
books  as  related  to  his  work  as  a  minister  appears  in  a  record 
of  September  19: 

Never  until  now  have  I  been  able  to  see  truly  that  I  must  perform 
one  work.  I  had  great  plans  for  reading  history  and  biography, 
also  for  writing  my  contemplated  History  of  Rationalism,  for  which 
I  have  been  collecting  materials  at  great  expense  of  time  and  money. 
I  should  have  but  little  to  do  save  letting  my  pen  run.  I  have  pretty 
well  mastered  the  theme.  But  I  will  not  write  it  until  doomsday, 
sooner  than  I  will  infringe  one  particle  on  my  ministerial  vocation. 
My  letters  to  the  Methodist  for  children  I  will  continue,  as  I  only 
use  an  hour  or  two  of  recreation  in  the  work  for  that  purpose.  May 
the  Lord  bless  the  household  of  J.  W.  Alexander  for  that  noble  man's 
work  on  Preaching.  I  cannot  estimate  the  good  it  has  done  me. 

130  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  heart  and  household  of  the  parson  at  "The  Port''  were 
gladdened  on  December  30,  1861,  by  the  arrival  of  their  sec- 
ond child,  a  daughter,  to  whom  was  given  the  name  of  Clara. 

The  people  of  his  congregation  planned  and  carried  to 
success  a  surprise  upon  their  pastor  and  his  wife  on  February 
24,  1862,  leaving  them  in  possession  of  purses  containing  $100 
for  him  and  $17  for  her,  "pin  money,"  as  it  was  termed,  and 
also  very  delightful  memories  of  this  united  expression  of 
appreciation  and  good  will.  The  large  company  came  to  the 
parsonage  in  the  absence  of  the  family,  and  not  the  least 
amusing  circumstance  was  the  objection  made  by  the  servant 
in  charge  to  the  acts  of  the  committee  of  ladies,  who  went 
early.  She  "knew  Mrs.  Hurst  wouldn't  like  it,"  and  advised 
them  to  "wait  till  she  came  home" ;  and  it  was  only  by  the 
opportune  arrival  of  a  very  intimate  friend  of  the  family  that 
her  fears  were  quieted,  and  she  allowed  them  to  go  on  without 

At  the  fifth  session  of  the  Conference  in  1862  he  delivered  a 
most  instructive  and  impressive  address  upon  the  Tract  Cause, 
and  was  ordained  elder  by  Bishop  Thomas  A.  Morris.  During 
the  second  summer  of  this  pastorate  Mrs.  Hurst  and  the  two 
young  children  spent  the  most  of  August  at  Flemington,  New 
Jersey,  at  the  parsonage  with  Rev.  S.  H.  Opdyke  and  family, 
and  the  letters  of  the  husband  and  father  during  this  separation 
reveal  among  other  things  his  lighter  vein  of  humor  and 
methods  of  recreation : 

August  3. — I  am  greatly  troubled  about  my  celery — it  won't  grow 
a  bit.  I  don't  know  what  I  shall  do  to  coax  it  along.  If  I  knew 
of  anybody  that  has  been  in  the  habit  of  using  beer,  I  might  get  a 
little  to  give  to  it  for  its  health.  I  must  either  replant  or  you  will 
have  to  do  without. 

6. — I  pulled  the  cucumbers  yesterday  and  am  going  to  pickle 
them  to-night.  There  were  seven  nice  ones.  Two  tremendous  ones 
I  found  had  grown  old  and  yellow. 

At  Elizabeth  port  131 

Here  is  a  hint  as  to  how  he  organized  a  fishing  party  and 
what  were  the  spoils  : 

11. — I  have  got  splendid  crab  bait.  I  shall  have  a  good  lunch.  Sev- 
eral of  the  preachers  have  sent  notes  saying  they  cannot  come.  I  wish 
Opdyke  were  here  to  go  fishing  with  us  to-day.  I  don't  know  what 
I  shall  do  with  all  our  fish.  Poor  things,  they  little  dream  of  what 
havoc  we  are  going  to  make. 

12. — Well,  my  party  disappointed  me  sadly.  None  came  except 
Dr.  Porter  and  Brother  Buttz.  Booth,  the  young  man  from  Brooklyn, 
who  preached  for  me  Sunday  night,  and  his  friend,  and  John  Porter 
completed  our  party.  We  had  everything  good  and  fine.  Mrs.  Porter 
had  a  splendid  dinner,  which  we  were  so  anxious  to  eat  that  we  got 
tired  of  fishing  very  soon.  We  caught  nothing  but  one  toad  fish, 
which  Buttz  caught,  and  we  threw  over  for  good  luck.  We  landed 
on  Shooter's  Island  about  illA  o'clock  and  stretched  ourselves  out  and 
had  a  first-rate  dinner.  Then  we  talked,  and  talked  until  it  was  time 
for  me  to  go  home.  We  had  a  fair  wind  home,  but  no  sail,  yet  we 
wanted  to  sail.  What  should  we  do?  We  had  a  big  piece  of  old 
dirty  torn  canvas,  so  we  hoisted  that  on  two  oars  and  with  that  we 
sailed  home  amid  the  applause  of  every  boat's  crew  that  we  passed. 

To  John  and  Clara.  13. — I  must  tell  you  before  I  go  to  bed  how 
much  I  think  of  you  and  how  often  I  call  to  mind  your  dear  little 
faces.  Wouldn't  you  like  to  go  to  our  picnic  next  Wednesday?  Well, 
get  mamma  to  put  you  into  a  good  little  flour  bag  and  give  you  to 
the  stage  driver  and  have  him  send  you  down  to  me.  Wouldn't  we 
have  a  good  time?  Then,  after  we  had  taken  a  good  many  little 
walks  I  might  send  you  back  again  to  Flemington.  For  tea,  which 
I  prepared  myself,  I  ate  six  pears.  I  think  you  would  like  to  have 
a  taste  of  them.  I  bought  them  from  an  old  German  woman  who 
was  around  with  a  wagon  load  this  morning. 

To  Mrs.  Hurst.  19. — I  must  tell  that  yesterday  I  did  what  I  have 
long  intended  to  do  about  writing  for  the  Methodist.  I  told  Dr. 
Crooks  I  was  tired  of  the  Children's  Stories,  at  which  he  expressed 
his  regret.  He  told  me  I  could  have  a  respite  of  six  weeks  if  I  liked 
and  then  could  go  at  it  again.  But  I  told  him  that  I  thought  he  had 
better  put  the  matter  in  other  hands.  He  then  consented  and  asked 
me  to  translate  some  German  theological  articles  at  my  leisure.  This 
I  consented  to  do,  for  it  would  be  according  to  my  taste.  I  can  select 
them  from  my  own  books  on  hand  and  need  never  feel  hurried. 

He  was  after  this  persuaded  to  furnish  many  more  stories. 

13-  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

September  27. —  (Plan  of  work.) 

5  a.  m. — Devotion — Declamation — Scripture  Verses. 
7  — Breakfast. 

8^2        — Sermon. 

11  — Exercise. 

12  m.      — Writing. 
I  p.  M.  — Dinner. 

Tuesday  and  Friday — Pastoral  Visiting. 
Wednesday  and  Thursday — Miscellaneous  Reading. 

This  new  plan  has  been  made  to  relieve  a  weakness  of  my  eyes 
caused  by  writing  early  in  the  morning. — J.  F.  H. 

October  1. — Commenced  writing  essays  for  Herzog's  Encyclopaedia 
to-day  at  4?4  o'clock  p.  m. 

November  12. — Commenced  on  Rationalism  and  Its  Later  Phases. 
May  God  inspire  me  to  write  it  in  such  a  way  that  some  men  of  this 
land  may  be  saved  from  the  blight  of  a  wrecked  faith  in  God's  Word ! 

1863,  February  2. — Heard  Wendell  Phillips  lecture  on  the  Lost 
Arts.     The  most  masterly  performance  I  ever  listened  to. 

8. — Missionary  day.  Dr.  Carlton  preached.  Collection  $130,  or 
nearly  double  any  previous  collection. 

11. — Prayer  meeting  in  church  in  evening.  More  interest  than 
in  any  previous  meeting.  One  lady  came  to  the  altar  and  was  con- 
verted. She  was  a  boatman's  wife  from  Lockport,  N.  Y.  Her  face 
was  indicative  of  her  peace  with  God. 

12. — Have  just  read  an  excellent  little  work.  The  Still  Hour.  I 
do  not  fulfill  one  of  its  principal  requisites,  time  enough  in  prayer. 
I  would  that  I  could  talk  more  with  God. 

15. — Mariner's  Harbor.  At  close  of  services  was  visited  by  com- 
mittee from  Hedding  Church,  Jersey  City.  They  proposed  my  going 

17. — After  prayer  meeting  returned  home  and  found  a  surprise 
party.  Dr.  Carlton  addressed  me  and  gave  me  an  album  containing 
$100.     A  small  sum  of  $15  was  handed  to  Mrs.  Hurst. 

24. — Spent  most  of  the  time  in  copying  from  a  German  translation 
of  Rose  on  Rationalism.  The  only  copy  I  have  been  able  to  get,  and 
this  from  the  Library  of  Union  Theological  Seminary. 

25. — Concluded  Rose  on  Rationalism.  Want  to  get  material  at 
command  so  as  to  go  right  to  work  when  I  reach  another  place.  I 
think  I  can  preach  as  well  and  work  thus  for  the  press  too. 

March  2. — Spent  day  mostly  in  old  bookstores  in  Nassau  Street. 
Purchased  Lodge's  translation  of  all  Seneca's  Works. 

5. — Heard  that  the  people  of  Hedding  Church  were  changing  their 

At  Elizabeth  133 

mind  about  having  me  preach  for  them.  I  know  that  Providence 
will  do  all  right,  but  how  hard  for  me  to  keep  my  finger  out. 

7. — Talked  calmly  and  kindly  to  a  man  who  has  reviled  me.  He 
confessed  his  sin.     He  was  a  steward  in  the  church. 

9. — New  York.  Expected  pleasant  time  and  was  very  much  dis- 
appointed. Had  but  little  business,  ergo,  I  conclude  not  to  go  any 
more  to  New  York  without  business. 

12. — In  evening  in  Brooklyn  heard  Wendell  Phillips  lecture  on 
Toussaint  L'Ouverture.  I  have  never  seen  the  equal  of  this  man 
Phillips,  much  as  I  dislike  his  politics. 

25. — Conference  met  at  Jersey  City.  Appointed  one  of  Committee 
to  publish  Minutes.  Examined  class  of  candidates  for  probationship 
in  the  Conference. 

27. — Much  excitement  about  my  appointment.  The  prospect  is  for 
Staten  Island. 

28. — Invited  to  take  charge  of  Bayard  Street  Church.  Declined  it, 
as  that  would  place  me  in  New  Brunswick — out  of  the  Conference. 

29. — In  evening  went  to  John  Street  M.  E.  Church  and  spoke  there 
on  missions. 

30. — Was  told  that  my  appointment  would  be  Water  Street,  Eliz- 

31. — Conference  closed  to-night  at  11  o'clock.  Sent  to  Elizabeth. 
O  that  many  souls  may  be  converted  there  !  Then  will  I  rejoice  with 
joy  unspeakable. 


At  "Elizabeth,  Water  Street 

His  appointment  to  the  Water  Street  Church,  Elizabeth, 
was  another  advance  in  the  Conference.  In  1867  AYater 
Street  was  changed  in  name  to  Elizabeth  Avenue,  and  the 
church  name  was  also  changed  and  remained  Elizabeth 
Avenue  until  the  society  merged  with  Saint  Paul's  in  1877  to 
form  the  present  Saint  James,  the  first  opening  service  occur- 
ring April  15.  His  Journal  and  letters  give  the  most  faithful 
picture  of  this  important  pastorate : 

134  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

April  I,  1863. — Arrived  at  home  again  after  a  long  week's  absence. 
The  dear  children  I  was  so  glad  to  see  again.  May  the  Lord  spare 
them  and  make  them  both  useful  to  the  world,  is  my  most  fervent 

9. — Moved  up  to  Elizabeth.  Had  a  reception.  Full  house  and 
warm  greetings. 

27. — Read  a  sermon  yesterday  on  Unity  with  Christ.  Heard  criti- 
cisms on  it  afterward  from  Mr.  Denman.  "Why  did  you  read  last 
Sunday?"  "Because  I  liked  the  change  for  sake  of  variety  and  I  can 
thus  please  another  class  who  don't  like  extempore  discourse."  "O, 
we  all  like  extempore  discourse.  There  is  no  division  on  that  subject: 
our  people  like  preaching,  not  reading."  What  a  blow  was  that! 
But  the  next  thing  he  said  melted  me:  "I  heard  a  man  say,  'He 
must  have  borrowed  that  read  sermon  from  somebody  else.'  "  I  think 
now  I  am  almost  cured  of  reading  sermons.  I  can't  stand  a  thrust 
like  that. 

May  3. — I  have  been  reading  McCheyne's  great  success  in  preach- 
ing. May  God  grant  me  an  earnest  work  of  revival  here !  I  would 
willingly  sacrifice  everything,  even  life. 

13. — Finished  after  repeated  failures  my  first  chapter  on  Ration- 
alism. It  has  grown  from  a  few  to  many  pages,  owing  to  later  investi- 
gations. I  trust  God  will  make  it  useful  to  the  young  men  of  this 
great  land. 

July  4. — Spoke  an  address  at  Tottenville,  Staten  Island.  Caught 
a  severe  cold. 

5. — Fainted  publicly  in  the  congregation  this  a.  m.  while  Dr.  Porter 
was  preaching.  Cause,  exhaustion  from  yesterday's  labor.  Fell 
against  the  stove.  Hurt  my  head  and  back.  Did  not  feel  alarmed 
on  awaking.     Felt  safe  in  God's  hands. 

7. — Much  recovered  from  my  fall.  Resolved  on  a  new  method 
of  preaching — to  preach  one  year  memoriter  one  sermon,  the  other 
extempore.    This  I  do  for  experiment  and  if  successful  to  continue. 

11. — Commenced  translation  of  a  volume  of  Tholuck's  Sermons. 

14. — Wrote  two  pages  in  History  of  Rationalism.  First  for  a  good 

18. — On  my  knees  I  declare  that  in  future  I  will  be  the  black  man's 
friend,  and  if  my  previous  course  has  seemed  dubious  may  God  forgive 
me.     The  riots  in  New  York  have  disgusted  me  with  conservatism. 

23. — Daily  plan  of  work :  A.  M.  5.  Rising  and  devotion.  6.  Reading 
Bible  and  Elocution.  7.  Breakfast.  8:30.  Study  of  Sermon.  1 1.  Mis- 
cellaneous Writing. 

P.  M.  1.  Dinner.     2:30  Wednesday  and  Friday:  Pastoral  Visiting. 

At  Elizabeth  135 

Tuesday  and  Thursday :  Reading  and  Business.  Saturday :  Recrea- 
tion. 6.  Supper.  Miscellaneous  Reading  on  spare  evenings.  10. 

25. — To-day  I  have  finished  the  64th  page  in  MS.  of  an  Historical 
Account  of  Rationalism  and  its  Later  Phases.  I  propose  to  complete 
it  by  next  April,  the  work  to  be  about  500  pages.  But  I  must  not 
infringe  upon  my  allotted  time  as  given  in  my  plan. 

28. — Last  night,  while  in  a  small  prayer  meeting  in  class  room 
No.  3,  I  felt  a  new  accession  of  power  from  God.  While  Brother 
Denman  was  praying  I  felt  strangely  full  of  new  light.  I  could  not 
ejaculate — I  said,  "  How  sweet  to  receive  blessings  from  on  high." 
I  heard  an  inward  voice  say,  "  Trouble  yourself  not  much  about  the 
means  you  use — I  will  make  the  work  easy  for  you."  O,  how  good  is 
God !     I  felt  that  to  doubt  would  almost  have  been  atheism. 

30. — Felt  the  holy  influence  of  my  great  blessing  all  day. 

August  I. — Wrote  three  pages  to-day  on  my  Rationalism.  Find 
myself  getting  easier  in  composition  now  than  I  was  at  first,  seldom 
having  to  cut  and  paste  my  leaves. 

10. — Preached  extempore  from  a  well-prepared  and  fully  written 
sermon.  Was  not  at  all  satisfied.  I  concluded  to  read  a  sermon  occa- 
sionally. Thus  I  can  make  use  of  my  advantages  far  more  than  in 
extempore  discourse.  Of  course  I  shall  find  opposition ;  but  I  am 
perfectly  willing  to  endure  any  sacrifice  for  the  sake  of  helping  my 

17. — Started  for  a  two  weeks'  vacation  in  Maryland. 

23. — Sold  my  farm,  Weir  Neck. 

27. — Started  for  Gettysburg.  In  afternoon  went  over  part  of  the 
battlefield  in  company  with  a  man  who  was  a  spectator  of  the  battle. 

28. — Visited  the  Seminary  and  general  hospitals.  Saw  several 
Marylanders  among  the  wounded.     The  scenes  are  awful  to  behold. 

September  28. — I  consecrate  myself  to  God  for  time,  then  it  will 
be  unnecessary  for  eternity.  Will  leave  off  the  use  of  tobacco  and 
excess  in  eating — both  of  which  have  been  the  curse  of  my  life.  Will 
also  cultivate  an  amiable  and  forbearing  spirit — never  speak  in  haste, 
and  do  nothing  for  mere  effect. 

October  1. — Have  been  using  special  means  for  a  revival  in  my 
church.    Find  God's  Spirit  at  work  in  the  congregation. 

4. — I  have  never  had  such  confidence  in  prayer  in  pulpit  as  to-day. 
It  seemed  as  if  I  was  talking  with  God,  to  him. 

9. — Last  night  two  souls,  man  and  wife,  were  converted  at  the  altar. 
I  feel  the  necessity  of  cultivating  kindly  tones.  I  think  the  manner 
of  pleasant  speaking  has  much  to  do  with  success  in  these  revival 

136  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

meetings.  Says  Whitefield,  "I  carefully  sought  out  those  acceptable 
tones  that  were  like  a  spell  upon  the  heart,  even  when  the  words 
were  unremembered." 

II. — It  seems  as  if  my  heart  would  break  if  souls  are  not  converted. 

25. — I  shall  make  it  my  aim  in  future  to  aim  directly  at  the 
conversion  of  souls.  Wrote  15  pages  on  my  Rationalism  this  week, 
besides  making  sermons,  preaching  on  Wednesday  and  Tuesday  even- 
ings, and  writing  a  children's  story  for  the  Methodist. 

December  3. — In  my  meetings  have  been  blessed  with  the  conver- 
sion of  about  thirty  souls.  The  majority  were  from  the  Sunday 
school.  God  has  blessed  us,  and  yet  it  seemed  to  me  as  if  I  had  faith 
enough  for  the  conversion  of  a  hundred  souls.  I  have  been  writing 
a  children's  story  every  week  for  the  Methodist,  and  I  am  working 
rapidly  upon  my  History  of  Rationalism.  I  wrote  twenty  pages  last 
week,  eighteen  of  which  were  done  one  day. 

Here  is  a  reproof  in  writing  modified  with  a  judicious  ad- 
mixture of  good  will  in  a  letter  written  December  22  : 

Mr.  L :  I  yesterday  purchased  two  blank  books  from  you  and 

you  wrapped  them  up  as  I  thought  in  greasy  paper.  I  did  not  wish 
my  clothes  soiled,  and  therefore  asked  you  to  wrap  them  up  in  other 
paper.  You  became  very  angry,  tore  off  the  wrapper,  and  in  great 
wrath  you  put  on  another,  scarcely  knowing  what  you  were  doing. 
On  asking  you  what  I  should  pay  for  the  books,  both  together,  you 
hurriedly  looked  at  them  and  said,  "Sixty-nine  cents" ;  then  gave 
your  boy  my  five-dollar  bill,  and  I  got  my  change.  This  morning,  on 
untying  the  budget,  I  find  that  you  did  not  take  into  account  one  of 
the  books  at  all,  which  was  worth  60  cts.  Were  you  to  suffer  the 
full  penalty  of  your  anger  you  would  lose  the  value  of  that  book  alto- 
gether. But  I  do  not  wish  you  should  do  so.  I  therefore  inclose  you 
the  60  cts.  minus  the  value  of  the  paper  on  which  I  write  this  letter, 
together  with  the  stamp.  Anger  sometimes  costs  men  more  than  60 
cts. — yes,  a  great  deal  of  unhappiness  here  and  eternal  misery  here- 
after. I  therefore  hope  your  age  will  remind  you  that  it  is  better 
to  govern  your  spirit  than  take  a  city.  Let  the  Christmas  bring  to 
your  memory  the  value  of  redemption  and  the  presence  of  Christ  with 

all  who  seek  him.     I  wish  you,  Mr.  L ,  a  Merry  Christmas  and 

a  Happy  New  Year. 

Signed :  An  old  customer  and  one  who  expects  to  continue  his 

January  1,  1864. — Have  accepted  a  proposition  from  Rev.  Dr.  Nadal 

At  Elizabeth  137 

to  unite  with  him  in  the  translation  of  Hagenbach's  Church  History 
of  18th  and  19th  Centuries.  But  I  can  work  on  it  before  breakfast — 
must  spend  my  time  between  breakfast  and  dinner  at  my  sermons. 

6. — Joined  the  Union  League  this  evening.  Attended  meeting  of 
Sanitary  Commission,  having  been  made  a  member  of  the  committee. 

9. — Rose  regularly  before  six  o'clock  and  translated  a  few  pages 
before  breakfast. 

25. — Had  stewards'  meeting.  Was  criticised.  One  thought  I  did 
not  lead  the  prayer  meetings  right — I  should  read  a  chapter  and 
explain  like  the  Presbyterian  preachers  lecture.  Of  course,  this  would 
leave  no  time  for  prayers.  Another  thought  I  ought  to  leave  the 
meeting  open  and  call  on  some  of  the  brethren  to  exhort.  Of  course, 
this  would  take  a  helmsman  from  a  meeting,  who  is  just  as  nec- 
essary in  religious  exercises  as  in  a  storm.  Another  thought  I  ought 
to  preach  on  sanctification.  Another  thought  I  ought  to  preach  right 
from  the  heart  and  use  no  paper  to  read  my  sermons  from.  I  dis- 
solved the  meeting  by  saying  that  I  thought  I  had  advice  enough  for 

29. — He  records  Dr.  Arnold's  prayer  dated  May  26,  1842 : 

"O  Lord,  keep  thyself  present  to  me  always,  and  teach  me  to  come 
to  thee  by  the  one  and  living  Way,  thy  Son,  Jesus  Christ.  Keep  me 
humble  and  gentle,  self-denying,  firm,  and  patient,  active,  wise  to  know 
thy  will  and  to  discover  the  truth,  loving  that  I  may  learn  to  resemble 
thee,  my  Saviour !  O  Lord,  forgive  me  for  all  my  sins,  and  save  me 
and  guide  me  and  strengthen  me  through  Jesus  Christ." 

31. — Wrote  160  pages  of  Hagenbach's  History  in  this  one  month. 
The  most  work,  with  all  my  other  duties,  that  I  have  accomplished 
in  one  month. 

February  8. — Had  a  good  day  yesterday,  save  last  night  when  I 
made  a  blunder  in  giving  out  the  benediction  while  choir  sang  dox- 

12. — After  prayer  meeting  the  church  assembled  at  my  house  and 
left  in  my  hands  $150.     A  great  help  in  hard  times. 

20. — I  have  almost  concluded  a  week  of  great,  yea,  of  indescribable 
bitterness.     I  cannot  attempt  to  depict  my  sorrow. 

Some  of  the  causes  of  my  anguish:  (1)  The  intimations  that  Mr. 
J.  W.  S.  and  Mr.  J.  C.  D.  desire  my  removal  from  Elizabeth  at 
the  end  of  this  my  first  year's  ministry.  (2)  The  contemplation  of 
my  comparative  failure  in  the  conversion  of  souls  this  year.  (3)  The 
failure  of  my  first  literary  undertaking.  I  mean  the  translation  of 
Hagenbach's  History  of  the  Church  in  the  18th  and  19th  Centuries. 
This  week  I  received  a  letter  from  the  Messrs.  Clark  of  Edinburgh, 

138  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

that  the  work  is  already  translated  and  is  being  put  to  print.  Of 
course  this  will  prostrate  my  continuation  of  the  work  in  connection 
with  Dr.  Nadal.  I  have  written  him  the  intelligence.  (4)  The  weak- 
ness of  my  own  nature  in  the  indulgence  of  my  appetite.  To-day 
I  fast,  hoping  that  God  will  bless  me  in  so  doing.  I  shall  pray  much 
and  look  to  God  for  light. 

March  15. — Examined  a  class  of  candidates  for  deacons'  orders. 

16. — Conference  met  at  Paterson.  I  was  on  the  Committee  for 
publishing  the  Minutes. 

He  made  one  of  the  two  addresses  at  the  anniversary  of 
the  Bible  Society  on  the  seventeenth,  John  Hanlon  being  the 
other  speaker. 

March  21. — Walked  about  the  Paterson  Falls  and  attended  Union 
meeting  in  Continental  Hall.  Conference  resolved  to  meet  in  Eliz- 
abeth another  year. 

22. — Conference  closed.  Was  reappointed  to  Water  Street,  Eliz- 

24. — I  have  returned  from  Conference,  always  an  exciting  season, 
and  in  the  present  case  but  little  less  so  than  usual.  I  went  there 
with  strict  determination  to  yield  in  no  wise  to  the  common  tempta- 
tions that  I  had  previously  given  way  to.  I  went,  I  saw,  I  yielded. 
I  shall  endeavor  this  Conference  year  to  live  more  holy  before  God 
than  ever  before. 

April  9. — I  have  been  busily  engaged  in  writing  on  my  History 
of  Rationalism.  The  theme  gathers  in  interest  as  I  proceed.  I  make 
it  my  rule  to  write  on  my  History  before  breakfast,  while  other  men 
are  asleep.     Breakfasted  at  7  a.  m. 

To  Mrs.  Hurst  at  "Bonnie  Brook" :  May  2a 

I  came  home  yesterday  a.  m.  Found  things  all  right.  The  spiders 
had  been  spanning  the  rooms  with  webs ;  the  black  cat  discovered  my 
presence  and  came  begging.  I  have  found  the  ginger  cakes  come  in 
well.  I  take  lunch  here  at  12  m.  I  have  eaten  a  piece  of  cake  around 
which  Miss  Clara's  teeth  have  been  gnawing.  How  much  I  have 
been  thinking  of  the  dear  little  children.  I  could  not  bear  to  stay  in 
Philadelphia  after  you  had  gone. 

June  6. — Never  have  been  in  greater  doubt  and  perplexity  since 
my  entrance  upon  the  ministry.  I  know  not  what  to  do  save  to  call 
upon  God.  Several  points  of  difficulty  in  my  church:  (1)  A  spirit 
of  enmity  and  disunion.    Two  or  three  parties  in  the  church.     (2)  The 

Tramping  in  Southern  New  York  139 

nonattendance  of  children  upon  the  Sabbath  service.  (3)  The  second 
Sabbath  service  seems  almost  an  impossibility  for  me  to  arrange 
to  suit  the  members.  (4)  A  lack  of  sympathy  between  the  people 
and  myself.  (5)  The  meager  congregations.  In  addition  to  this  is 
my  own  weak  health.  Sometimes  I  feel  so  weak  in  the  morning  that 
I  have  to  recline  and  sleep  so  as  to  recover  strength.  These  points 
I  will  pray  for  daily,  God  being  my  helper.  I  have  read  Midler's 
Life  of  Trust  and  am  convinced  from  that,  in  addition  to  the  promises 
of  God,  that  he  will  grant  me  health. 

7. — Started  from  Elizabeth  for  Maryland. 

August  5. — Cruel.  I  am  amazed  at  my  work  down  to  this  evening. 
Last  Sunday  I  preached  three  times;  since  which  time  I  have  had 
two  business  meetings,  been  present  and  taken  part  in  three  evening- 
services,  conducted  a  class  meeting,  had  one  funeral  service  several 
miles  in  the  country,  occupying  a  whole  afternoon,  made  several  calls 
and  been  terribly  bored  myself,  and  yet  have  written  two  full  chapters 
in  my  History  of  Rationalism,  numbering  forty-nine  and  one  third 
foolscap  pages. 

August  22. — Left  home  for  a  foot  tour  through  the  romantic  parts 
of  the  New  York  and  Erie  Railroad,  intending  to  walk  the  most  of 
the  way  from  Suffern  to  Deposit.     Stopped  my  first  night  at  Paterson. 

23. — Took  cars  for  Suffern.  Walked  to  Ramapo,  except  a  short 
ride  writh  a  substitute  broker.  Took  bath  in  the  Ramapo  just  above 
the  falls.  Stopped  all  night  at  Southfields.  Walked  about  nine  miles 
with  pack  on  my  back. 

Southfields,  Orange  County,  X.  Y.,  August  23,  1864. 
To  Mrs.  Hurst: 

I  am  now  sitting  down  in  my  plain  room  in  Mr.  Hoag's  Hotel, 
within  sound  of  the  cowbells,  and  the  thousand  and  one  varieties  of 
beetles  that  one  ever  hears  in  the  country  toward  evening.  I  am  in 
stocking  feet,  blue  shirt,  and  shirt-sleeves.  I  have  been  alone.  Though 
alone,  I  have  been  very  much  pleased  with  my  undertaking,  and  I 
think  my  health  will  be  greatly  benefited.  I  got  out  at  Suffern 
Station.  Then  I  had  some  talks  with  the  natives,  and  put  on  my 
knapsack,  with  my  velvet  vest  inside.  I  find  I  have  taken  just  the 
right  things  with  me.  I  suppose  I  have  walked  about  ten  miles, 
ridden  one  mile  in  a  buggy,  at  the  driver's  invitation,  and  about  two 
miles  in  an  iron-ore  cart  at  my  own  invitation.  I  have  already  been 
taken  as  a  member  of  three  professions.  I  was  asked  by  a  long- 
whiskered  mountaineer  if  I  was  not  a  doctor;  by  a  stout  boy  if  I 
hadn't  some  jewelry  for  sale;  and  I  heard  a  boy  shout  out  to  his 

140  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

mother,  "There  goes  a  soldier !"  I  have  heard  no  one  say,  "There 
goes  the  dominie !"  I  have  been  walking  through  a  most  charming 
country,  not  hurrying,  but  taking  my  time.  I  have  had  quite  a  variety 
of  incident.  I  was  delighted  with  the  beautiful  falls  of  the  Ramapo 
River,  the  only  drawback  being  an  unpleasant  proximity  to  a  big 
blacksnake  who  seemed  as  much  afraid  of  me  as  I  was  of  him. 
The  beautiful  stream  grew  so  attractive  that  I  stripped  off  and  took 
a  delightful  and  refreshing  bath  in  it. 

24. — Breakfast  at  6M2  a.  m.  Was  off  with  the  early  morning  and 
while  the  dew  was  fresh.  Passed  through  Greenwood,  Turner's, 
Monroe,  Oxford,  and  Chester ;  stopped  all  night  at  Thompson's  Hotel 
in  Goshen.  Walked  about  sixteen  miles.  Walked  to  Middletown  and 
went  around  the  town  a  little.  Rode  thence  to  Howell's  Station  and 
then  walked  to  Otisville.  Stopped  at  the  house  of  Rev.  George  T. 
Jackson.  Best  bed  I  have  had  since  I  left  home.  Am  one  day  ahead 
of  time. 

Middletown,  August  25. 
To  Mrs.  Hurst : 

I  make  much  faster  time  than  I  anticipated.  The  country  is  very 
beautiful.  I  drink  milk  altogether ;  I  stop  at  a  farmhouse,  take  a  bowl, 
and  press  on.  I  find  myself  very  much  benefited.  I  hope  that  by 
God's  blessing  I  shall  be  fully  recruited  and  be  home  at  the  end  of 
week  after  next. 

26. — Rode  over  to  Finchville  and  the  creamery  a.  m.  P.  M.  rode 
over  to  New  Vernon  and  Green  Village.  Also  went  with  some  ladies 
to  top  of  a  hill  overlooking  Otisville. 

2J. — Walked  to  Cuddebackville  and  over  the  Xeversink  River. 
Then  was  overtaken  by  a  wagon  load  of  friends  with  whom  I  rode  to 
Port  Jervis.  We  took  dinner  at  the  hotel,  and  in  evening  met  some 
friends,  Rev.  Messrs.  Coit,  and  found  they  had  made  good  and  kindly 
arrangements  for  my  accommodation  at  Rev.  Mr.  Dutcher's. 

28. — Made  speech  in  Port  Jervis  Sunday  school.  Afternoon  at- 
tended a  very  pleasant  class  meeting.  In  evening  heard  Rev.  Charles 
Coit  preach  and  exhorted  afterward.  Walked  to  the  top  of  Point 
Peter  and  Mount  William,  overlooking  the  surrounding  country. 

A  story  that  Dr.  Charles  S.  Coit  was  always  fond  of  telling- 
hinges  on  the  exhortation  given  in  the  evening  by  our  pedes- 
trian preacher  in  his  traveling  suit.     It  is  to  the  effect  that  a 

Two  Days  at  Monticello  141 

wealthy  layman  who  was  summering  there  and  was  present 
handed  ten  dollars  to  the  pastor,  saying,  "This  is  for  the 
stranger  who  spoke.  It  was  a  good  exhortation,  and  he  looks 
as  if  he  needed  it." 

29. — Took  a  walk  over  to  Carpenter's  Point  through  the  country — 
the  junction  of  three  states.  After  10  a.  m.  commenced  my  foot  jour- 
ney for  Monticello.  Walked  through  a  lonely  and  dense  forest,  pass- 
ing Forestburg.  Met  a  thunder  shower  and  was  detained.  Arrived  at 
Rev.  Thomas  La  Monte's  at  8J-4  p.  m.  Walked  to-day  27  miles  and 
rode  not  a  foot  of  the  way. 

30. — Took  walk  over  to  the  hills  opposite  the  M.  E.  Church.  Felt 
very  sore  from  my  previous  day's  labor.  Ate  very  much  more  than 
I  should  have  done. 

Monticello,  N.  Y.,  August  30. 
To  Mrs.  Hurst: 

I  walked  twenty-seven  miles  yesterday,  and  was  not  so  tired  as  after 
my  16  miles  of  last  week.  Still,  I  would  not  have  walked  the  27,  but 
I  could  get  no  good  stopping  place  short  of  Monticello.  I  reached 
here  last  night  and  expect  to  remain  2  days.  Then  I  will  be  off 
by  the  Cochecton  turnpike  back  again  to  the  Delaware.  Thomas  and 
his  wife  received  me  very  cordially.  I  am  very  much  pleased  with 
her.  She  is  extremely  pleasant  and  entertaining.  This  a.  m.  we 
had  for  breakfast  cornbread,  good  hash,  fresh  pork,  honey,  coffee,  and 
other  things  in  accordance.  I  went  out  with  Thomas  to  a  high  hill 
overlooking  the  town.  It  was  beautiful.  On  one  side  you  could  see 
the  mountains  of  Pennsylvania,  and  on  the  other  the  old  Catskills. 
Then  I  could  see  beautiful  lakes  that  nestled  between  the  hills,  and 
the  little  valley  where  Liberty  is  situated.  How  it  brought  you  to 
mind !  You  and  the  dear  children  are  very  much  in  my  mind.  How 
I  would  like  to  see  you  now ! 

The  journey  is  doing  me  a  great  deal  of  good.  I  can't  tell  you  how 
much  better  I  feel.  My  long-standing  headache  is  gone.  This  a.  m. 
I  read  your  and  Clara's  sweet  letters  all  over  again.  I  like  them  so 
much  because  they  tell  me  of  the  love  with  which  you  cherish  me. 
It  is  reciprocated,  my  dear  Kate,  for  I  love  you  with  all  the  love  of 
which  I  am  capable. 

September  1. — Started  early  for  Cochecton  by  the  old  direct  turn- 
pike— distance  22  miles.  The  country  very  beautiful  and  wild. 
Stopped  at  White  Lake  a  half-hour.  Took  cars  at  Cochecton  for 
Deposit,  and,  arriving  there,  I  received  two  letters  from  home. 

142  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

2. — Took  walk  high  up  on  the  hills  overlooking  Deposit,  but  the 
fog  was  so  thick  that  I  saw  nothing.  After  breakfast  took  train  for 
Narrowsburg.  Was  kindly  entertained  at  the  house  of  Mr.  C.  C. 
Murray,  the  proprietor  of  the  hotel.  Had  a  good  rest.  Walked  over 
to  the  little  cascade  beyond  the  river. 

3. — Had  an  excellent  night's  rest.  Took  another  walk  up  the  river 
and  over  the  hills  beyond.  Invited  to  the  house  of  Mr.  W.  S.  Cor- 
win,  where  I  remained  the  rest  of  my  stay  in  Narrowsburg.  He  has 
a  good  library  where  I  delight. 

4. — Went  over  to  the  church  and  heard  Rev.  Mr.  Cramp,  a  young 
Englishman,  preach.     Led  class  myself. 

To  Mrs   Hurst-  Narrowsburg,  N.  Y.,  September  4,  1864. 

I  would  not  have  stayed  these  two  weeks  if  I  had  not  found  the 
tour  very  beneficial  to  me.  I  have  lost  my  headache  altogether,  and 
I  think  I  shall  be  able  to  weather  through  the  winter  very  well.  Kiss 
the  dear  children  for  me.  I  would  give  almost  anything  if  I  could 
only  have  a  romp  with  them. 

5. — Started  at  6  a.  m.  for  home.  Had  no  breakfast.  Was  delighted 
to  get  home  once  more.  My  health  is  very  much  improved.  Had  a 
pleasant  time  in  writing  on  my  experience  during  vacation  under  the 
title  of  Two  Weeks  on  Foot. 

September. — Books  which  I  hope  to  write:  1.  Life  Pictures  from 
the  History  of  the  Church.  2.  Christ  at  Jacob's  Well.  3.  Seneca. 
4.  History  of  Pietism.  5.  History  of  English  Deism.  6.  Christ  at 
the  Grave  of  Lazarus.     7.  Hours  of  Devotion. 

November  12. — I  have  been  writing  a  History  of  Rationalism,  and 
have  completed  it  except  the  last  two  chapters. 

December  4. — This  is  a  bright,  beautiful  Sabbath.  I  have  finished 
my  History  of  Rationalism  and  committed  the  MS.  to  Dr.  Crooks  for 
examination.  This  off  my  mind,  I  shall  give  myself  more  exclusively 
to  the  work  of  the  Watchman  of  Zion. 

17. — Have  just  been  calculating  my  expenses  for  books  during  the 
year  1864,  and  found  the  amount  to  be  over  $150. 

January  6,  1865.  This  afternoon  at  a  quarter  before  five  o'clock 
I  put  my  last  word  upon  my  History  of  Rationalism.  Have  been 
thanking  God  at  times  almost  ever  since  that  he  has  enabled  me  to 
finish  my  task. 

12. — Rose  at  4lA  o'clock  and  reconsecrated  myself  to  God's  service. 

March  13. — Went  to  Boston  to-night  with  my  brother-in-law,  Mr. 
Elmore.     My  first  visit  there. 

At  West  New  Brighton  143 

14. — Visited  Harvard  College,  Mount  Auburn  Cemetery,  Faneuil 
Hall,  the  Athenaeum. 

April  1. — Conference  met  in  Water  Street  Church.  Had  all  I  could 
do  to  entertain  the  preachers.  It  was  like  keeping  a  hotel.  Was 
appointed  by  the  Bishop  to  Trinity  Church,  Staten  Island. 


At  West  New  Brighton,  Trinity  Church 

The  culmination  of  his  career  as  a  pastor  was  reached 
during  the  eighteen  and  a  half  months  in  Trinity  Church  at 
West  New  Brighton,  then  known  as  Factoryville,  Staten 
Island.  Strong  in  his  faith  in  God,  chastened  but  not  dis- 
couraged by  the  criticisms  and  misrepresentations  which  had 
hindered  the  full  fruits  for  which  he  had  prayed  and  labored  at 
Water  Street,  he  went  from  the  series  of  four  churches  which 
he  had  served  in  northern  New  Jersey  to  his  new  island  ap- 
pointment in  New  York  harbor — a  happy  presage  of  his  en- 
trance a  little  later  into  the  great  world  currents  of  religious 
thought  and  life.  A  few  precious  records — the  ejaculations 
of  his  heart — remain  from  his  pen : 

May  7,  1865. — While  in  prayer  to-day,  alone  in  my  study,  I  had 
a  singular  and  almost  supernatural  impression  of  the  power  of  energy 
— will — resolution.  By  God's  help  I  will  act  in  accordance  with  that 
impression  in  future. 

September  7. — This  afternoon  at  Va  before  5  o'clock  I  gave  the 
last  copy  of  my  History  of  Rationalism  to  the  printer.  It  was  the 
title-page.  Thus,  after  two  months  of  almost  constant  labor,  I  have 
finished  the  arduous  labor  of  seeing  this  work  through  the  press, 
besides  attention  to  all  my  pastoral  work.  Thank  God  for  preserving 
life  and  health  ! 

12. — Went  up  to  Albany  in  the  Dean  Richmond.  Reached  Char- 
lotteville  on  the  13th  in  the  afternoon.    Found  my  family  well. 

20. — Started  by  horse  and  carriage  with  my  wife  and  little  boy 
for  a  ride  down  to  Tunkhannock,  where  my  wife's  brother  lives. 

144  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

24. — The  ride  lasted  four  days.  The  scenery  was  enchanting.  The 
distance  was  over  a  hundred  miles,  eighty  of  which  lay  along  the  bank 
of  the  upper  Susquehanna. 

25. — Was  taken  suddenly  ill  with  bilious  fever.  Fell  on  the  floor 
with  faintness  and  blindness.    Had  to  go  to  bed  and  have  a  physician. 

October  17. — Returned  home  after  my  long  sickness  of  three  weeks. 
Took  the  cars  at  Factoryville,  having  previously  ridden  in  rough 
stage  a  distance  of  nine  miles  from  Tunkhannock.  Reached  home 
about  eight  o'clock  p.  m. 

20. — Am  mending  very  rapidly  every  day.     I  feel  deeply  the  great 
goodness  of  God  in  restoring  me  to  health  again. 
November  10,  General  Work  on  Hand. 

The  Methodist:  Three  stories  per  month. 

Advocate  and  Journal :        One  article  every  three  weeks. 

Ladies'  Repository:  One  article  every  three  months. 

Writing  Sermons:  One  fully  written  sermon  every  week. 

He  was  actively  interested  in  the  live  question  of  lay  repre- 
sentation in  the  General  Conference,  and  sought  to  promote  it 
wherever  he  could.  Rev.  Dr.  J.  T.  Crane,  of  Morristown, 
wrote  him  on  January  20,  1866: 

I  am  gratified  to  know  that  my  friends  approve  my  mode  of  set- 
ting forth  the  Lay  Representation  question,  and  I  am  especially 
pleased  to  learn  that  the  "coming  men"  of  the  Conference  approve. 
I  am  obliged  to  you  for  your  compliment ;  and  now  in  regard  to  your 
proposition  of  some  Conference  action,  I  had  not  got  so  far  in  my 
ideas  as  that ;  and  yet  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  a  series  of  reso- 
lutions, judiciously  framed,  would  be  accepted  by  the  brethren,  and 
pass  without  difficulty. 

On  March  4  he  received,  as  the  fruits  of  a  revival,  forty- 
nine  probationers  into  the  church,  which  number  was  increased 
to  about  ninety  the  following  month. 

June  6. — Have  been  appointed  by  the  authorities  of  our  church 
to  become  Professor  in  our  Theological  School  in  Bremen.  Dr.  W. 
F.  Warren  has  just  left  the  position  and  it  is  pressed  upon  me  by 
the  bishops.     I  have  declined  it.     My  work  seems  to  be  at  home. 

28. — Received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity  from  Dickinson 

At  West  New  Brighton  145 

August  1. — In  the  afternoon  we  went  to  see  an  aged  sick  man, 
Father  Braisted.  He  is  a  setting  sun.  Never  have  I  seen,  more 
than  in  his  case,  the  triumph  of  Christianity  so  beautifully  exemplified. 

3. — Am  getting  ready  for  my  departure  on  my  vacation. 

4. — Received  a  letter  from  Dr.  Warren  urging  me  to  accept  the 
appointment  to  Germany.    I  do  not  yet  know  whether  I  will  accept. 

6. — Started  with  wife  and  babies  on  the  Albany  evening  boat.  Met 
my  friend,  Rev.  S.  H.  Opdyke,  who  is  to  take  a  foot  journey  with 
me  through  the  White  Mountains. 

15. — If  anything  ever  comes  from  this  subject  (our  thought  of 
Christ)  it  may  be  attributed  to  the  good  Spirit  of  God  and  to  the 
rainy  day  I  spent  in  the  Profile  House,  White  Mountains. 

September  20. — Made  agreement  to  go  to  Germany  in  Mission 

24. — Am  getting  ready  to  leave  the  country,  having  accepted  a 
position  in  Bremen.  My  poor  dear  sister  is  almost  broken-hearted 
at  the  thought  of  it. 

From  those  who  enjoyed  his  ministrations  during  this  last 
of  his  five  pastorates  have  come  many  loving  testimonials.  A 
thoughtful  young  man,  who  then  sat  under  his  ministry  and 
has  long  been  a  successful  pastor,  has  been  called  by  the 
church  to  episcopal  honors  and  duties.  The  Rev.  Dr.  (now 
Bishop)  Henry  Spellmeyer  says: 

He  was  pastor  of  our  family  at  Trinity  Church  during  the  time 
when  he  was  preparing  his  History  of  Rationalism.  I  remember 
going  to  New  York  with  him  the  day  he  took  his  proof  copy  to 
the  publishers.  He  and  his  wife  were  present  when  I  graduated 
from  New  York  University,  and  I  remember  their  congratulations 
and  the  fact  that  a  beautiful  bouquet  came  from  the  hand  of  Mrs. 
Hurst  to  my  feet.  But  these  are  purely  personal  matters,  and.  while 
I  cherish  them  as  a  fragrant  memory,  they  would  have  no  interest 
to  the  readers  of  a  Biography. 

These  facts,  which  the  modest  preacher  thought  to  "have  no 

interest  to  the  reader/'  belong  to  all.     The  fragrance  of  that 

friendship,  a  type  of  many  similar  ones,  perishes  not  with  the 

fading  flowers  of  a  college  commencement,  nor  can  it  be  hid 

among  the  personal  and  sacred  treasures  of  one  man's  memory.- 

146  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

It  breathes  perennial  sweetness  among  all  the  churches.     Mr. 
J.  S.  Hillyer  of  West  New  Brighton  writes : 

I  remember  Mr.  Hurst  as  a  very  studious  and  scholarly  man,  an 
easy  and  pleasant  speaker,  one  to  whom  you  could  not  help  listening, 
as  he  never  failed  to  obtain  and  hold  the  attention  of  his  hearers. 

Mrs.  Mary  S.  Steers,  of  the  same  place,  says : 

All  my  recollections  of  Mr.  Hurst  are  very  pleasant :  he  was  a  man 
one  would  remember,  if  ever  having  had  the  slightest  acquaintance 
with  him.     A  very  sincere  Christian  gentleman. 

A  very  pleasing  memorial  of  this  pastorate  is  the  name, 
"Ravenhurst,"  given  to  the  beautiful  home  of  one  of  his  most 
ardent  admirers,  Mr.  Read  Benedict,  of  Port  Richmond,  who 
writes : 

The  church  greatly  prospered  under  his  administration,  and  his 
ability  as  a  preacher  became  widely  known.  His  active  work  espe- 
cially with  young  people,  with  whom  he  was  very  popular,  soon  began 
to  tell  greatly  to  the  spiritual  advantage  of  the  church.  His  Sunday 
school  addresses  were  models  of  excellence.  The  first  year  he  had 
one  of  the  largest  revivals  the  church  ever  experienced,  about  two 
hundred  conversions.  I  recall  his  invitation  to  visit  the  parsonage, 
where  he  read  to  me  much  of  the  manuscript  of  his  History  of 
Rationalism.  I  remember  predicting  at  that  time  that  the  work  would 
make  him  a  bishop  of  our  much-loved  church.  This  scholarly  man, 
while  having  great  determination  and  fixity  of  purpose,  had  a  manner 
as  gentle  as  that  of  the  most  refined  woman. 

On  the  last  Sunday  with  his  people  of  Trinity,  October  14, 
1866,  he  received  about  fifty  new  members  into  the  church, 
and  an  engrossed  testimonial  was  presented  to  him  by  Mr. 
G.  P.  Disosway  on  behalf  of  the  congregation.  It  rings  with 
true  friendship  and  loyal  devotion : 

The  people  of  your  charge  desire  to  unite  with  you  in  thanks  to 
our  heavenly  Father  for  having  enjoyed  a  successful  and  profitable 
ministry  among  them.  They  gratefully  acknowledge  the  faithful- 
ness  of  your   services  to   themselves   and   others,   in   preaching  the 

At  West  New  Brighton  147 

gospel  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  with  singleness  of  purpose  and  sin- 
cerity, with  prayer  and  zeal,  not  having, the  fear  or  favor  of  man, 
but  the  honor  and  glory  of  God  in  advocating  the  kingdom  of  his 

They  cannot,  and  believe  they  ougbt  not,  forbear  to  express  to 
you  their  sincere  thanks  and  love  for  your  sympathies  in  their  joys 
and  prosperity,  as  well  as  in  their  afflictions  and  bereavements.  Nor 
can  they  fail  to  acknowledge  you  as  the  tender  Christian  friend  as 
well  as  their  counselor  to  sacred  duties  and  the  minister  of  heavenly 
consolations,  especially  to  this  congregation. 

They,  with  many  of  our  land,  now  look  upon  you  as  one  having  an 
honorable  place  in  its  sacred  literature,  whose  printed  works  will 
continue  to  advance  the  objects  of  true  religion  and  your  own  min- 
istry, after  you  shall  have  entered  into  the  promised  rest  of  the 
faithful  servant.  It  has  been  the  crowning  glory  of  your  life  among 
us  to  witness  a  gracious  outpouring  of  the  Spirit  of  God,  such  as 
we  and  many  others  have  seen  in  this  congregation ;  and  in  Germany, 
the  far-distant  land  where,  in  the  wise  providence  of  our  Lord,  you 
are  going,  may  you  too  teach  Christ,  gather  many  more  precious 
souls  into  the  Redeemer's  fold,  and  present  them  to  him  before  you 
yourself  shall  ascend  on  high  to  receive  the  promised  crown  of  glory ! 
We  pray  God  that  you  may  be  spared  many  years  for  this  holy  service. 

We  have  a  glimpse  of  how  he  touched  men  in  other  con- 
fessions and  in  the  higher  walks  of  literature,  and  secured 
recognition  for  his  message  and  work,  in  this  belated  note 
from  George  William  Curtis,  the  famous  editor  of  Harper's 
Easy  Chair,  who  lived  near  and  had  given  several  lectures  in 
the  church.  It  was  penned  when  the  ex-pastor  was  two  days 
out  from  Sandy  Hook  on  his  way  to  his  new  work  in  Germany : 

October  22. — I  have  only  just  returned  to  the  island  with  my  family 
after  a  long  absence,  and  I  find  the  very  kind  remembrance  from 
your  hands  in  the  form  of  the  Centenary  documents.  I  am  truly  sorry 
that  I  was  not  able  to  join  in  the  celebration  at  your  church,  for 
I  know  not  how  any  serious  man,  of  whatever  denomination,  can 
fail  to  rejoice  in  commemorating  the  Christian  fervor  and  sweet 
inspiration  of  John  and  Charles  Wesley. 

148  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  Teacher-Elect 

The  Call  to  Germany 

To  the  mind  and  heart  of  Trinity's  pastor,  who  had  during 
his  first  year  drawn  his  people  into  the  most  affectionate  re- 
lations with  himself  and  had  garnered  the  fruits  of  an  ex- 
tensive revival,  there  came  early  in  the  second  year  a  new 
question :  "Shall  I  leave  this  prosperous  and  happy  field  and 
enter  that  of  teaching  young  preachers  in  the  Fatherland?" 
The  correspondence  of  that  summer  throws  light  upon  the 
successive  stages  by  which  he  traveled  from  doubt  to  convic- 
tion and  decision  on  the  step  which  was  to  separate  him  for  a 
series  of  years  from  the  dear  associations  of  the  homeland. 

From  Dr.  L.  S.  Jacoby,  Bremen,  May  3,  1866: 

Would  you  be  willing  to  come  to  our  Institute  as  Theological 
Tutor  in  the  place  of  Brother  Warren,  who  has  served  his  five  years 
and  now  has  received  a  call  from  the  new  Theological  School  in 
Boston?  If  you  would  be  willing  to  come,  you  would  have  to  agree 
to  remain  at  least  five  years  with  us.  You  will  have  to  give  Dogmatik 
1st  and  2d  Class,  Exegesis,  Church  History,  Logic,  and  also  English 
Instruction  to  the  1st  Class.  You  will  have  an  opportunity  to  preach. 
You  will  find  a  nice  cottage  with  three  rooms  and  two  bedrooms  fur- 
nished, and  your  salary  paid  by  the  Missionary  Society  will  be  $1,000 
in  gold.  Will  you  be  so  kind  and  write  to  Bishop  Janes  and  to  myself 
your  answer  after  due  reflection?  Our  next  semester  commences 
with  the  first  of  August,  when  we  would  expect  you  to  be  here.  Dr. 
Warren  sends  his  love  to  you. 

From  Bishop  E.  S.  Janes,  New  York,  June  19 : 

Having  learned  that  Rev.  Dr.  Warren,  the  teacher  in  the  Mission 
Institute  at  Bremen,  Germany,  expects  to  return  to  this  country  next 
month,  I  have  applied  to  the  Mission  Board  for  an  appropriation  to 

The  Call  to  Germany  149 

send  out  a  successor.  Such  appropriation  has  been  made  by  the  Board 
this  afternoon.  I  have  also  consulted  my  associate  in  the  superintend- 
ency  of  that  Mission,  Bishop  Ames,  who  concurs  in  my  so  doing,  and 
I  now  proffer  you  that  appointment,  Theological  Tutor  in  the  Mission 
Institute.  I  hope  it  will  be  consistent  with  your  views  to  accept  this 
appointment  and  to  enter  upon  it  early  in  August  next.  Please  let 
me  hear  from  you  immediately.  If  you  accept  the  appointment,  please 
notify  your  Presiding  Elder  promptly.  For  all  details  of  duty  and 
sailing,  you  will  correspond  with  Rev.  Dr.  Harris,  Corresponding 

July  13. — Your  second  letter  was  received  by  due  course.  I  never 
advise  anyone  to  leave  the  strictly  pastoral  work.  I  am  of  the 
opinion  that  the  appointment  to  Bremen  is  one  of  great  importance 
and  usefulness.  We  cannot  obtain  ministers  in  those  countries  in 
the  same  way  we  do  here.  If  we  have  them  we  must  train  them. 
The  progress  of  the  church  there  depends  very  much  on  our  success 
in  that  school.  It  has  been  eminently  successful.  I  do  not  see  that 
five  years  there  in  training  young  men  for  the  ministry  should  lessen 
your  pastoral  adaptation  afterward.  I  do  not  think  Dr.  Butler  was 
injured  by  his  seven  years  of  missionary  service  in  India.  His  work 
was  much  more  secular  than  teaching  in  Bremen  would  be.  What 
was  the  design  of  Providence  in  inclining  you  to  learn  German?  Is 
not  your  knowledge  of  that  language  a  talent?  Is  not  this  appoint- 
ment the  place  to  use  it  for  the  Master?  I  shall  be  glad  to  hear  from 
you  again.  I  have  not  tendered  the  appointment  to  anyone  else.  May 
God  guide  you  by  his  counsel ! 

August  24. — I  repeat,  I  never  urge  a  brother  to  leave  the  pastoral 
work  for  any  other  service.  If  you  see  it  right  to  leave  the  pastoral 
work  for  any  other  appointment,  I  know  of  none  which  I  would 
think  so  spiritual  and  so  near  pastoral  as  that  I  have  proposed  to 
you  in  Germany.  I  prefer  appointing  you  to  it  to  either  of  the  other 
candidates:  (1)  Because  Brother  Jacoby  and  other  parties  concerned 
desire  you.  (2)  Because  you  are  older  and  more  experienced  in  the 
ministry  than  either  of  them.  (3)  Because  I  have  good  reason  to 
believe  you  understand  our  doctrines  thoroughly  and  believe  and 
teach  them  as  Wesley  and  Watson  and  Hedding  did.  I  am  unwilling 
to  put  anyone  in  that  important  mission  appointment  until  I  am 
satisfied  of  his  orthodoxy.  I  am  convinced,  if,  after  the  manner  in 
which  you  have  been  led  to  prepare  yourself  for  the  appointment 
and  been  called  to  it  by  the  authorities  of  the  church,  you  hesitate 
to  accept  it  for  any  other  reason  than  a  conviction  that  it  is  your 
duty  to  continue  in  the  pastoral  office,  you  will  greatly  mistake  your 

150  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

duty  before  God.  It  is  not  religious  to  stop  to  ask,  Is  it  a  pleasant 
appointment?  What  will  be  the  salary?  What  will  be  the  effects 
upon  my  standing  in  the  Conference?  The  one  question  is,  What 
is  the  will  of  God?  What  is  Christian  duty?  In  my  judgment  the 
appointment  will  prove  an  exceedingly  pleasant  one. 

From  Ff.  B.  Ridgaway,  New  York,  September  28 : 

I  have  heard  without  surprise,  but  not  without  regret,  that  your 
determination  is  settled  to  go  to  Germany.  It  is,  I  trust,  the  direction 
of  Providence ;  and  I  doubt  not  that  God  will  watch  over  you  and 
your  dear  family  and  abundantly  prosper  you  in  your  new  and  respon- 
sible field.  My  selfishness  rebels  against  this  decision.  I  feel  that 
your  departure  will  subtract  very  much  from  my  own  personal  already 
too  limited  happiness.  Yet  I  will  submit.  At  the  throne  of  grace — 
in  the  sweet  fellowship  of  faith  and  love — of  work  in  our  beloved 
church  we  may  still  and  will  be  close  together. 

From  Frank  N.  Barrett,  October  18: 

Dear  Pastor:  I  would  be  doing  an  injustice  to  my  own  feelings 
if  I  failed  in  giving  some  expression  to  the  sorrow  I  feel  at  your 
leaving  us.  Not  only  have  I  found  in  you  a  true  and  loving  pastor, 
but  a  good  and  useful  friend,  one  from  whom  I  have  been  taught  to 
take  nobler,  purer,  higher  thoughts  of  life,  its  aims,  its  objects. 
Though  a  year  ago  ambition  urged  me  on  to  strive  for  fortune  and 
worldly  honors,  I  think  that  now  I  can  truly  say  that  the  influence  of 
your  life  on  mine  has  been  such  as  to  lead  me  to  devote  my  time, 
my  energy,  to  the  improvement  of  my  "talent,"  so  that  it  shall  be 
useful  in  my  Master's  vineyard,  and  to  say,  "Thy  will,  not  mine,  be 

On  the  departure  of  the  teacher-elect  with  his  wife  and  two 
children  Mrs.  Hurst  made  a  few  notes : 

Left  America  October  20,  1866,  steamer  America.  I  can  never 
forget  that  day  or  the  feelings  I  then  experienced.  Over  seventy 
of  our  particular  friends  came  to  the  steamer  to  see  us  off.  Among 
them  were  Rev.  Drs.  Carlton,  Harris,  Sewall,  Rev.  Brothers  Watkins. 
Ridgaway,  Roche,  Hilliard,  Freeman,  Whitney,  Van  Sant,  and  Simp- 
son ;  Philip  Phillips,  the  sweet  singer,  played  and  sang  a  parting 
song;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bailey  and  daughter,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Hurst 
from   Baltimore;    Mr.   Wilde's   family   from   Newark;    Mrs.    Norton 

Second  Farewell  to  America  151 

and  Mr.  Adams ;  Mr.  Barrett  and  wife,  Staten  Island ;  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Benedict  and  children  (the  kindness  of  the  latter  in  our  preparation 
to  leave  America  can  never  be  forgotten),  and  other  very  dear 
friends.  It  was  a  delightful  day  and  the  parting  salute  was  given  at 
1 :30  after  the  anchor  was  loosed.  For  ten  minutes  we  could  see  the 
waving  of  handkerchiefs,  and  then  all  was  lost.  I  tried  to  distinguish 
the  face  of  one,  my  sweet  sister  Jennie,  who  traveled  one  day  and 
night  to  be  present  at  our  parting,  the  only  one  of  my  relatives  who 
could  come. 

While  the  worker  with  his  family  is  afloat  on  the  Atlantic 
it  will  be  of  interest  to  take  note  of  his  first  book,  the  History 
of  Rationalism,  embracing  a  survey  of  the  Present  State  of 
Protestant  Theology,  and  of  the  general  impress  made  by  him 
upon  the  ministers  and  people  of  the  Newark  Conference. 

152  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  Author 

His  First  Book,  History  of  Rationalism 

Hurst's  History  of  Rationalism  was  a  growth  of  about  nine 
years  from  observation,  reading,  and  study,  both  in  Germany 
and  America,  after  his  entrance  upon  university  life  at  Halle. 
The  germ  of  this  intellectual  polemic  and  spiritual  apologetic 
was  a  deep  conviction  that  nothing  was  so  much  needed  in 
the  world  of  theological  thought  as  a  clear  and  articulated 
statement  of  the  fundamental  features  of  that  modern  phase 
of  skepticism  known  as  rationalism.  To  this  labor  of  love  and 
helpfulness  he  assiduously  clung  from  the  time  when  he  began 
to  write  on  Rationalism  for  the  church  papers  while  still 
preaching  on  Carlisle  Circuit.  The  entries  in  his  Journal  for 
March  2,  11,  and  12,  1858,  show  the  beginnings  of  his  writing 
on  the  theme.  His  own  statement  of  his  desire  to  write  more 
at  length  for  publication  was  in  this  language,  found  in  his 
Journal  of  January  3,  i860,  while  in  his  first  year  at  Passaic: 

I  would  like  to  commence  authorship  in  earnest  with  a  faithful  and 
earnest  description  of  Rationalism.  To  many  minds  this  is  a  subject 
which  possesses  not  the  slightest  interest.  They  look  on  it  as  fanatic 
infidelity.  For  my  own  part,  I  think  the  subject  bears  a  most  serious 
appearance  and  demands  a  Christian  heart  and  a  good  judgment  to 
write  its  history.  Soon  after  Conference  I  hope  to  commence  this 
pleasure.  I  know  pretty  well  what  materials  I  shall  employ.  I 
thought  at  first  that  this  design  was  fanciful  and  would  not  last.  But 
the  subject  has  been  dwelling  in  my  mind  ever  since  I  was  in  Ger- 
many and  bore  witness  to  the  terrible  ravages  of  Rationalism  in  the 
native  land  of  Luther.  Time  has  rather  deepened  my  desire  to  write 
on  the  subject  than  erased  it.  I  feel,  too,  as  if  I  could  make  a  read- 
able work.     I  may  never  finish  my  task.     I  may  die  with  the  plan  in 

History  of  Rationalism  153 

mind ;  but  as  well  that  plan,  perhaps,  as  any  other.     I  hope  always 
to  have  some  noble  project  in  view. 

The  detailed  progress  of  the  composition  of  the  work  and 
of  the  broadening  of  its  scope  from  a  treatment  of  some  of  the 
Phases  of  Rationalism  to  a  History  will  appear  from  Journal 
entries  already  noted  for  the  following  dates:  September  19, 
1861 ;  November  12,  1862;  February  24  and  25,  May  13, 
July  14  and  25,  August  1,  October  25,  and  December  3,  1863; 
April  9,  August  5,  November  12,  and  December  4,  1864; 
January  6  and  September  7,  1865.  The  initial  step  toward 
putting  the  work  in  the  hands  of  his  publisher,  and  the  char- 
acteristic caution  of  that  discriminating  man,  may  be  seen  in 
the  letter  from  Charles  Scribner,  written  December  30,  1864: 

Some  days  since  I  received  a  note  from  the  Rev.  Robert  Aikman, 
of  your  place  (Elizabeth),  inclosing  a  synopsis  of  a  work,  History 
of  Rationalism,  written  by  you  and  which  he  proposed  to  me  in  your 
behalf  for  publication,  requesting  that  I  would  communicate  with 
you.  I  have  looked  over  the  headings  of  the  chapters  with  much 
interest,  and,  were  the  time  more  favorable,  I  should  be  disposed  to 
look  at  it  with  a  view  of  publication.  The  subject  is  certainly  one 
of  deep  and  increasing  interest  to  every  thoughtful  mind,  though 
from  its  nature  the  work,  I  fear,  would  have  a  limited  circulation. 
It  would,  however,  depend  much  on  the  manner  of  its  execution, 
whether  you  have  been  able  to  treat  it  so  as  to  interest  the  popular 
mind — I  mean  intelligent  readers  outside  of  the  clergy. 

I  am  really  at  loss  what  to  say  as  to  entertaining  your  work.  When 
you  come  in  town  I  would  be  pleased  to  have  a  personal  interview 
with  you  respecting  it ;  or  if  you  choose,  under  the  circumstances,  to 
send  me  the  manuscript  any  time  after  the  first  week  in  January,  I 
will  engage  to  give  it  attention. 

It  was  published  by  Scribner  in  the  fall  of  1865.  About  a 
year  after  its  publication  in  America  an  enlarged  edition  was 
published  in  London.  In  preparation  for  this  he  noted  in  his 
Journal  on  July  14,  1866: 

Having  finished  my  additions  to  History  of  Rationalism,  and 
Triibner  &  Co.  having  engaged  to  bring  out  an  English  edition,  I  to- 

154  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

day  sent   out  the   copy,   being  about    ioo   fresh   pages   added  to  the 
American  edition. 

The  welcome  extended  to  this  first  child  of  his  brain  and 
heart  and  the  measure  of  its  mission  for  good  may  be  learned 
in  part  from  some  of  the  greetings  it  received  from  the  press 
and  from  the  testimony  of  a  few  of  the  multitude  who  profited 
by  its  reading  and  study : 

You  have  rendered  the  Christian  public  of  America  a  noble  service. 
Many  of  our  young  preachers  will  learn  more  from  your  pages  re- 
specting the  history  and  present  state  of  theology  throughout  the 
world  than  they  would  do  could  they  make  the  old-fashioned  pere- 
grinatio  scholastica  through  all  the  countries  described.  The  work 
does  honor  to  the  rising  scholarship  of  our  church,  and  will  prove,  I 
trust,  the  first  fruits  of  new  harvests. — Dr.  William  F.  Warren. 

Our  scholarly  brother  of  the  Newark  Conference  has  boiled  down 
the  post-Lutheran  rationalism  into  what,  despite  its  ingredients,  is  a 
very  savory  dish.  "There  is  death  in  the  pot."  In  fact,  there  is 
nothing  but  death  in  it.  And  yet  this  "man  of  God"  casts  into  it  here 
and  there  little  handfuls  of  healthful  meal  ground  from  good  seed 
of  the  kingdom,  and  so  makes  it  safe  as  well  as  palatable. — Gilbert 
Haven,  in  Christian  Advocate. 

It  evinces  much  learning  and  discrimination  on  the  part  of  the 
author,  and  is  thoroughly  fair  and  dispassionate  in  tone.  In  nearly 
all  cases  the  views  of  men  whose  works  are  commented  upon  are 
given  in  their  own  language,  thus  rendering  it  evident  that  they  are 
in  no  respect  misrepresented.  It  is  much  more  compactly  and  closely 
written  than  is  Lecky's  recently  published  work  on  the  same  subject: 
and,  though  less  pretentious  in  its  style,  is  really  an  abler  book. — 
The  Independent. 

Mr.  Lecky's  object  is  to  trace  the  operation  of  the  spirit  of  Ration- 
alism in  the  details  of  actual  life,  public  and  private.  Mr.  Hurst  goes 
deeper  down,  and  searches  out  the  causes  of  the  changes  and  pro- 
gressions that  the  other  writer  recognizes  without  attempting  to 
account  for.  There  is  consequently  much  in  each  book  that  supple- 
ments the  other,  and  the  two  may  well  be  studied  together  with  profit. 
— New  York  Times. 

Here  is  found  the  clearest  view  of  Theodore  Parker  and  his  in- 
fluence which  we  have  ever  seen. — Boston  Recorder. 

The  spirit  of  his  book,  as  befits  an  historian,  is  beautifully  calm. 

History  of  Rationalism  155 

Even  the  most  mischievous  errorists  are  not  called  hard  names; 
their  motives  are  not  impeached,  and  their  work  is  shown  to  have 
been  the  occasion  of  good,  in  pointing  out  the  weak  spots  in  the 
church's  defenses,  and  in  calling  out  heroes  able  both  to  ward  off 
assaults  and  to  fortify  on  surer  principles. — The  Methodist. 

Never  before  has  an  Arminian  written  of  Holland,  its  struggles, 
its  achievements,  its  literature,  its  learning,  and  its  theology,  under 
the  control  of  a  more  candid  and  truth-loving  spirit,  than  this  his- 
torian has  shown.  He  has  indeed  done  what  few  in  this  country 
have  been  willing  to  do — ascribe  to  Holland  the  glory  she  earned  in 
the  early  struggles  of  Europe  to  break  the  papal  yoke. — The  Chris- 
tian Intelligencer. 

It  sets  out  to  set  in  order  the  rise,  progress,  and  present  position 
of  the  scholastic  infidelity  of  modern  Germany,  and  it  accomplishes 
what  it  undertakes.  We  like  its  straightforward  narrative  style,  its 
lucid  arrangement  of  facts,  and  its  plain  and  obviously  natural  con- 
secution of  events. — Daniel  Curry,  in  Christian  Advocate. 

Confident  in  the  power  of  his  faith  to  ultimately  rise  triumphant 
from  attack,  he  exhorts  his  brethren  not  to  offer  opposition  to  the 
progress  of  science,  not  to  scout  all  theories,  but  wait  the  full  devel- 
opment of  science.  In  a  word,  he  contends  for  the  refutation  of 
error,  not  for  its  unreasoning  suppression. — American  and  Oriental 
Literary  Record. 

He  shows  much  skill  in  tracing  the  progress  and  spread  of  false 
views  from  often  small  commencements.  His  spirit  is  thoroughly 
evangelical,  and  his  qualifications  for  his  task  are  amply  certified  in 
these  pages. — Boston  Review. 

It  treats  the  history  of  Rationalism  with  a  fullness  and  complete- 
ness rivaled  by  no  other  English  writer,  and  evinces  industrious  and 
extended  research  and  copious  learning.  It  gives  a  map  of  the  field 
of  free  thought  in  the  present  age,  showing  fairly  its  length  and 
breadth,  where  it  trenches  on  the  domain  of  faith,  and  where  it  reaches 
into  the  dark  territory  of  unbelief.  For  ordinary  readers  it  contains 
all  the  information  on  the  subject  they  will  be  likely  to  need;  and  for 
theological  students  it  is  an  excellent  introduction  and  guide  to  the 
study  of  modern  aberrations. — Dr.  John  McClintock,  in  Methodist 
Quarterly  Review. 

We  cannot  easily  conceive  a  better  mental  or  spiritual  discipline  for 
young  men  than  to  study  and  master  these  subjects. — Dr.  Joseph 

It  will  be  found  an  exceedingly  useful  manual  of  information.  The 
literary  and  controversial  history  of  Rationalism  from  the  time  im- 

156  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

mediately  succeeding  the  Reformation  to  the  present  day  is  well  and 
fairly  described.  The  English  reader  will  find  abundant  notices  of 
continental  authors  who  have  played  and  are  playing  an  important 
part  in  theological  discussions,  which  are  not  brought  together  any- 
where in  an  equally  convenient  form. — Westminster  Review. 

Mr.  Hurst  has  confined  himself  to  the  literary  department  and  the- 
ological aspects  of  Rationalism,  which,  while  it  is  not  regarded  by 
him  as  an  unmixed  evil,  yet,  being  born  under  the  eclipse  of  con- 
science, has  often  been  the  offspring  of  pride  and  self-indulgence, 
has  been  coincident  with  stagnation  of  the  religious  life,  and,  in  spite 
of  appearances  to  the  contrary,  has  outwitted  itself  and  is  staggering 
to  its  doom.  The  author  skillfully  shows  the  filiation  of  the  rational- 
istic school,  which  took  its  rise  under  Semler. — British  Quarterly 

I  have,  been  familiar  with  his  books  from  the  first  issues  and  have 
found  them  profitable,  and  his  History  of  Rationalism  in  particular 
I  found  to  be  very  useful  as  well  as  interesting. — Dr.  C.  W .  Gallagher. 

I  had  just  entered  the  ministry  and  was  fresh  from  college,  did  not 
know  how  to  read  a  strong  book  like  a  man  of  riper  years ;  but  I  was 
then  strong  enough  to  derive  great  benefit  from  this  plain,  brief, 
scholarly,  and  vigorous  presentation  of  rationalism.  No  one  but  a 
scholar  could  go  through  the  literature  quoted. — Dr.  W .  H.  Hickman. 

I  knew  John  Fletcher  Hurst  first  through  his  work  on  German 
Rationalism,  which  was  very  helpful  to  me,  as  to  many  others,  as  a 
preparation  for  understanding  the  religious  attitude  of  German 
scholars. — Dr.  Wesley  C.  Sazvycr. 

I  read  with  great  pleasure  and  profit  his  History  of  Rationalism, 
which  enlightened  me  more  upon  the  subject  of  which  it  treated  than 
any  I  have  ever  read. — Dr.  A.  H.  Ames. 

Your  style  is  lucid,  and  particularly  so  for  the  metaphysical  sub- 
tleties you  have  to  deal  with.  You  crystallize  into  a  small  mass  the 
immense  systems  of  speculation — and  they  are  clear  crystals,  too. 
You  contrive  to  give  in  a  few  short,  sharp  sentences  the  peculiarities 
of  each.  You  enliven  what  might  otherwise  be  sometimes  heavy  and 
laborious  to  read,  by  an  easy  and  natural  introduction  of  similes,  and 
your  general  deductions  are  philosophical  and  (have  I  the  hardihood 
to  say  it?)  to  me  seem  correct!  I  wish  I  had  written  it!  I  think  it 
a  capital  book  to  put  into  the  hands  of  some  of  our  youthful  skeptics. 
Poor  fellows — their  speculations  strike  them  as  new,  and  they  wonder 
the  world  never  thought  of  them  before! — Dr.  Denis  Wortman. 

Your  portly  and  pregnant  volume  came  to  hand.  I  am  delighted 
at  your  success  as  a  bookmaker.     I  have  read  much  of  it  and  am 

History  of  Rationalism  157 

struck  with  the  richness  of  the  matter  and  the  felicitousness  of  the 
diction.  You  have  made  a  valuable  contribution  to  us  lazier  preachers 
and  permitted  us  to  enter  into  the  fruits  of  your  labors. — Dr.  IV.  A. 

I  am  more  than  pleased;  such  beauty  of  language,  clearness  of  ex- 
pression that  a  child  might  understand,  will  be  one  of  its  great  sources 
of  influence  and  benefit  to  the  rising  generation. — Mrs.  Lydia  A. 

While  this  work  was  in  progress  we  were  frequently  together  in 
his  study,  and  I  had  the  privilege  of  seeing  the  evolution  of  the  book. 
It  met  a  felt  want  in  the  church.  It  was  possibly  the  most  influential 
of  all  his  writings. — President  H.  A.  Butt2. 

It  was  one  of  my  inspirations  when  it  first  appeared.  It  stands  to- 
day as  a  valuable  authority  on  that  subject.  It  was  very  popular,  not 
only  to  the  scholar,  but  the  layman  has  read  it.  In  the  bibliological 
notes  written  by  the  Nestor  of  Calvinism,  Dr.  Charles  Hodge,  he 
says  that  it  is  the  best  book  yet  produced  in  the  English  language  on 
that  subject. — Bishop  Cyrus  D.  Foss. 

His  History  of  Rationalism,  on  account  of  its  style  and  little  preach- 
ments, is  as  interesting  as  a  novel. — Dr.  C.  B.  Spencer. 

158  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  Brother  Beloved 

The  Hearts  of  His  Brethren 

His  relations  with  the  preachers  of  Newark  Conference  were 
those  of  warm  and  sincere  brotherliness,  and  the  departure  to 
his  new  post  of  duty  by  one  who  had  so  endeared  himself  to 
his  fellow  preachers  evoked  many  expressions  of  tender  and 
genuine  affection.  The  strength  of  the  esteem  and  love  in 
which  he  was  held  by  the  Conference  after  eight  years  of 
association  is  but  partially  expressed  in  these  tokens  from  his 
closest  associates  in  the  ministry.  The  language  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Preachers'  Association  of  the  city  of 
Newark  on  October  8,  1866,  was : 

We,  as  members  of  the  Newark  Conference,  hereby  express  the 
regret  we  feel  in  losing  the  society  and  fellowship  of  our  beloved 
brother.  Our  best  wishes  and  prayers  go  with  him  to  his  newly  ap- 
pointed field  of  labor ;  and  we  will  cordially  welcome  him  to  a  place 
among  us  on  his  return. 

Also  resolved  that  a  committee  of  two  be  appointed  to  represent 
this  meeting  on  the  occasion  of  the  departure  of  Dr.  Hurst  from 

R.  B.  Lockwood,  of  Stony  Point,  New  York,  says : 

Brother  Hurst  was  a  close  observer  of  the  work  of  the  Conference, 
but  seldom  speaking  on  the  floor.  He  was  highly  esteemed  for  his 
brotherly  sympathy,  loving  consideration,  and  interest  in  the  general 
work.  In  his  several  appointments  he  was  assiduous  and  painstaking. 
A  faithful,  kind  pastor,  he  showed  a  profound  conviction  for  the  truth 
in  his  public  utterances.  Uncomplaining  in  his  disposition,  ruling  his 
spirit  well,  he  was  highly  esteemed  by  the  brethren  of  the  ministry 
and  laity,  and  his  integrity  was  above  suspicion.  He  had  no  fads 
nor  twists,  and  was  a  reliable  all-round  man. 




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>— i 













































































The  Hearts  of  His  Brethren  159 

George  H.  Whitney  wrote  him  two  days  before  sailing : 

Plainfield,  N.  J.,  October  18. 
Many  kind  and  earnest  words  of  farewell  and  well-wishing  are 
spoken  to  you  by  the  titled  and  the  great.  Suffer  one  of  your  hum- 
blest friends  to  add  his  hearty  good-bye.  Hurst,  your  friendship  has 
always  been  a  joy  to  me.  Your  kind  words  have  ever  blessed  me. 
Knowing  as  I  do  your  strong  desire  to  be  useful,  you  ought  to  be 
made  glad  when  I  tell  you  that  your  words,  your  companionship,  your 
counsel,  have  been  invaluable  to  me.  I  am  a  better,  a  stronger  man 
for  having  had  your  fellowship  and  love.  Many  will  miss  you ;  but, 
it  seems  to  me,  none  so  much  as  I.  There  is  so  much  of  acquaintance- 
ship that  is  merely  external,  so  much  friendship  tainted  with  envy, 
jealousy,  or  indifference,  that  it  is  indeed  a  blessed  experience  to  find 
a  friend  who  is  all  over  and  over  a  friend.  I  had  counted  on  many  a 
pleasant  and  profitable  hour  with  you  in  the  coming  years.  My  heart 
is  very  sad  as  I  write.  Memory  of  other  days  comes  up — joys,  sor- 
rows, friendships,  separations,  all  remind  me  of  the  blessedness  of  that 
bright  world  where  we  shall  all  have  time  to  know  one  another,  and 
where  graves  and  seas  can  never  separate  bodies  nor  hearts. 

George  F.  Dickinson  says  : 

His  was  an  attractive  nature.  In  every  appointment  to  which  he 
was  assigned  success  marked  his  administrations.  In  Trinity  a  great 
religious  awakening  came  upon  his  congregations,  spreading  through 
the  community  and  bringing  into  the  church  many  converts.  The 
work  had  the  gospel  mark  of  permanency.  Its  fruits  remain.  He  was 
an  example  to  his  people  of  the  truths  he  taught.  His  devotion  to  his 
companion  and  to  his  family  was  marked  for  its  simplicity  and  reality. 
He  was  a  favorite  among  the  youth  of  his  church,  always  ready  to 
give  counsel,  encouragement,  and  sympathy. 

George  W.  Treat  says : 

He  filled  a  place  in  the  hearts  of  his  brethren  of  the  Conference, 
and  his  influence  was  both  an  inspiration  and  a  benediction. 

Especially  near  to  his  heart  were  the  members  of  his  own 
class  of  1858.  The  affectionate  playfulness  of  a  classmate 
who,  after  a  life  of  exceeding  usefulness  at  home  and  abroad, 
preceded  him  but  by  a  little  to  the  final  home  was  treasured 

160  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

in  this  postscript  to  a  letter  on  a  weighty  matter  connected 
with  the  mission  in  China,  from  Stephen  L.  Baldwin : 

P.  S. — The  shaking  of  this  train,  on  the  West  Shore  Road,  makes 
my  chirography  almost  as  bad  as  yours.  If  you  consider  that  an  im- 
pudent remark,  inasmuch  as  I  am  about  400  miles  out  of  your  reach, 
just  take  that  "Last-of-the-Hamilton- Amendment"  gavel,  and  whack 
this  letter,  instead  of  the  author.  The  letter  will  not  feel  the  rap ; 
the  author  might. 

Hurrah  for  the  class  of  '58 — 

The  ever  true,  and  always  straight ! 

When  it  shall  pass  beyond  the  flood, 

'Twill  leave  no  other  half  as  good  ! 

From  the  heart  and  lips  of  another  of  his  class,  the  one  most 
intimately  and  continuously  in  personal  association  with  him. 
President  Henry  A.  Buttz,  came  these  words  at  the  memorial 
service  of  the  Conference  in  1904 : 

But  some  of  us  will  recall  Bishop  Hurst  as  his  classmates  who  were 
admitted  to  the  Newark  Conference  at  its  first  session,  ten  of  whom 
stood  side  by  side  to  be  ordained  to  the  office  of  deacon  and  after- 
ward to  the  office  of  elder.  Their  names,  in  the  order  in  which  they 
appeared  in  the  first  Minutes  of  this  Conference,  are :  Samuel  J.  Morris, 
Gilbert  H.  Winans,  John  F.  Hurst,  Solomon  Parsons,  Henry  A.  Buttz, 
John  F.  Dodd,  Alexander  Craig,  William  E.  Blakeslee,  Stephen  L. 
Baldwin,  Sylvester  H.  Opdyke.  Four  of  that  number,  Opdyke,  Par- 
sons, Baldwin,  and  Hurst,  are  not,  for  God  has  taken  them.  Six  of 
that  number  still  remain  to  mourn  his  loss  and  honor  his  memory. 
We  were  ten  then.    Are  we  not  still  ten  ? 

At  Bremen  161 

The  Teacher-Traveler 

At  Bremen  and  at  Large 

We  had  a  most  delightful  voyage,  the  sea  being  almost  as  calm  as 
New  York  Bay  nearly  the  whole  distance.  We  were  ten  days  in 
reaching  Southampton  and  three  more  Bremen.  We  were  very  kindly 
received  by  Dr.  Jacoby  and  family,  and  after  remaining  there  two 
days  and  nights  we  went  into  our  house,  which  was  partially  fur- 
nished.    We  purchased  our  own  carpets,  china,  and  kitchen  utensils. 

Such  is  the  brief  account  by  Mrs.  Hurst  of  the  transfer  from 
Staten  Island  to  the  teeming  city  on  the  Weser.  Of  the  man 
who  was  Director  of  the  Mission  Institute  and  of  the  work 
out  of  which  and  for  the  development  of  which  the  school  had 
grown,  let  Dr.  Hurst  tell  in  his  own  fascinating  way : 

In  1846  in  a  little  mission  hall  in  Cincinnati  an  undersized  but  keen- 
eyed  German  Methodist  minister  was  preaching  the  gospel.  On  the 
very  front  seat  was  another  young  German,  busily  taking  notes  from 
the  announcement  of  the  text.  After  a  time  this  young  man  couldn't 
guide  his  pencil,  for  it  danced  up  and  down  the  paper  irregularly. 
He  couldn't  see  the  page,  for  his  eyes  had  a  strange  dimness  over 
them.  He  knew  not  why  it  was  so,  but  he  was  weeping  profusely. 
At  the  close  of  the  sermon  he  went  to  the  preacher,  and  told  him  that 
something  was  troubling  him  exceedingly,  and  it  seemed  to  him  that 
he  was  under  the  control  of  an  unknown  power.  The  preacher  knew 
at  once  what  it  was.  With  tenderness  he  said,  "I  think  God's  Spirit 
is  striving  with  you."  Again  and  again  the  young  inquirer  came,  and 
for  him  and  with  him  the  preacher  prayed,  till  finally  he  came  out 
into  "the  glorious  liberty  of  the  children  of  God."  The  preacher  was 
Rev.  William  Nast,  the  founder  of  German  Methodism  in  America. 
The  young  man  was  the  secretary  of  an  infidel  club  who  had  come 
to  take  down  the  sermon,  and  then,  going  back  to  his  fellows,  make 
merry  as  he  riddled  it  to  pieces.  But  God  had  other  plans  for  him. 
Three  years  later  we  see  him  before  the  Missionary  Committee  in 

1 62  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

New  York,  pleading  with  the  brethren  to  send  him  to  Germany.  Only 
authorize  him  and  he  would  go.  So  he  went.  His  name  is  Ludwig 
S.  Jacoby,  the  immortal  founder  of  Methodism  on  the  continent  of 
Europe,  and  the  first  one  to  establish  Sunday  schools  of  any  kind  in 

Wise  advice  came  to  him  from  his  friend  Dr.  Agnew,  who 
wrote  him  on  December  I,  1866: 

You  must  not  forget  to  take  sufficient  outdoor  exercise  or  to  break 
your  tasks  of  indoor  study  by  occasional  recreation. 

His  published  letters  in  the  Methodist,  the  Christian  Ad- 
vocate, and  Zion's  Herald,  and  his  private  correspondence 
kept  him  in  vital  and  informing  touch  with  affairs  social  and 
ecclesiastic  in  America.  George  H.  Whitney  wrote  him  on 
December  1 8  : 

Elder  Hilliard  says  your  Methodist  letter  is  even  better  than  the 
one  in  the  Advocate.  Next  Sunday  I  go  to  Newton  to  help  them 
raise  $1,000  on  parsonage;  and  I've  got  your  "69  No-Yes"  as  one 
of  my  best  illustrations.  [His  graphic  reference  to  Signor  Tecchio's 
diplomatic  oral  report  of  the  result  of  the  vote  in  Venetia  on  the 
union  of  that  state  with  the  kingdom  of  Italy  and  its  removal  from 
Austrian  rule,  only  69  negatives  against  641,758  yeas.]  So  you  see 
you'll  speak  in  Newton  next  Sunday !  Speak  on,  my  dear  brother ! 
From  across  the  broad  Atlantic  send  your  tropes  and  figures,  your  Yes, 
your  No,  your  eloquence  and  zeal,  send  your  soul,  your  burning 
truths;  stir  the  church.  Thirty  thousand  eyes  are  upon  your  printed 
thoughts;  and,  though  thousands  of  miles  away  in  old  Bremen,  yet 
are  you  present  in  the  cis-Atlantic  churches. 

From  H.  B.  Ridgaway,  December  27 : 

With  the  time  at  your  command  you  cannot  fail  to  acquire  rapidly 
and  to  be  able  to  furnish  not  only  interesting  letters,  but  contributions 
to  our  permanent  literature.  Your  letters  strike  the  right  note.  We 
need  facts — accounts  of  men,  principles,  things,  movements;  these 
will  take  and  profit. 

William  Nast,  whose  interest  in  the  mission  was  intense, 
greets  him  on  January  22,  1867: 

Nast,  McClintock,  Childs  163 

I  am  rejoiced  to  hear  that  you  are  so  well  pleased  with  your  new 
and  important  field  of  labor,  and  that  the  prospects  of  the  work  in 
Germany  are  so  bright.  It  is  truly  amazing,  how  exceeding  abun- 
dantly God  has  blessed  the  labors  of  Brother  Jacoby.  Whatever  he 
undertook,  from  the  beginning,  the  Lord  prospered.  The  founda- 
tions of  the  work  seem  to  be  as  firm  as  the  everlasting  rocks,  and 
the  dimensions  into  which  it  is  growing  are  indescribably  grand. 
Truly,  this  is  God's  work.  It  seems  as  if  our  work  in  America  was 
only  preparatory  to  the  greater  one  in  Germany. 

When  it  looked  as  if  the  new  theological  seminary  which 

Daniel   Drew  had  proposed   to  build   and  endow   would   be 

located  at  Carmel,  New  York,  its  president.  Dr.  McClintock, 

wrote  Dr.  Hurst  on  March  21,  1867: 

The  Drew  Seminary  is  to  begin  in  September.  Faculty  not  yet 
chosen.  I  wish  you  were  here  to  be  one  of  them,  but  that  must  wait 
for  a  while.  In  the  meantime  I  wish  to  get  the  fundamental  books 
for  the  library.  You  can  help  in  this.  Tell  me,  (1)  Can  your 
Bremen  House  collect  the  books  we  may  order,  from  all  Germany, 
and  pack  and  ship  them  to  us,  as  cheaply  or  more  so  than  an  agent 
here  can  do  it?  (2)  Can  our  periodicals  (we  shall  get  all  that  are 
worth  taking)  come  in  the  same  way,  or  better  through  agents  here? 
(3)  Can  we  secure  any  extra  discounts  by  buying  a  larger  order  at 
once  ?  Please  answer  me  on  these  points,  or  any  other  you  may  think 
of  for  the  library.  In  your  Methodist  correspondence  put  in  abstracts 
of  new  books,  when  you  can.  We  commence  at  Carmel  in  the  build- 
ing already  erected,  which  will  accommodate  sixty  students  and  is 
beautifully  fitted  up.  Do  you  know  any  young  preacher  who  has 
graduated  at  college,  and  gone  through  a  theological  course,  who 
would  be  fit  to  work  in  Hebrew  and  Greek,  and  has  good  stuff  in 
him?  We  shall  all  have  work  enough  to  do  in  preparing  the  ministry 
of  the  next  generation.  God  help  us  to  do  it  well !  I  heartily  wish 
Warren  could  be  with  us  at  Carmel,  but  he  seems  to  be  a  fixture  at 
the  new  school  to  be  built  at  Boston. 

From  George  W.  Childs,  May  6 : 

I  should  be  happy  to  receive  from  you.  as  frequently  as  you  can 
supply  them  for  the  American  Literary  Gazette,  notices  of  new  and 
important  literary  matters  and  publications,  which  may  happen  to  fall 
under  your  notice,  and  which  would  probably  interest  American 
readers  or  students. 

164  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

To  Dr.  Nast,  whom  he  loved  and  trusted  as  a  father,  he 
wrote  on  May  25  : 

I  hope  to  make  some  headway  soon  on  a  History  of  Protestant 
Theology.  I  have  many  authorities  already;  some  preliminary  labors 
begun — outline.  If  I  had  room  I  could  give  you  the  synopsis  and 
ask  you  for  your  judgment.  I  am  as  much  pleased  as  ever  with  my 
position  here.  I  think  it  is  God's  work  that  he  makes  me  labor  in 

The  position  of  theological  tutor  at  the  Missions-Anstalt 
involved  his  teaching  candidates  for  the  ministry  in  the  first 
and  second  year  classes  in  systematic  theology,  and  those  of 
the  first  class  in  exegesis,  church  history,  logic,  and  English. 
His  familiarity  with  both  written  and  spoken  German,  his 
college  and  Conference  studies,  his  broad  reading  and  travel, 
and  his  ceaseless  application  to  the  work  in  hand  made  him 
from  the  first  the  easy  master  of  the  situation.  He  won  his 
way  into  the  hearts  of  his  colleagues  and  fastened  to  himself 
the  young  Germans  who  in  succession  came  under  his 
stimulating  tuition. 

The  quiet  routine  of  the  first  year  in  Bremen  was  enlivened 
by  a  trip  with  Mrs.  Hurst  in  middle  April  to  the  Exposition 
in  Paris,  taking  in  a  brief  visit  to  Cologne,  with  its  growing 
cathedral  and  the  house  of  Rubens,  to  Mainz,  Strassburg, 
Bingen,  and  Bonn. 

Mrs.  Hurst  writes  April  20  to  her  sister,  Mrs.  Snow : 

Mr.  Hurst  seems  to  enjoy  it  as  much  as  if  he  had  never  been  here 
in  Paris  before.  He  gets  along  nicely  speaking  French,  and  is  under- 
stood very  well  indeed. 

For  about  six  weeks  after  their  return  to  Bremen,  April  27. 
he  says : 

Not  much  work  done  from  this  time  until  June.  Suffered  from  eyes 
and  a  burning  brain. 

In  Switzerland  165 

The  leading  question  that  came  before  the  session  of  the 

Conference  held  in  Zurich  in  June  was  that  of  the  proposed 

removal  of  the  Institute  to  a  more  central  and  southern  city. 

He  greatly  favored  such  change  of  location,  while  Dr.  Jacoby 

opposed.     His  letters  throw  light  on  the  journey  to  the  seat  of 

Conference,   the   discussions   there,   and   his  travels   after  its 

close : 

Basel,  Switzerland,  June  19. 
To  Mrs.  Hurst : 

How  I  would  love  to  see  the  dear  little  children !  Johnny  might 
pull  me  off  the  sofa,  and  Clara  might  wear  my  spectacles  all  she 
pleases.    I  went  to  see  my  old  rooms  of  ten  years  ago  at  Heidelberg. 

Zurich,  June  23. 
To  Mrs.  Hurst: 

The  Mission-House  will  certainly  go  south,  if  things  go  as  they 
look.  Bishop  Kingsley  told  me  privately  last  night  that  Dr.  Durbin 
wishes  the  Mission-House  to  go  south  by  all  means,  if  the  brethren 
wish  it.  I  think  the  Bishop  wants  it  south.  The  debate  will  come 
up  in  a  day  or  two. 

Zurich,  June  26. 
To  Mrs.  Hurst : 

Conference  closed  last  night  about  10  o'clock.  The  Institute  goes 
to  Frankfort.  I  am  one  of  the  committee  to  select  a  site.  Only  three 
preachers  voted  for  Bremen,  but  a  number  for  Heilbronn,  though 
there  was  a  large  majority  for  Frankfort.  But  there  will  be  some 
time  before  we  can  find  out  whether  we  can  build  there.  The  new 
building  will  not  be  commenced  immediately,  though  I  suppose  we 
shall  move  to  Frankfort  in  a  year.  Dr.  Jacoby's  son-in-law,  Achard, 
is  as  independent  as  a  wood-chopper.  He  was  chairman  of  the  com- 
mittee that  reported  Frankfort,  and  he  defended  it  the  strongest  of 
all.  He  doesn't  let  anybody  do  his  thinking.  The  Conference  has 
been  very  kind  to  me.  Brother  Jacoby  proposed  resolutions  of  wel- 
come, and  the  Conference  adopted  them  enthusiastically. 

Dr.  Wesley  C.  Sawyer  says  : 

At  Zurich  his  speeches  in  German  on  the  Conference  floor  mani- 
fested at  once  his  scholarship  and  his  business  discretion.  I  accom- 
panied him  to  the  museum  of  relics  of  the  Lake  Dwellers  of  the  Swiss 
lakes.     The  curator  of  this  collection  was  quite  thoroughly  informed 

166  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

upon  the  probable  character  and  history  of  the  tribes  that  in  early 
times  fashioned  the  curious  objects  of  domestic  utility  which  are 
credited  to  the  Lake  Dwellers.  I  was  struck  by  the  eagerness  with 
which  all  this  information  was  gathered  up  and  filed  away  for  con- 
venient reference  by  Dr.  Hurst. 

Samaden,  Switz.,  June  30. 
To  Mrs.  Hurst : 

I  left  Zurich  on  Wednesday  p.  m.  and,  after  a  ride  of  four  hours 
past  beautiful  lakes  and  grand  mountains,  I  reached  Ragatz,  where  I 
joined  Rev.  Mr.  Wortman.  I  went  to  the  Baths  of  Pfeffers,  where  a 
broad  stream  cuts  its  way  through  a  mountain  range.  The  mountains 
close  over  the  chasm  in  some  places,  and  only  in  the  middle  of  the  day 
does  the  sun  come  down.  I  walked  through  this  narrow  way  about 
three  hundred  yards.  Next  morning  we  went  to  Chur ;  then  by  stage 
to  Thusis,  and  up  to  see  the  Via  Mala,  or  Bad  Way,  where  the  Rhine 
cuts  its  way  through  the  Alps.  It  is  grand  beyond  description.  At 
Thusis  we  got  our  long  Alpine  sticks,  and  on  Friday  morning  started 
on  our  tramp.  We  went  through  the  Schyn  Pass,  where  we  saw  his- 
torical old  castles  and  had  a  miserable  dinner.  We  walked  about 
5^2  hours  that  day,  slept  at  night  in  a  hotel  at  Miihlen  on  the  bank  of 
a  stream,  the  Albula,  which  at  that  spot  is  a  waterfall.  It  was  pretty 
noisy,  but  we  slept  splendidly.  Yesterday  we  ascended  the  Julier 
Pass,  walking  up  many  thousand  feet.  We  were  above  the  region  of 
trees.  All  was  rock,  scarce  grass,  but  abundance  of  wild  flowers — 
violets  and  many  others.  By  and  by  we  reached  the  snow  and  we 
had  a  little  snowball  scuffling — strange  enough  for  the  last  of  June. 
In  ascending  we  saw  the  celebrated  Engadine  Valley,  with  beautiful 
green  lakes  stretching  down  it  and  neat  villages,  and  the  bathing  place 
of  Saint  Moritz ;  we  drank  some  of  the  water,  and  it  was  very  much 
like  Saratoga  water.  We  stopped  at  Samaden  at  night,  and  each  of  us 
has  a  double  room,  well  furnished  and  in  every  way  very  comfort- 
able. We  start  to-morrow  morning  up  a  high  mountain,  the  Piz 
(pronounced  Pitts)  Languard.  No  guides  have  yet  become  necessary, 
but  whenever  they  do  we  shall  employ  them.  You  need  not  be  afraid 
of  my  running  any  risk — I  have  long  ago  passed  that  business. 

Trafoi,  Tyrol,  July  4. 
To  Mrs.  Hurst : 

We  slept  at  night  amid  snow  and  ice,  on  top  of  the  Bernina  Pass. 
Of  course,  we  had  to  wrap  up  warm.  It  freezes  at  night  there.  We 
had  a  splendid  day  altogether.  Next  morning  we  started  down  the 
Bernina  Pass,  passing  some  great  glaciers  and  stopping  to  take  some 

Gilbert  Haven  167 

milk  at  a  little  village.  An  old  woman  gave  us  a  big  loaf  of  hard 
bread.  I  saw  an  ax  near  by,  and  when  I  struck  the  bread  with  it  and 
it  did  not  crack  the  crust,  it  caused  great  merriment  among  the  vil- 
lagers. I  got  another  ax,  and  it  did  not  break  then.  So  one  man 
ran  to  his  house  and  got  another  loaf  which  we  managed  to  eat. 

Munich,  Germany,  July  17. 
To  Mrs.  Hurst : 

I  never  uttered  half  my  fears  about  my  own  health  for  many 
months  before  I  left  home.  Now  I  have  completely  recovered,  and 
owe  it  all  to  the  goodness  of  my  heavenly  Father  in  so  disposing  my 
matters  at  home  that  I  could  get  the  mountain  air  and  freedom  from 
restraint  which  I  needed.  The  vacation  has  done  more  for  my  eyes 
and  my  whole  body  than  six  months  of  inactivity  at  home  could  have 
done.  I  thank  you  much  for  your  self-sacrificing  willingness  that  I 
should  stay  so  long  from  home.  I  finished  up  my  vacation  in  the 
Tyrol  very  pleasantly,  and  yesterday  p.  m.  got  here. 

The  arrival  in  the  cottage  home  at  3  Steffensweg  of  their 
second  son,  Carl  Bailey,  on  August  16,  1867,  one  day  prior  to 
his  father's  own  anniversary,  was  a  joy  to  the  happy  family. 
From  Philip  Schaff  came  this  bit  of  news  written  on  June  29 : 

The  Drew  Seminary  is  to  be  located  near  Madison  and  Morris- 
town,  N.  J.  A  splendid  mansion  with  over  one  hundred  acres  of 
ground  has  just  been  bought  for  the  purpose.  I  suppose  you  will  be 
connected  with  this  institution  yet.  They  need  just  such  men  as  you 
to  build  it  up. 

Gilbert  Haven,  from  his  editorial  chair,  wrote  him  spicily, 
July  17: 

I  ought  to  have  acknowledged  your  very  cordial  and  very  accept- 
able note  before,  but  somehow  it  seems  more  of  a  job  to  send  a  note 
across  the  Atlantic  Ferry  than  it  does  Fulton;  and  so  while  I  would 
have  said  "Thank  you"  long  ago  had  you  written  from  Staten  Island, 
I  have  kept  delaying  it  since  the  salutation  came  from  the  flats  of 
Bremen.  I  know  how  refreshing  to  your  far-off  eyes  are  these  Ameri- 
can bonbons.  I  remember  how  the  Advocate  and  Herald  looked  after 
I  had  crossed  the  Mediterranean  and  spent  months  without  a  sight  of 
a  Methodist  face  in  flesh  or  type.  The  ocean  affects  papers  as  it  does 
persons — gives  them  perhaps  a  flavor  and  a  quality  above  their  nature. 

i68  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

I  trust  you  find  the  Herald  thus  improved  and  made  acceptable  above 
its  real  merit.  We  are  trying  to  do  something  with  it  by  the  way  of 
contributions  and  other  outlays.  I  should  be  glad  to  see  your  face 
occasionally,  I  would  say  oftener,  but  that  I  have  only  six  European 
Americans  on  its  staff;  yet  there  is  always  room  for  first-class  things, 
and  they  will  get  the  preference.  When  anything  of  especial  note 
meets  your  eye  or  ear,  you  may  let  the  Herald  share  it  with  the 
Advocate  and  Methodist. 

Methodism  is  beginning  a  career  of  wealthy  endowments.  May  it 
still  be  humble  and  faithful.  The  infidel  hosts  are  upon  us  and  we 
have  many  battles  yet  to  fight  for  the  Lord.  May  you  be  strengthened 
for  your  share  in  this  service ! 

From  H.  B.  Ridgaway,  August  14: 

So  you  have  seen  Fox  and  the  Fosses.  I  suppose  they  will  soon  be 
home,  when  I  hope  to  hear  and  touch  somebody  that  has  talked  with 
and  touched  you. 

He  preached  the  dedicatory  sermon  of  the  new  Methodist 
Episcopal  chapel  in  Berlin  on  November  3.  from  Rom.  1.  16, 
of  which  a  report  was  made  by  Fales  H.  Newhall  in  Zion's 
Herald  of  December  12.  On  this  trip  to  Berlin  he  visited  the 
celebrated  Professor  Hengstenberg,  to  whom  he  bore  a  letter 
of  introduction  from  Dr.  Philip  Schaff.  Many  in  America  and 
Germany  had  supposed  that  Dr.  Schaff  would  be  elected  to 
the  chair  of  Church  History  at  the  University  of  Berlin. 
Hengstenberg  had  been  opposed  to  his  election.  Dr.  Hurst 
says : 

What  reason  do  you  suppose  he  gave  me  for  opposing  Dr.  Schaff? 
"Dr.  Schaff  had  been  born  in  free  Switzerland  and  had  lived  in  the 
United  States !"  He  regarded  these  facts  sufficient  of  themselves  to 
unfit  any  man  to  be  professor  of  theology  in  Berlin. 

From  his  uncle,  John  Hurst,  April  15,  1868: 

Bishop  Simpson  stayed  with  us  during  our  Conference.  We  en- 
joyed his  company  very  much.  He  spoke  of  you  frequently  in  the 
highest  terms.  I  showed  him  your  letter  in  which  you  alluded  to  him 
very  kindly,  and  which  he  appreciated. 

In  Heligoland  169 

From  G.  H.  Whitney,  May  12: 

Dr.  Mattison  has  just  written  an  article  on  "Decline  of  Romanism" 
for  the  Quarterly.  He  showed  me  MS.  wherein  he  had  made  use  of 
something  from  one  of  your  letters,  and  he  said  to  me,  "By  the  way, 
that  Hurst  is  a  man." 

From  H.  B.  Ridgaway,  August  4 : 

Dear  Hurst,  it  sickens  me  to  hear  you  complain  of  the  little  you 
accomplish.  No  man  in  the  church  is  working  harder  and  doing  more. 
My  fear  is  you  are  overworking  and  cutting  short  that  better  end  of 
your  life,  when  you  could  work  with  the  grandest  results.  My  sweet, 
precious  brother,  do  let  up;  ease  off,  take  care  of  yourself.  The  church 
and  the  world  need  too  greatly  just  such  men  as  you,  for  your  days 
to  be  prematurely  cut  off. 

From  John  A.  Roche,  August  10: 

My  dear  Hurst,  I  can't  tell  how  much  social  satisfaction  you  impart 
to  the  people  about  you  in  Germany,  but  your  absence  has  proven  the 
end  of  the  meetings  of  P.  D.'s.  We  have  not  had  one  since  you  and  I 
had  that  good  time  with  Fox  at  Carmel.  He  is  still  there.  Ridgaway 
is  back  at  Saint  Paul's,  Watkins  is  at  Hanson  Place,  Sewali  is  at 
Pacific  Street,  and  I  am  at  First  Place.  But  the  meetings  are  nowhere. 
They  have  not  been  resumed  since  we  bade  you  "Good-bye."  From 
the  amount  and  merit  of  your  writing  in  our  periodicals,  you  will 
not,  if  'out  of  sight,  be  out  of  mind."  I  read  your  letters  in  the 
Methodist  with  pleasure  and  profit,  and  wonder  at  your  ability  to  keep 
yourself,  amid  your  professional  duties,  so  well  posted  in  relation  to 
matcers  that  I  should  deem  it  difficult  to  reach. 

In  the  summer  of  1868,  having  nearly  completed  his  prep- 
arations for  removal  of  both  family  and  school  to  Frankfort, 
Dr.  Hurst  in  company  with  Dr.  Abel  Stevens  took  a  trip  to 
Heligoland  for  needed  recuperation.  From  this  place  he 
writes  Mrs.  Hurst  July  29 : 

I  suppose  you  will  be  off  for  Frankfort  on  Thursday  (to-morrow 
evening).  Well,  I  hope  and  believe  you  will  have  a  very  good  time, 
and  that  nothing  will  happen  to  you.  I  think  we  shall  leave  here  next 
Monday,  as  we  shall  have  by  that  time  had  all  the  advantages  of  bath- 

170  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

ing  and  the  fresh  air.  The  Dr.  is  a  splendid  man,  and  is  in  every  way 
companionable  and  delightful.  We  sleep  half  of  the  time.  We  take 
breakfast  and  then  a  nap.  Then  we  sail  over  to  the  adjoining  island 
(about  a  mile  off),  where  we  bathe.  The  surf  is  splendid.  Then  we 
sail  back  and  take  a  good  nap.  Dinner  comes  at  3  p.  m.  and  then  we 
lounge  about,  read  a  little,  and  sleep  until  7  p.  m.  I  think  we  sleep 
about  10  hours  in  the  day. 

I  am  glad  to  know  that  the  packing  is  getting  on  so  splendidly ;  I 
shall  have  no  care  whatever.  I  shall  write  you  next  at  Frankfort, 
though  I  shall  not  know  any  other  address  except  Martin  Mission 
Institute.  If  there  is  no  need  of  my  going  to  Frankfort  to  get  the 
things  delivered,  perhaps  we  shall  stay  a  few  days  in  the  Harz. 


At  Frankfort-on-the-Main 

The  school  reopened  about  October  1,  1868,  in  rented  rooms 
in  Frankfort-on-the-Main  under  its  new  name  of  the  Martin 
Mission  Institute.  To  Dr.  Nast  on  September  25  he  wrote  of 
their  temporary  quarters : 

The  house  in  which  we  live  stands  in  the  rear  and,  though  small, 
it  is  large  enough  and  very  neat  in  appearance.  The  Frankforters 
have  a  saw,  "When  you  have  built  your  house,  first  send  your  enemy 
to  occupy  it;  then  your  friend;  and  then  go  yourself!"  We  have 
acted  on  this  principle,  for  the  new  Institute  is  hardly  far  enough 
advanced  to  occupy  yourself.  So  we  have  had  to  rent  humble  quarters 
elsewhere  for  the  students,  for  a  few  months,  and  no  doubt  they  w.'ll 
be  just  as  comfortable,  though  in  smaller  rooms,  as  if  they  were 
already  in  the  Institute  proper. 

Dr.  Hurst,  in  the  Missionary  Advocate  for  February,  1873, 
says : 

In  the  year  1866  John  T.  Martin,  Esq.,  of  Brooklyn,  determined 
to  direct  his  centennial  benefaction  to  the  reestablishment  of  the 
Institute,  and  for  that  purpose  gave  $25,000,  with  the  provision  that 
the   new   school   should  commence  without   anv   debt.     Frankfort   is 

Martin  Mission  Institute  171 

the  very  center  of  German  Methodism,  and  just  then  was  passing 
from  its  traditional  status  as  a  free  city,  a  member  of  the  old 
Hanseatic  League,  into  Prussian  hands,  this  being  one  of  the  pen- 
alties resulting  from  the  victory  of  Prussia  over  Austria  at  Sadowa. 
Frankfort  had  sympathized  with  Austria,  and  she  was  immediately 
absorbed.  Property  was  cheap,  many  of  the  old  families  hastening 
off  to  find  homes  farther  south.  A  beautiful  site  was  found  on  what 
was  called  the  Roederberg,  an  elevated  suburb  at  the  eastern  end 
of  the  city,  overlooking  the  Main,  the  historic  and  lovely  valley, 
the  Bavarian  Mountains,  and  the  Taunus  Range,  while  the  entire 
city  of  Frankfort  lay  below.  The  property  was  cheap  and  most  de- 
sirable ;  yet  it  would  not  have  been  known  that  it  was  for  sale  but 
for  an  old  gardener,  who  saw  the  committee  on  the  street,  asked 
them  what  they  were  after,  and  then  why  they  did  not  buy  that 
place,  meaning  the  spot  where  he  was  standing  and  which  he  had 
cultivated  for  fifty  years.     It  was  bought. 

The  corner  stone  was  laid  March  15,  1868,  and  the  institu- 
tion was  formally  opened  on  January  17,  1869,  when  the  Rev. 
E.  Riemenschneider  (father  of  the  doctor)  preached  from 
Psa.  137.  5.  The  Rev.  L.  Nippert,  the  new  Director,  gave  an 
historical  account  of  the  school.  Addresses  were  made  by 
Revs.  C.  H.  Doering,  G.  F.  Kettell,  H.  Nuelsen,  Consul- 
General  Murphy,  G.  P.  Davies  (of  the  English  Congrega- 
tional Church),  Dr.  Hurst,  and  others. 

Rev.  H.  A.  Buttz,  his  classmate,  pastor  at  Morristown, 
writes  on  September  23,  1868: 

Drew  Seminary  has  opened  very  favorably.  We  have  about  fifty 
students,  some  of  them  very  superior  young  men.  I  am  engaged 
there  part  of  three  days  each  week,  which,  in  connection  with  my 
home  work,  keeps  me  very  busy.  I  cannot,  of  course,  be  worked 
any  harder  than  you  are,  with  your  literary  and  professorial  duties. 

William  F.  Warren,  his  predecessor  at  Bremen,  sends  him 
on  October  17  this  greeting: 

Many  hearty  congratulations  on  your  transit  to  the  new  Institute. 
I  have  thought  of  you  and  of  your  enjoyment  of  the  new  unfold- 
ment  of  your  institution  hundreds  of  times.     Believe  me,   when  I 

172  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

say  that  I  have  been  with  you  in  spirit  much,  sharing  your  toils, 
discouragements,  and  triumphs.  God  bless  the  Martin  Mission 
Institute ! 

Abel  Stevens  thus  appreciates  his  contributions  to  the  press : 

November  21. 
Your   letters    [in  the   Methodist]    are   read   with   eagerness   by   us 
all— no  other  paper  in  New  York  is  kept  so  an  fait  in  German  affairs, 
literary  and  ecclesiastic. 

In  writing  to  her  sister  Airs.  Hurst  says  of  the  toast  to 
which  Dr.  Hurst  responded  at  the  Thanksgiving  dinner  for 
Americans  in  Frankfort : 

Mr.  Hurst  was  cheered  very  much.  Mrs.  Abraham  Lincoln  had 
a  headache  and  could  not  come,  but  "Tad"  was  there.  He  was  very 

Mrs.  Lincoln  and  Airs.  Anson  Burlingame  with  other 
distinguished  Americans  temporarily  in  Frankfort  gave  fre- 
quent evidence  of  friendly  feeling  and  social  recognition  to 
Dr.  Hurst  and  his  family.  Dr.  Hurst  continued  his  teaching 
in  Frankfort  until  the  spring  of  187 1,  though  Airs.  Hurst 
taught  his  classes  in  English  for  several  weeks  while  he  was 
on  his  trip  to  the  Holy  Land.  He  thus  rounded  out  his  full 
five  years  in  a  work  that  has  ever  since  been  a  blessing  to  the 
Methodists  of  Germany  and  Switzerland.  The  Rev,  G. 
Hausser.  who  was  a  close  observer  of  his  developing  career  in 
its  relation  to  the  young  Germans  who  came  under  his  training, 
says : 

From  the  very  first  he  made  a  favorable  impression  on  me,  not 
only  as  a  scholar,  but  especially  as  a  Christian.  His  great  aim  in 
life  seemed  to  be  to  acquire  knowledge  and  to  educate  the  young 
men  intrusted  to  his  care.  Some  of  the  most  efficient  and  influential 
workers  in  our  German  Conference  were  his  pupils.  He  used  his 
talents  and  the  knowledge  he  had  acquired  wholly  in  the  service  of 
his  Master  and  for  the  benefit  of  his  scholars. 

At  Frankfort-on-the-Main  173 

He  was  a  true  friend ;  for  even  after  he  had  become  Chancellor 
and  Bishop  he  did  not  forget  his  old  friends,  and  at  our  last  Con- 
ference in  Rochester  I  found  him  to  be  the  same  modest,  sincere, 
affectionate  friend  and  brother  he  had  been  thirty  years  before. 

Bishop  Simpson  writing  to  the  Christian  Advocate  in  July, 
1870,  says  of  the  Institute: 

It  is  ably  managed  by  Rev.  Dr.  Hurst,  who  labors  assiduously 
for  the  education  of  the  young  men. 

In  June,  1869,  the  darling  daughter  Clara,  who  had  brought 
so  much  peace  and  joy  to  the  home  in  Elizabeth,  passed  from 
their  loving  embrace.  This  shadow  with  its  enswathement  of 
light  demands  a  special  place  in  the  story  of  the  home  now 
first  broken,  and,  with  the  account  of  his  journeys  and  trans- 
lations of  important  treatises  from  the  German  during  the  first 
three  years  of  his  teaching  in  Europe,  will  be  treated  in 
specific  form  separate  from  the  general  narrative. 

In  addition  to  his  other  labors,  Dr.  Hurst  for  the  most  of 
the  period  of  his  residence  in  Frankfort  preached  on  the  first 
and  third  Sundays  of  each  month  at  the  American  service  in 
the  chapel  at  No.  1  Grosser  Hirschgraben,  near  the  house 
where  Goethe  was  born ;  and  during  the  Franco-Prussian  War 
he  quartered  German  soldiers  for  a  time  at  his  house,  while 
often  the  evening  employment  of  his  family  was  making  lint 
for  the  wounded  and  he  himself  visited  the  great  military 
hospital  and  ministered  Christian  consolation  to  the  sick  and 

174  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 


Trips  in  Europe  and  the  East. — Escape  from  a  Bomb  in  Rome 

Of  his  Easter  vacation  (1867),  spent  with  Mrs.  Hurst  on  a 
visit  to  the  Paris  Exposition,  and  other  cities,  brief  mention 
has  already  been  made.  His  trip  to  Zurich  in  June  of  the 
same  year  to  attend  Conference  included  a  half  day  at  Hanover 
with  walk  to  Herrenhausen  and  return;  a  few  hours  at 
Gottingen,  where  a  woman  sold  him  some  fruit  and  nuts  and 
wrapped  them  in  leaves  of  a  Latin  life  of  Saint  Jerome:  a 
night  and  a  half  day  at  Hesse-Cassel,  taking  in  its  world  of  art 
treasures;  a  half  day  at  Wilhelmshohe,  with  its  palace  and 
grottoes  and  chapel ;  two  nights  and  a  day  in  Marburg,  giving 
him  a  view  of  the  castle  with  its  Knights'  Hall,  of  Saint  Eliza- 
beth's Church,  and  of  the  University;  a  day  and  night  in 
Frankfort,  where  Gutenberg's  statue  and  the  houses  where 
Goethe  and  Rothschild  were  born  were  his  chief  attractions ; 
a  half  day  at  Heidelberg,  taking  a  run  through  the  market  and 
a  peep  at  his  old  quarters  of  ten  years  previous ;  a  few  hours 
at  Karlsruhe;  two  nights  and  a  Sunday  at  Baden-Baden,  at- 
tending Roman  Catholic  services  in  Cathedral  and  the  Greek 
service,  and  getting  an  abhorrent  view  of  the  gambling  there 
prevalent  even  on  the  Sabbath ;  four  hours  in  Freiburg  with 
walk  to  the  Schlossberg;  and  two  nights  and  a  day  and  a  half 
at  Basel,  including  a  visit  to  the  haunts  of  Erasmus,  a  call 
upon  Professor  Riggenbach.  a  little  while  at  the  museum,  and 
attendance  at  a  lecture  by  Hagenbach  on  Zwingli. 

Upon  adjournment  of  Conference  he  hurries  away  from 
Zurich,  and  before  he  reaches  home  again  he  has  added  to  his 
trophies  of  travel  Bad  Pfaffers,  a  night  at  Ragatz,  on  through 
Chur,  to  Thusis  by  stage  and  the  Via  Mala  of  Splugen  Pass ; 
over  Schyn  Pass  along  the  Albula,  through  Alvaschein,  to 
Tiefenkastel ;  thence  by  carriage  to  Miihlen,  where  he  stayed 

BISHOP    HURST    WITH    GENERAL    CLINTON    B.    FISK.    1870. 

On  Foot  in  Switzerland  175 

a  night;  a  walk  through  Julier  Pass  to  Silvaplana,  to  the 
Baths  of  Saint  Moritz,  and  to  Samaden  in  the  lovely  En- 
gadine  valley,  where  he  spent  a  Sunday ;  up  the  Piz  Languard, 
through  Pontresina,  and  taking  in  the  Morteratsch  Glacier  and 
Waterfall ;  by  carriage  to  Bernina  House  and  then  on  foot  to 
Bernina  Hospice  at  the  top  of  Bernina  Pass,  where  he  stayed 
all  night,  having  walked  twenty-two  miles  that  day,  passing 
Palii  Glacier  to  Poschiavo,  Preso,  and  Tirano,  one  night ;  on 
foot  through  Boladore  to  Bormio,  twenty-eight  miles  (night)  ; 
over  the  Bormio,  dining  at  Santa  Maria ;  and  down  to  Trafoi ; 
a  walk  to  Sponding,  through  Schlanders,  and  to  Meran  by 
omnibus;  a  walk  to  Botzen  and  ride  back  to  Meran,  where  a 
Sunday  was  passed,  his  entry  being:  "Mr.  Wortman  and  my- 
self had  a  prayer  meeting  with  reading  of  the  Bible.  God 
blessed  us  much ;"  a  walk  to  Staben  and  to  Unser  Frau ;  across 
the  Hoch  Joch  to  Vent  (night)  ;  walk  of  ten  hours  to  Um- 
hausen  (night)  ;  to  Roppen,  ride  to  Landeck,  stopping  at  Ried 
(night);  to  Finstermunz  Pass;  ride  to  Innsbruck  (a  Sun- 
day) ;  by  cars  to  Jenbach ;  on  foot  to  Lake  Achen  and  Scholas- 
tica;  by  stage  to  Baths  of  Kreuth  and  village  of  same  name 
(night)  ;  walk  to  Holzkirchen  by  Tegern  Lake,  and  then  to 
Munich,  three  days ;  thence  to  Augsburg,  Nuremberg,  and 
Bremen  by  rail.1 

Another  trip  along  the  Neckar  in  April,  1868,  gives  him 
one  of  his  favorite  runs  to  Heilbronn,  thence  up  the  river  to 
Tubingen,  where  for  two  days  he  revels  in  such  sights  as  the 
house  and  tomb  of  the  poet  Uhland,  the  antiquarian  bookstores, 
the  prison,  the  castles,  the  great  parish  church,  with  the  tombs 
of  the  dukes  of  Wiirttemberg.  the  University,  and  an  interview 
with  Professor  Wildermuth  and  his  wife,  Mrs.  Ortillie  Wilder- 
muth,  the  writer. 

1  For  a  fascinating  account  of  this  excursion  see  his  Life  and  Literature  in  the  Father  - 
and,  pp.  309,  ff. 

176  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

On  his  trip  to  Heligoland  and  the  Harz  Mountains  in  June 
following  he  wrote  to  Dr.  Nast  from  Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
September  25  : 

Immediately  after  Conference  I  went  with  Dr.  Stevens  to  Heligo- 
land, and  had  a  pleasant  week  there ;  afterward,  I  went  to  Harz ; 
these  little  excursions  helped  me  up  again,  for  I  was  almost  down. 
In  fact,  I  had  long  been  working  too  hard,  but  did  not  or  would  not 
know  it. 

In  the  summer  of  1869,  after  dear  Clara's  death,  he  took  a 
trip  to  the  north.  He  writes  to  his  son.  John,  from  Copen- 
hagen, August  1  : 

Yesterday  a.  m.  at  8  o'clock  we  got  here,  and  the  custom  house 
officers  looked  all  through  our  baggage.  There  was  one  bundle  they 
seemed  to  be  suspicious  of,  and  so  I  unrolled  it  very  slowly  for  them. 
What  do  you  think  it  was  ?  Why,  nothing  but  two  or  three  poor 
little  sandwiches  that  I  had  fixed  at  Lubeck.  How  the  man  laughed, 
and  he  was  a  little  provoked  to  boot. 

And  again  on  steamboat  Dagmar  August  20 : 

I  have  a  room  with  another  man,  or  I  should  say  three,  for  I  have 
had  a  new  chum  every  landing  place  we  have  made.  My  present 
roommate  is  a  Russian  officer,  who  used  my  toothbrush  as  if  it  had 
been  his  own.  I  did  not  know  it  until  I  heard  one  Englishman  say 
a  Russian  had  used  his,  and  when  I  came  down  to  my  room  I  found 
mine  had  been  used  too. 

Of  this  trip  Airs.  Hurst  writes  a  letter  to  her  sister,  Mrs. 
Snow,  September  1 5  : 

Johnnie  and  I  made  the  welcome  wreath  and  put  it  over  his  pic- 
ture with  "Willkommen"  written  under  it.  Mr.  Hurst  came  home 
ten  days  ago  when  everything  was  in  readiness  and  we  were  so  glad 
to  see  him.  He  was  absent  nearly  six  weeks.  He  saw  thoroughly 
Denmark,  Norway,  Sweden,  Russia,  and  Poland.  There  will  be  an 
account  of  each  country  in  his  letters  to  the  Methodist,  one  from 
Copenhagen,  Stockholm,  Christiania,  Saint  Petersburg,  Moscow,  and 

Germany,  Austria,  Belgium  177 

An  Easter  excursion  in  April,  1870,  from  Frankfort  to  the 
Taunus  Mountains  regales  the  tired  teacher  with  a  sight  of 
Soden-Hochst,  a  large  laboratory,  from  Konigstein  Hill ;  the 
castle ;  a  walk  to  Falkenstein ;  the  ascent  of  Alt  Konig ;  all 
night  at  the  top  of  Feldberg,  and  descent  the  next  day  "on  a 
brisk  trot,"  with  bath  in  the  brooks,  "one  piece  of  Colgate's 
soap  for  us  all,"  and  walk  to  Homburg. 

In  May  we  find  him  in  company  of  General  Clinton  B.  Fisk, 
of  whom  he  writes  to  Mrs.  Hurst  from  Munich,  May  7 : 

The  General  is  one  of  the  most  delightful  men  I  ever  traveled 
with,  well  informed,  agreeable,  not  self-willed,  religious,  and  has 
all  the  qualities  of  a  Christian  gentleman. 

And  again  from  Vienna,  May  1 1  : 

The  General  is  perfectly  prodigal  of  money,  and  will  let  me  buy 
nothing,  pictures  or  anything  else.  I  attempted  at  first  several  times 
to  pay  for  several  little  things  myself,  but  he  would  not  allow 
it,  and  I  saw  he  would  become  offended  if  I  did.  He  will  have 
everything  in  the  best  style. 

On  this  journey  he  visited  Nuremberg,  Munich,  Salzburg, 
Vienna,  Linz,  Pardubitz,  Koniggratz,  Sadowa,  Prague,  and 

On  July  4  with  Airs.  Hurst  and  little  John  he  left  Frankfort 
for  a  two-months'  tour  through  Holland  and  Belgium  and  a 
sojourn  of  several  weeks  by  the  seashore  at  Heyst,  Belgium. 
This  included  a  stop  in  Diisseldorf  and  at  Utrecht,  where  they 
had  an  interview  and  took  supper  with  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Van 
Oosterzee.    While  he  was  at  Heyst  he  says : 

Some  men  were  knitting  nets.  I  helped  them,  aided  by  early  ex- 
perience.    Threaded  a  seine  knitting  needle.     This  pleased  them. 

The  most  extensive  of  these  journeys  was  the  one  he  took 
to  Egypt  and  the  Holy  Land  in  1871.    He  says  : 

178  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

On  February  1  I  started  from  Frankfort  for  a  tour  in  the  East. 
Had  taken  great  pains  with  my  money  belt,  having  given  a  special 
older  for  it.  But  it  grew  so  uncomfortable  that  I  took  it  off  before 
reaching  the  second  station.  At  Munich  met  Mrs.  Lincoln.  She 
asked  me  to  help  her,  which  I  did.  her  baggage  being  checked  to 
Innsbruck  and  she  wishing  to  go  to  Verona.  Bade  Mrs.  Lincoln 
"Bon  Voyage"  on  her  Italian  tour  and  then  started  on  my  way  to 

He  visited  at  Cairo  the  citadel,  tombs  of  the  Caliphs,  Island 

of  Roda.  the  Nilometer  and  the  English  burial  ground ;  then 

to  the  Pyramids,  Gizeh,  and  the  palace  of  Ibrahim  Pasha.    On 

February  18  he  is  at  the  tombs  of  Ben  Hassan  and  spends  a 

night  at  Minieh  with  its  sugar  mills;  on  the  19th  at  Assiut, 

where  he  met  Dr.   Hogg,  the  successful   Scotch  missionary 

to  the  Copts.     On  the  23d  we  see  him  at  Karnak  and  Luxor; 

and  the  28th  at  Philae.     On  March  6  he  visits  the  governor 

of  Minieh  and  returns  to  Cairo,  and  on  the  7th  the  Gizeh 

Gardens.     The  9th  he  visits  Miss  Whately's  school,  and  on 

the  10th  starts  for  Suez  and  Ismailia;  and  on  the  nth  goes 

from  Port  Said  by  steamer  to  Jaffa,  where  he  lands  the  12th 

and  visits  house  of   Simon  the  tanner  and,  being   Sunday, 

attends  service  at  American  consulate.     On  the  13th  he  goes 

to  Jerusalem.     He  makes  an  excursion  to  Hebron  where,  he 

says,  "I  was  seized  by  the  throat  because  I  was  simply  going 

up  the  outer  stairway  of  the  inclosure  of  Abraham's  cave  of 

Machpelah,  and  I  was  ordered  off  at  every  door  of  the  harem 

when  I  had  paid  five  francs  to  see  it."     He  made  a  side  trip 

also  to  Jericho,  the  Jordan,  and  the  Dead  Sea  of  five  days, 

and  left  Jerusalem  on  March  24. 

At  Shiloh  went  off  the  road,  neither  dragoman  nor  muleteer  knew 
the  way ;  got  a  man  from  the  field.  Murray's  warning  might  have 
deterred  me,  but  fortunately  had  not  read  it.  Met  a  shepherd  boy 
with  his  reed  pipe  and  looked  at  it;  David's,  perhaps,  just  like  it. 

On   March   25   and  26  at   Nablus,   Sychar,   Jacob's   well, 

ix   Palestine  179 

Mount  Gerizim,  and  Joseph's  tomb.  He  saw  the  Samaritan 
copy  of  the  Pentateuch  in  the  sanctuary.  Visited  the  high 
priest  Amon — who  gave  him  his  autograph  in  Samaritan  and 
Arabic.  Passed  Sebustieh  (Sebaste),  a  ruin;  Dothan  and 
Jenin  (night).  On  to  Jezreel;  past  Xain,  Shunem,  Endor,  to 
Nazareth  (night)  ;  Tiberias  (night)  ;  around  Sea  of  Galilee, 
sleeping  in  a  rush  tent  with  fleas  at  Mellahah ;  to  Banias ;  and 
Kefr  Hawer.  On  April  1  he  writes  to  Mrs.  Hurst  from  Kefr 
Hawer : 

On  this  journey  I  have  been  in  considerable  danger  at  times,  but 
a  show  of  fearlessness,  and  the  appearance  of  having  weapons 
belted  around  me,  have  brought  me  out  all  right.  Esau,  my  drago- 
man, picked  up  a  huge  knife  on  the  way,  which  he  has  on  him.  Then 
he  got  a  big-headed  club,  which  he  swings  now  and  then  in  great 
heroism.  By  my  taking  my  lorgnette  out  of  the  case  and  unscrew- 
ing it  fully,  and  belting  it  on,  it  looks  very  much,  when  partially 
concealed,  like  a  double-barreled  pistol.  This  inspires  no  little  fear, 
as  soon  as  seen,  and  that  is  all  I  want.  Then  my  lunch  knife,  which 
I  have  at  hand,  does  its  part  of  keeping  up  appearances.  My  drago- 
man was  to  furnish  me  with  eating  and  do  the  cooking.  But  what 
cooking !  He  gives  me  the  towel  that  I  have  used  and  used  again 
till  it  ought  to  be  washed,  for  my  tablecloth.  He  ties  up  some  of  my 
food  in  his  dirty  handkerchief,  gives  me  fish  in  my  rice,  which  he 
stirs  with  so  many  different  dirty  sticks  that  it  has  acquired  a  black 
look ;  my  soup  has  no  definite  taste ;  he  seems  to  be  shedding  his 
black  hair  all  the  time,  from  the  quantity  I  find  in  everything.  He 
picks  and  cooks  the  chickens  himself,  and  how  black !  The  cheese 
I  peel  fresh  every  time  I  use  it.  I  beg  for  eggs  and  oranges,  and 
get  them.  The  tea  I  make  myself,  and  the  coffee  I  intrust  to  him. 
But  I  am  so  hungry  I  take  anything,  and  am  thankful !  I  have  not 
seen  him  use  a  knife  or  fork  in  cooking  yet — all  by  fingers  !  Neither 
have  I  seen  him  wash  his  hands  but  once  since  we  left,  and  that  was 
to-day.  I  begged  him  last  night  to  jump  in  the  headwaters  of  the 
Jordan  with  me ;  but  no,  it  was  bad  for  his  eyes,  and  so  he  held  my 
clothes.  He  gets  mad  sometimes  and  then  beats  his  head.  But  he 
is  getting  sobered  now,  declares  he  is  a  Protestant,  and  is  going  to 
pray  the  Lord  all  the  time  that  I  may  be  President  of  the  United 
States.  I  notice  he  turns  his  back  toward  me  when  he  cooks.  I  sleep 
in  about  as  good  a  room  as  can  be  found.    But  they  are  mud  huts, 

i8o  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

filth  of  all  kinds  in  abundance  around  the  doorway,  and  inside  stenches 

indescribable !    Fleas  and will  not  even  let  me  get  to  sleep 

before  they  begin.  In  one  place,  Banias,  the  Csesarea  Philippi  of 
Scripture,  Esau  took  me  to  such  a  filthy  place  to  spend  my  night, 
and  dream  of  you  and  the  children,  that  my  instinct  of  self-preserva- 
tion rebelled,  and  I  put  off  for  the  governor  of  the  place.  I  dragged 
him  with  me  and  made  him  translate,  though  I  am  now  picking  up 
enough  Arabic  to  tell  what  people  are  generally  talking  about.  (Just 
here  I  must  tell  you  that  a  tribe  of  little  children  are  crowding  around 
me  and  running  their  dirty  fingers  under  my  nose,  and  begging  for 

I  am  no  longer  on  the  housetop,  but  down  in  the  yard,  near  Esau, 
who  is  promising  an  early  dinner.  There  are  3  horses,  3  cows,  dogs, 
goats,  saddles,  babies,  men,  women,  a  flock  of  sheep,  and  Esau  at  his 
stove,  all  before  me,  and  much  else  that  I  can't  stop  to  enumerate.  I 
simply  asked  the  governor,  who  was  holding  audience,  for  the  use  of 
the  government  room  for  the  night.  Esau  was  so  dumfounded  by 
such  impudence  toward  a  high  functionary  that  he  refused  at  first 
to  translate.  But  he  had  to  come  to  it.  At  first  a  refusal — then  con- 
sent— then  coffee — then  cigarette — then  invitation  to  dinner — then 
cigarette  and  coffee — all  this  followed.  Even  Esau  was  invited  to 
dinner  after.  The  dinner  was  splendid — clean,  savory,  and  unique. 
There  was  a  whole  young  goat  in  the  middle,  with  even  its  head  on, 
from  which  each  pulled  as  he  wished — no  forks — no  knives — but 
wooden  spoons,  which  were  little  used.  The  thin  bread  lay  at  our 
feet.  I  was  the  only  one  who  occupied  a  seat  (a  low  stool),  the  rest 
sitting  on  the  floor.  After  this  the  sheik  gave  me  a  letter  to  the  sheik 
of  this  place,  for  comfortable  reception  and  hospitality,  but  the  sheik 
is  from  home  and  my  luck  is  poor. 

Damascus,  April  2. 

Here  I  am,  you  see.  To-day  I  could  not  endure  staying  in  such 
a  hole,  and  rode  through  the  desert,  with  glorious  old  Mount  Hermon 
in  view.  I  stopped  my  horse  and  made  a  big  snowball  for  my  dry 
lips,  and  wrote  your  initials — baby,  John,  Carl,  and  you  in  the  snow, 
and  trotted  on.  How  glad  I  am  to  get  here !  I  met  at  the  very 
first  at  the  hotel  some  delightful  people  (English),  who  were  fellow 
passengers  up  the  Nile.  They  think  I  have  done  grandly — came 
through  in  one  day  less  than  Cook's  party  and  saw  more  too.  One 
gentleman  in  it  envied  my  success — and  it  has  been  a  great  success. 
My  horse  gave  out,  and  I  rode  one  of  the  mules  into  Damascus. 

After  three  days  in  Damascus  he  goes  on  to  Beirut.    Of  his 

A  Bomb  in  Rome  181 

visit  to  Bishop  Kingsley's  grave,  in  a  letter  to  Mrs.  Hurst 
written  on  steamer  Juno,  off  the  Island  of  Patmos,  April  15, 
he  says  : 

I  received  your  letter  after  my  visit  to  Bishop  Kingsley's  grave 
and  could  not  well  have  planted  the  seeds  anyhow,  for  all  around 
his  grave  people  walk,  and  the  grave  itself  is  covered  with  brick 
masonry  on  which  it  is  supposed  there  will  be  placed  a  slab  if  the 
remains  are  not  sent  to  America.  A  Methodist  preacher  from  the 
West  (Dr.  Fairall),  the  American  consul,  and  one  American,  Mr. 
Hallock,  and  I  visited  the  grave  together,  and  I  was  charmed  with 
its  delightful  situation.  The  lovely  Lebanon  Mountains  look  right 
down  upon  it.  The  graveyard  belongs  to  the  German  Protestants, 
is  in  a  retired  but  well-chosen  place,  and  well  cared  for.  You  look 
out  from  it  upon  the  bright  blue  Mediterranean.  I  hope  his  remains 
will  stay  just  where  they  are.  I  plucked  many  flowers  from  about 
his  grave,  to  press. 

He  landed  at  Cyprus,  at  Rhodes,  and  Smyrna,  and  pro- 
ceeded to  Constantinople,  and  thence  homeward  by  Athens  and 
Rome.  A  stop  at  Rome  included  a  Sunday  in  early  May  when 
he  attended  in  the  evening  a  preaching  and  communion  service 
conducted  by  the  British  Wesleyans  in  a  large  hall  of  an  old 
palace.  The  pastor,  Rev.  Mr.  Sciarelli,  had  been  a  soldier  in 
Garibaldi's  army.  Just  before  the  benediction  was  to  be  pro- 
nounced there  was  a  loud,  irregular  hissing  noise  in  the  left- 
hand  corner  of  the  front  entrance  to  the  hall.  The  Bishop 

I  was  sitting  on  the  front  seat  just  before  the  altar,  and  in  turning 
around  to  look  at  the  place  whence  this  alarming  noise  emanated 
I  saw  a  large  oval-shaped  vessel  bounding  up  and  down,  caused  by 
the  partial  but  successful  igniting  of  the  fuse.  So  violent  was  the 
concussion  that  the  gaslights  were  immediately  extinguished,  and  we 
were  left  in  total  darkness.  The  people  were  wild  with  excitement. 
They  sprang  for  their  lives  over  one  another,  and  over  the  seats — 
all  hastening  toward  the  doors.  There  seemed  to  be  no  ventilation, 
and  the  fumes  of  the  gas,  mingled  with  the  odor  of  gunpowder,  made 
the  atmosphere  intolerable.  I  saw  that  my  best  chance  for  escape 
was  in  sitting  still  until  the  doors  and  windows  were  opened  and 

182  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

the  people  went  outside.  This  was  a  dangerous  position,  for  I  was 
nearly  overcome  by  the  wretched  gases,  and  barely  had  strength 
enough  to  get  near  the  fresh  air.  Lights  were  brought  in;  the  pastor 
found  me,  and  told  me  he  would  give  me  an  attendant  to  my  hotel, 
which  he  did,  saying  at  the  same  time  that  there  was  danger  of 
assassination,  as  the  bomb  indicated  a  plan  to  destroy  the  congrega- 
tion.   The  bomb  did  not  explode,  the  fuse  failing  to  do  its  work. 

The  next  day  I  called  on  our  American  painter,  poet,  and  sculptor, 
T.  Buchanan  Read,  and  as  I  was  still  nervous  it  was  but  natural 
that  I  should  describe  the  scene  of  the  previous  evening.  He  seemed 
to  take  full  memoranda  of  the  information,  and  as  nearly  as  I  can 
remember  expressed  a  desire  to  make  use  of  it. 

I  heard  nothing  more  about  the  scene  for  several  weeks,  when  I 
met  in  Frankfort  a  person  who  had  just  left  Rome.  He  told  me 
the  attempt  to  destroy  the  congregation  had  been  discussed  by  the 
Parliament;  that  the  bomb  had  been  examined  and  found  to  contain 
all  manner  of  destructive  objects,  such  as  pieces  of  iron,  glass,  and 
what  not;  that  a  discussion  had  taken  place,  and  that  the  result 
was  the  passage  of  the  now  historic  act — the  opening  of  all  Italy 
to  perfect  freedom  of  worship  for  all  confessions. 

Clara's  Sickxess  and  Death  183 

The  Father  Bereft 

The  Discipline  of  Sorrow 

He  who  had  been  the  messenger  of  comfort  to  hundreds  in 
their  hours  of  bereavement  himself  with  his  devoted  wife 
passed  into  the  clouds  of  affliction.  Only  a  few  weeks  after 
their  settlement  in  the  new  home  in  Frankfort  little  Clara 
suffered  an  attack  of  typhoid  fever,  from  the  first  effects  of 
which  she  partially  recovered,  but  then  gradually  failed  and 
after  eight  months  of  lingering  sickness  on  June  20,  1869,  she 
slept  sweetly  in  Jesus.  Writing  in  his  own  notebook  a  few 
weeks  later  he  says  : 

A  great  blow  has  come  upon  me.  My  dear  daughter  Clara  has 
been  borne  from  me  by  angel  hands — herself  an  angel.  God  help  me 
to  preach  and  work  aright,  that  I  may  meet  her  in  heaven.  I  fully 
expect  she  will  welcome  me  home  at  last.  Heavenly  recognition 
has  been  to  me  ever  before  a  belief — now  it  is  beyond  that,  a 

The  story  of  that  household  in  its  united  ministrations 
to  the  little  sufferer,  prolonged  with  its  anxieties  and  vigils 
through  the  late  autumn  into  and  through  the  winter,  with  the 
alternations  of  fear  and  hope,  far  into  the  early  spring,  and 
the  gradual  predominance  of  the  doubt  and  dread  as  the  year 
grew  green  and  bright  with  April  showers  and  the  flowers  of 
May,  cannot  be  told.    On  May  17  he  made  this  record : 

Second  consultation  of  physicians  held  on  Clara ;  they  pronounce 
that  there  is  very  little  hope  for  her  life.  But  she  and  her  mamma 
believe  that  she  will  be  spared — which  God  grant,  but  to  his  name's 
glory  and  honor. 

Her  condition  was  such  in  the  middle  of  June  as  to  warrant 

184  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

hope  that  she  would  survive  perhaps  for  many  weeks,  and  Dr. 
Hurst,  bearing  a  heavy  heart,  set  out  for  Berlin  to  attend  the 
annual  session  of  the  Conference.  On  Friday,  June  18,  Mrs. 
Hurst  writes  him : 

My  own  precious  Husband:  Darling  Clara  is  sleeping  a  little. 
She  is  gradually  failing,  more  rapidly,  I  fear,  than  the  doctor  thinks. 
She  certainly  will  be  with  us  but  a  very  short  time.  She  takes  very 
little  notice  of  things — does  not  seem  to  hear;  yet,  by  getting  very 
near,  she  will  look  up.  About  five  o'clock  this  afternoon  she  kissed 
me  and  this  morning  early  asked,  "Where  is  papa?"  That  is  the 
most  rational  sentence  she  has  said  to-day.  She  takes  short  naps 
and  then  lies  looking  at  something  very  quietly,  sometimes  grasps 
after  something  in  the  air. 

Amelia  will  stay  with  me  to-night  and  every  night  until  you  come. 
O,  my  precious  husband,  how  it  pains  me  to  write  this  to  you.  I 
had  hoped  her  life  would  be  spared,  but  God  orders  otherwise,  and 
now  I  find  I  have  not  that  strength  of  mind  to  bear  the  stroke 
as  I  thought  I  would  have.  I  am  praying  constantly  for  resignation. 
I  can  hardly  wait  for  you  to  come.  I  feel  like  telegraphing,  but  fear 
I  may  be  in  too  much  haste ;  for  I  wish  you  to  have  a  little  rest  after 
such  a  long  journey.  I  cannot  bear  to  leave  her  a  moment,  even 
when  she  is  sleeping.  She  lies  on  our  bed  and  I  sit  on  the  bed 
by  her  side.  I  think  she  knows  I  am  there,  although  she  has  not 
said  "Mamma"  to-day.  This  morning  about  10  o'clock  she  recognized 
some  roses  that  Mrs.  Petri  brought  her. 

To  the  above  Mrs.  Hurst's  own  hand  added  the  sad  partic- 
ulars of  the  last  days: 

June  23. — The  above  was  written  last  Friday,  but,  as  Clara  grew 
worse,  I  was  obliged  to  telegraph  to  her  papa,  who  was  in  Berlin 
attending  Conference.  Late  Friday  evening  she  kissed  me  four 
times  and  patted  me  with  her  little  slender  hand,  which  was  becoming 
stiff,  upon  my  cheek,  as  much  as  to  say,  "Mamma,  don't  grieve  for 
me."  Saturday  morning  at  3  o'clock  she  kissed  me  again  and  at 
6  o'clock.  This  was  the  last,  I  think,  that  she  had  conscious  moments 
during  Saturday.  Dr.  Andrea  came  in  Saturday  evening,  she  looked 
at  him  and  her  eyes  followed  him  around,  and  he  said  he  was  sure 
that  she  was  conscious  and  that  she  knew  him.  Her  eyes  were  con- 
stantly directed  to  the  door  as  if  she  were  expecting  every  moment 
to  see  her  papa. 

Buried  amid  Flowers  185 

Mrs.  Murphy,  wife  of  the  consul-general,  and  a  kind  neighbor, 
Mrs.  Petri,  sat  up  with  her  Saturday  night.  Her  papa  arrived  at 
gyi  Sunday  morning  and  she  died  about  five  minutes  before  10  o'clock. 
He  was  with  her  a  half  an  hour,  but  we  doubt  whether  she  was 
sensible  of  it. 

The  funeral  was  held  on  June  23,  and  the  burial  was  made 
in  the  Friedhof  of  Frankfort,  amid  a  great  profusion  of 
flowers  brought  both  to  the  house  and  to  the  cemetery  by- 
Clara's  schoolmates.  Mr.  John  P.  Jackson  in  the  Evening 
Post,  New  York,  of  July  21,  says: 

This  thought  of  being  buried  among  flowers  is  a  very  pleasant 
one,  even  to  matured  persons,  and  we  were  not  surprised  on  learning 
that  the  little  one  had  become  enchanted  with  it.  She  had  thus 
obtained  an  almost  poetic  idea  of  death.  A  few  months  previously 
her  mind  had  been  busily  engaged  in  planning  excursions  and  picnics 
with  her  schoolmates  to  the  beautiful  summer-clad  woods,  but  toward 
the  end  she  forgot  these,  and  began  to  talk,  young  as  she  was,  about 
death,  and  to  say  how  she  would  like  to  be  buried.  She  had  already 
seen  a  German  burial.  It  had  been  the  wish  of  her  parents,  in 
case  of  death,  that  her  body  should  be  taken  back  to  America ;  but 
the  little  one,  who  knew  of  some  persons  being  thus  removed,  had 
said  that  she  would  not  like  to  cross  the  rough  sea  again,  but, 
imbued  with  the  beautiful  idea  of  being  buried  amid  flowers,  asked 
that  she  might  be  left  in  Germany,  and  requested  that  her  head 
might  be  surrounded  by  a  beautiful  wreath,  with  beautiful  rosebuds 
in  her  hair,  a  flower-cross  upon  her  breast;  the  coffin  was  to  be 
filled  up  with  flowers,  and  some  real  ones  were  to  be  planted  on  her 
grave.  The  idea  of  such  a  flowery  resting  place  appeared  to  take 
away  all  fear  of  death. 

The  mother  heart  grieved  deeply  and  long  over  the  departure 
of  their  only  daughter,  and  the  father  heart  strove  manfully 
and  successfully  to  bring  both  to  her  and  to  himself  the  sol- 
aces of  the  Christian  faith.  During  his  trip  made  in  August 
to  the  Scandinavian  peninsula  and  Russia  he  poured  out  his 
heart  in  strong  and  yearning  messages  of  comfort  to  his  wife : 

186  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

LlLLEHAMMER,    NORWAY,    August    9. 

How  much  I  thought  of  dear  angel  Clara  yesterday,  Sunday !  She 
seems  a  little  guardian  spirit  to  me,  and  sometimes  we  can  almost  talk 
together.  What  a  joy,  with  all  our  grief,  that  she  has  no  grief,  no 
tears,  nothing  but  joy!  and  is  waiting  for  us,  whom  she  loved  so 
dearly ! 

Stockholm,  August   14. 

My  dear  Kate:  I  am  afraid  you  are  grieving  too  much  for  our 
dear  angel  Clara.  I  have  seen  so  much  wickedness  since  I  have  been 
gone  that  I  have  a  peaceful  satisfaction  in  knowing  that  our  sweet 
angel  is  an  angel  and  can  never  sin,  and  never  know  a  pain.  Now, 
have  we  not  a  great  comfort?  And  why  should  you  wish  to  have 
Clara  by  our  side  when  she  would  not,  if  she  had  her  choice,  not- 
withstanding all  her  almost  idolatry  of  us,  leave  her  Saviour's  side 
for  ten  thousand  worlds?  Let  us  love  our  sweet  Clara's  precious 
memory,  and  cherish  her  sweet,  pure  spirit,  so  as  to  imitate  it,  and 
love  the  Saviour  more  for  her  sake;  for  she  loved  him.  Let  us  be 
happy  in  spite  of  all  our  sorrow,  and  remember  that  to  mourn  an 
erring  child  living  is  ten  thousand  times  worse  than  a  blest,  immortal 
one.  Do  not,  for  the  sake  of  dear  John  and  Carl,  who  are  left  us, 
mourn  longer  over  Clara's  loss.  We  know  her  future,  but  we  don't 
know  John's  or  Carl's.  Therefore  spend  the  time  in  praying  for  and 
instructing  them  in  the  right  way,  instead  of  weeping  selfishly  over 
our  angel  spirit.  If  she  knew  that  we  ever  shed  a  tear  over  her, 
what  would  her  language  be? — "Don't,  dear  papa  and  mamma,  cry 
for  me !  You  don't  know  how  happy  I  am  here,  and  what  nice 
things  the  Saviour  tells  me  and  gives  me  all  the  time.  Try  and 
bear  my  absence  just  as  you  ought,  and  then  come  up  here  where 
I  am!" 

In  a  letter  to  her  own  sympathizing  father  and  mother  Airs. 

Hurst  partly  discloses  the  deeps  through  which  each  sought  to 

aid  the  other : 

August  6. — Mr.  Hurst  bears  it  better  than  I  do,  but  sometimes 
he  feels  like  giving  up  entirely.  She  became  such  a  pet  of  his  through 
her  sickness.  .  .  .  Nothing  but  time  can  soften  this  grief. 

Again  he  writes  to  Mrs.  Hurst : 

Ox   Steamer   Dagmar,   August  20. 
I  know  you  still  grieve  for  our  precious  angel  Clara.     I  feel  that 
heaven  is  doubly  attractive  to  us.  and  that  we  should  rather  rejoice 

Christian  Consolation  187 

to  know  that  no  power  can  take  her  from  her  high  estate,  and  that 
our  meeting  her  again,  if  we  are  faithful  to  Christ,  is  certain,  when 
that  would  not  have  been  the  case  if  we  had  gone  and  left  her  to 
fight  life's  battle  alone.  I  have  seen  so  many  tombs  of  children,  and 
of  princes,  since  I  left  home,  that  I  feel  that  our  lot  has  been  the 
lot  of  parents  ever  since  the  world  began ;  only  we  have  the  hope 
that  multitudes  of  parents  have  not — of  knowing  that  our  dear  one 
is  with  her  Saviour. 

Saint  Petersburg,  x\ugust  23. 
No  grave  was  so  touching  as  that  of  a  little  daughter  of  the 
present  Emperor  Alexander  II,  who  was  but  six  months  younger 
than  our  angel  in  heaven.  How  her  image  stands  before  me !  I  gaze 
on  little  girls  in  the  streets  until  I  lose  sight  of  them,  and  think  of 
Clara,  and  that  she  is  happy.  Let  us  not  weep,  hard  as  it  is  to  desist. 
She  is  above  all  suffering.  Dr.  Stevens's  letter  comes  right  home  to 
me  more  than  any  we  have  received.  He  says  our  dear  Clara  hovers 
over  us,  and  is  a  ministering  spirit.  It  seems  to  me  sometimes  that 
I  can  almost  hear  our  sweet  Clara  talking  to  me  as  she  used  to  do. 
When  we  come  to  die  we  shall  not  have  to  be  anxious  about  her 
future;  it  will  sweeten  our  own  death  to  know  that  we  shall  soon 
be  with  her. 

1 88  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  Translator 

The  German  Exegete. — The  Swiss  Historian. — The  Dutch  Defender 

Parallel  with  and  helpful  to  his  work  as  teacher  during  his 
two  years  in  Bremen  and  his  first  year  in  Frankfort  was  the 
congenial  yet  often  difficult  task  of  translating  three  important 
works  from  the  German  into  English.  These  were  the  Com- 
mentary of  Lange  on  the  Epistle  to  the  Romans,  Hagenbach's 
History  of  the  Christian  Church  in  the  Eighteenth  and  Nine- 
teenth Centuries,  and  Van  Oosterzee's  Apologetical  Lectures 
on  John's  Gospel. 

While  still  pastor  at  Staten  Island  he  had  agreed  with  Dr. 
Philip  Schaff,  the  editor  in  chief  of  the  translation  of  Lange's 
Commentary,  to  translate  the  Epistle  to  the  Romans  and  to 
furnish  the  homiletical  notes  to  be  drawn  from  various  sources. 
Soon  after  making  this  arrangement  in  the  spring  of  1866  he 
jotted  down  a  comparative  forecast  for  this  new  undertaking : 

From  April  1  to  August  1  I  must  translate  200  pages  of  Lange. 
There  are  17  weeks  and  85  working  days.  This  would  be  2V2  pages 
for  every  working  day.     May  God  help  me  to  complete  my  task ! 

More  than  three  years  later  he  added  to  the  above : 

This  enterprise  was  not  finished  until  1869.     So  much  for  plans. 

He  wrote  at  intervals,  using  the  latest  available  editions  of 
Lange's  work  and  sending  installments  from  time  to  time  as 
they  accumulated  to  the  hand  of  the  learned  and  able  general 
editor.  Dr.  Schaff  wrote  him  frequently  on  points  where 
consultation  became  necessary  and  desirable.  On  November 
20,  1867,  he  says: 

Philip  Schaff  189 

I  do  not  wonder  that  you  call  it  the  hardest  work  of  your  life. 
I  find  it  very  difficult  myself  to  translate  Lange.  But  I  am  sure 
we  shall  never  regret  the  labor  spent  upon  it.  It  will  be  a  standard 
Commentary  for  a  long  time. 

And  again  on  September  12,  1868: 

If  I  get  through  Romans  and  John  (which  has  been  thrown  upon 
me  by  the  sudden  death  of  my  friend  Dr.  Yeomans — a  severe  shock 
to  me !)  safe  and  sound,  it  will  be  almost  a  miracle.  If  I  had  nothing 
else  to  do,  I  might  manage  Lange,  but  I  have  to  labor  besides  for 
the  support  of  a  large  family.  The  printer  is  now  working  on  the 
first  chapter  of  Romans  and  complains  dreadfully  of  the  copy.  But 
I  cannot  help  it.  It  is  a  terrible  job  all  around,  which  requires  special 
grace  to  carry  through. 

On  October  26  he  says  : 

Your  translation  improves  greatly  as  it  goes  on.  You  evidently 
have  grown  into  the  work.  I  find  now  little  to  correct,  but  much 
to  add  to  Lange  and  occasionally  by  the  way  of  dissent.  If  we 
carry  the  volume  through  as  commenced,  I  think  we  will  give  to  the 
public  a  Commentary  full  of  valuable  matter  and  not  easily  to  be 
superseded.  You  may  go  on  with  your  additions  to  the  Homiletical 
Department,  which  I  think  are  very  valuable.  Cull  the  richest  fruits 
from  the  English  and  American  fields  of  labor  and  make  it  exhaustive. 

Dr.  Hurst,  with  a  sigh  of  relief  that  can  almost  be  heard 
from  the  written  lines,  reaches  the  end  of  this  work  on  Satur- 
day, February  13,  1869: 

At  12  minutes  before  12  m.  this  day,  I  finished  the  last  word 
of  Lange's  Commentary  (Romans),  on  which  I  had  been  engaged 
just  three  years. 

It  came  from  Scribners'  press  late  in  1869.  From  Dr. 
Schaff  came  in  1870  these  words  of  comment  and  commen- 
dation : 

The  Commentary  has  been  well  received  by  the  press  except  the 
Methodist  Quarterly  Review.  You  were  no  doubt  as  much  surprised 
as  I  at  the  fierce  attack  of  Dr.  Whedon,  which  is  as  unfair  as  it  is 

190  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

unkind.  I  am  sure  my  dear  friend  Dr.  McClintock  was  grieved  at 
it.  I  attended  his  funeral  yesterday  at  Saint  Paul's  Church  and  was 
moved  to  tears.  He  was  a  loyal  and  true  Methodist,  and  yet  in  hearty 
.sympathy  with  all  other  hranches  and  interests  of  Christ's  kingdom. 
That  is  the  style  of  man  I  admire  and  love.  I  deeply  mourn  over 
his  departure,  but  God's  holy  will  be  done. 

Romans  is  doing  well,  though  none  of  the  Epistles  sell  so  ex- 
tensively as  the  Gospels.  Dr.  Whedon's  criticism  may  have  interfered 
with  its  sale  in  the  Methodist  Church,  but  I  trust  not  permanently. 
All  the  other  reviewers  spoke  in  high  praise  about  it  as  being  upon 
the  whole  the  most  valuable  Commentary  on  Romans  in  existence. 
If  you  are  anxious  for  more  work,  I  am  quite  willing  to  let  you 
take  some  Old  Testament  book  not  yet  disposed  of,  which  are  I  and 
2  Chronicles,  Ezra,  Nehemiah,  Esther,  and  six  of  the  Minor  Prophets. 
None  of  these  have  appeared  yet  in  German. 

His  translation  of  Hagenbach's  extensive  and  popular 
Church  History  dates  for  its  inception  as  far  back  as  January 
1,  1864,  when  he  consented  to  undertake  it  in  joint  labor  with 
Dr.  Bernard  H.  Nadal,  then  preaching  in  Philadelphia.  Sub- 
sequently, after  going  to  Europe  and  in  view  of  Dr.  Xadal's 
inability  to  fulfill  his  purpose  of  so  large  devotion  of  time 
to  literary  labor  while  engrossed  in  the  cares  of  a  large  church. 
Dr.  Hurst  by  a  mutually  satisfactory  arrangement  assumed 
the  completion  of  the  work.  Dr.  Nadal's  portion  of  the  work 
appears  in  Chapters  I  to  VII  inclusive,  IX  and  a  part  of  X  in 
the  first  volume,  and  parts  of  XVI  and  XVII  of  the  second. 
This  long  labor  was  finished  in  June,  1868,  and  the  two 
octavo  volumes  appeared  in  1869. 

For  several  items  of  progress  in  this  work  his  Journal  can 
be  consulted  for  1864,  January  1,  4,  9,  31  and  February  20, 
the  last-named  entry  announcing  his  discontinuance  of  the 
translating,  because  the  Clarks  of  Edinburgh  were  printing 
another  translation  made  by  W.  L.  Gage  and  J.  H.  W.  Stuck- 
enberg  under  the  title  of  German  Rationalism.  After  his 
removal  to  Bremen  he  resumed  the  work  of  translation  in 
harmony  with  the  wishes  of  the  distinguished  author  and 

Hagenbach  and  Van  Oosterzee  191 

professor  at  Basel  and  under  agreement  for  its  publication 
by  Charles  Scribner.  He  wrote  to  Dr.  William  Nast,  May  25, 

I  can  have  Hagenbach  ready  for  the  press  in  two  months,  if 

This  work  of  a  thousand  pages  is  rounded  out  by  a  chapter 
from  the  hand  of  the  translator  called  "Most  Recent  History 
and  Present  State  of  the  Church  in  Europe,"  giving  in  the 
space  of  twenty  pages  a  condensed  view  of  the  ten  preceding 
years  of  European  church  life. 

His  translation  of  the  Apologetical  Lectures  of  J.  J.  Van 
Oosterzee  on  the  Gospel  of  John  from  the  German  edition 
brought  before  the  English  and  American  public  four  of  the 
strong  and  popular  lectures  of  the  scholarly  and  progressive, 
yet  evangelical  and  conservative  Professor  of  Utrecht  in  his 
masterly  defense  of  the  fourth  gospel,  delivered  in  the  Odeon 
at  Amsterdam  in  1866.  He  completed  this  work  in  December, 
1868,  added  some  notes  of  his  own,  and  it  was  published  by 
the  Clarks  of  Edinburgh  in  1869.  He  had  the  pleasure  of 
acquaintance  with  Dr.  Van  Oosterzee,  with  whom  he  carried 
on  for  several  years  an  interesting  correspondence. 

A  letter  from  Mrs.  Hurst  to  her  sister,  Mrs.  Snow,  on 
November  9,  1869.  refers  to  these  three  works  of  the  busy 
man,  her  husband: 

I  suppose  you  see  by  the  papers  that  Romans  of  Lange's  Com- 
mentary is  out,  and  that  Hagenbach's  Church  History  is  now  being 
printed.  You  have  no  idea  what  a  relief  it  is  to  have  three  large 
books,  or  the  manuscript,  out  of  the  house.  When  I  think  it  over 
I  don't  see  how  Mr.  Hurst  ever  got  through  with  it,  and  then 
that  book,  too,  on  John's  Gospel,  all  crowded  into  three  years.  I  don't 
believe  he  will  ever  undertake  such  an  amount  of  work  again. 
Romans  was  so  very  difficult,  and  also  the  homiletical  additions 
which  he  made,  but  the  New  York  papers  are  giving  due  credit 
and  great  praise  for  the  scholarly  manner  in  which  he  carried  it 

192  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

out.     Hagenbach's  Church  History  was  stereotyped  over  here,  and 
the  plates  sent  to  Mr.  Scribner. 

The  History  of  Rationalism  had  been  his  passport  into  the 
world  of  letters.  These  three  translations  brought  him  into 
intimate  relations  with  three  leading  theological  minds  of  the 
Continent  in  exegesis,  in  history,  and  in  biblical  criticism,  and 
bound  him  in  the  ties  of  lifelong  affection  to  Dr.  Philip  Schaff. 
This  long  and  wearing  grapple  with  the  German  language, 
especially  with  the  knotty  type  of  Professor  Lange's  Romans, 
gave  him  a  firm  hold  and  an  easy  conquest  in  all  his  later  fre- 
quent use  of  the  literature  of  the  Fatherland  and  in  his  con- 
versation, his  preaching,  and  presiding  in  their  own  tongue, 
among  the  Germans,  who  loved  him  as  one  of  their  own. 

Death  of  McClintock  and  Nadal  193 

The  Professor 

At  Drew 

On  December  13,  1869,  John  H.  Vincent,  then  Secretary  of 
the  Sunday  School  Union,  wrote  Dr.  Hurst: 

Will  you  come  home  at  the  close  of  the  five  years  in  Germany? 
To  what  will  you  come — a  presidency?  a  professorship?  an  editor- 
ship? a  pastorship?  I  think  we  must  make  you  editor  of  the  Quar- 
terly Review.    But  God  has  led  you  and  he  still  leads  you. 

The  path  which,  upon  the  call  of  the  church,  he  had  entered 
when  he  left  the  local  pastorate  to  engage  in  the  broader 
pastorate  of  training  young  ministers  in  Germany  for  their 
lifework,  was  a  straight  one  to  a  similar  but  higher  and  longer 
service  in  the  Drew  Theological  Seminary  at  Madison,  New 
Jersey.  This  institution  was  in  its  infancy,  having  first  opened 
in  the  fall  of  1867.  The  cultured,  eloquent,  mighty  McClin- 
tock, with  the  help  of  a  few  strong  associates,  had  given  the 
young  Seminary  a  worthy  prestige,  when  on  March  4,  1870, 
he  dropped  earth's  toil  and  entered  into  rest,  to  be  followed 
two  months  later  by  Professor  Bernard  H.  Nadal.  Midway 
between  McClintock's  crowning  and  his  own,  on  April  2,  Dr. 
Nadal  wrote  to  Dr.  Hurst : 

My  dear  Friend  and  Brother:   Before  this  letter  reaches  you, 

you  will  have  heard  of  the  death  of  our  dear  friend,  Dr.  McClintock. 

Indeed,  you  must  know  it  while  I  write.     We  who  are  left  in  the 

Faculty  of  "Drew"  are  concerned  as  to  who  shall  be  our  colleague 

in   Dr.   McClintock's   place,   not   as   president,   but   as   professor.     I 

have  proposed  you  to  the  other  members  of  the  Faculty,  and  I  think 

it  quite  probable  they  may  agree  with  me;  at  least  as  probable  as 

the  contrary.     Now,  in  confidence,  how  do  you  feel?     What  would 

194  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

you  do  if  the  place  were  offered  you?    Would  you  be  willing  to  take 
the  chair  of  Practical  Theology? 

My  plan  is  to  have  Foster  made  president.  He  has  more  influence 
with  Mr.  Drew  than  any  other  man  in  the  church  and  can  secure 
farther  endowment  as  no  one  else  could.  Perhaps  to  accomplish 
certain  ends  it  might  be  needful  for  me  to  take  Foster's  chair  of 
Dogmatics,  let  him  take  the  Practical,  and  give  you  my  place  (His- 
tory). If  need  were,  would  that  suit  you?  Of  course,  these  things 
pledge  nothing. 

While  pondering  the  question  of  duty  as  to  the  acceptance 
of  a  chair  at  Drew  if  it  should  be  tendered  him  by  the  trustees, 
he  received  a  message  from  one  who  had  with  keen  and 
practiced  eye  taken  the  measure  of  his  future  service,  General 
Fisk,  at  Paris,  saying : 

I  cannot  think  it  best  for  you  to  go  to  Drew  just  yet.  You  are 
No.  I  at  Capua  now.     Rome  will  come  in  time. 

His  election  to  the  chair  of  Historical  Theology,  for  which 
he  had  named  his  friend,  Charles  W.  Bennett,  took  place 
November  15,  1870,  at  a  meeting  of  the  trustees  held  in  Jersey 
City,  and  was  accepted  six  weeks  later  in  a  letter  to  Bishop 
Simpson.  After  finishing  his  fifth  year  in  the  German  work 
and  having  made  his  trip  to  the  Holy  Land,  he  closed  his  rela- 
tions to  the  school  in  Frankfort,  packed  his  books  and  other 
earthly  goods,  and  with  his  wife,  his  two  sons  and  infant 
daughter  Helen,  crossed  the  Atlantic,  leaving  Bremen  August 
12,  arriving  in  New  York  the  25th.  On  September  3  he 
preached  at  the  corner  stone  laying  of  the  new  church  in 
dear  Passaic.  In  the  early  fall  he  was  settled  in  his  new  home 
on  the  beautiful  campus  at  Madison  and  on  opening  day  spoke 
to  the  assembled  friends  and  patrons  of  the  Seminary.  Here 
for  nine  years  he  directed  and  stimulated  the  students  of  Drew 
in  their  efforts  to  gain  such  a  view  of  the  development  of  the 
Christian  church  as  should  be  a  perpetual  inspiration  to  patient 

Professor  at  Drew  195 

and  successful  labor  and  a  safeguard  from  the  errors  which 
here  and  there  have  marred  its  record.  His  colaborer  in  the 
Faculty,  and  successor  in  the  Presidency,  Dr.  Buttz,  says : 

His  work  in  this  important  department  was  marked  with  great 
success.  His  professorial  life  was  one  of  joy  to  him  and  of  profit 
to  all  his  students.  There  are  those  who  will  recall  him  with  ten- 
derness as  their  professor  and  president  at  Drew,  unfolding  to  them 
in  vivid  language  the  story  of  the  Christian  church  and  stimulating 
them  to  higher  ideals  of  scholarship  and  usefulness.  They  will 
acknowledge  that  the  touch  of  Professor  Hurst  is  still  upon  them  and 
that  his  influence  upon  them  for  good  is  still  abiding. 

Hundreds  of  preachers  felt  his  personal  touch  and  cherish 
fond  memories  of  his  class  room  and  more  private  talks  and 
helps.  A  few  expressions  will  show  in  some  degree  the  spirit 
and  method  of  his  teaching  and  intercourse  with  his  students. 
William  McKendree  Hammack,  of  the  Baltimore  Conference, 
who  was  at  Drew  when  Dr.  Hurst  first  came,  says : 

We  found  in  him  a  kind  and  sympathizing  friend,  ever  ready  to 
listen  and  offer  wise  and  kind  counsel.  His  pleasant  smile,  genial 
spirit,  and  kind  words  have  ever  been  a  pleasant  memory  to  me. 

Dr.  Daniel  Halleron,  of  the  Newark  Conference,  writes : 

In  May,  1872,  I  came  to  Madison  for  the  purpose  of  entering  Drew 
Seminary.  A  perfect  and  bewildered  stranger,  I  left  my  wife  at  the 
hotel,  where  we  did  not  wish  to  stay  long,  for  financial  reasons. 
I  entered  the  campus  not  knowing  whom  to  see.  A  man  with  spade 
in  his  hand,  cowhide  boots,  trousers  tucked  in,  an  old  coat  and  an 
older  hat,  approached  and  inquired  whom  I  wanted.  I  told  him 
my  errand.  I  suppose  I  looked  out  of  sorts.  He  smiled  and  patiently 
listened,  then  in  a  singularly  sympathetic  manner  said,  "Brother, 
don't  be  disturbed,  matters  will  come  out  all  right."  What  was  my 
amazement  in  a  few  days  to  discover  that  the  man  was  Dr.  Hurst. 
He  was  patient,  sympathetic,  genial,  scholarly,  but  could  be  as  firm 
as  Gibraltar. 

Dr.  John  A.  Gutteridge,  of  77,  says : 

196  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

He  was  always  ready  to  preach  for  the  smallest  congregations. 
The  Sunday  evenings  he  spent  in  our  little  home  in  Livingston  after 
he  had  preached  will  never  be  forgotten.  I  can  see  him  now  take 
his  shoes  off  on  a  cold  winter's  night  and  put  his  feet  in  the 
oven  on  a  log  of  wood  we  had  put  there  to  warm  for  that  purpose. 
He  was  so  simple  in  his  ways,  so  like  one  of  the  family,  that  I 
fear  we  shall  never  see  his  like  again. 

Dr.  W.  H.  Rider,  of  Southern  California  Conference,  tells 
of  a  walk  with  him,  a  habit  which  marked  the  beloved  Tholuck 
in  the  days  at  old  Halle : 

He  was  to  me  one  of  the  greatest  helpers  of  my  life.  One  day, 
after  his  lecture  to  the  class  in  history,  he  invited  me  to  take  a  walk 
with  him.  We  started  toward  Morristown.  Say  what  you  will  about 
distances  and  strides !  We  talked  about  specializing  in  study.  He 
said  he  believed  in  it  and  mentioned  exegesis  as  most  inviting.  In 
this  connection  he  said,  "I  like  language  and  history,  but  I  do  not 
believe  the  Lord  ever  intended  that  I  should  study  mathematics." 

Another  similar  incident  is  related  by  Professor  W.  W. 
Martin,  of  the  New  York  East  Conference : 

My  custom  was  to  walk  around  the  Triangle,  one  side  of  which 
was  bordered  by  the  Morristown  Road.  On  this  evening  I  was 
walking  slowly  and  heard  a  kind  voice  say,  "Good  evening.  Brother 
Martin !"  Turning,  I  saw  Dr.  Hurst  stepping  up  by  my  side.  We 
walked  on  together,  he  going  with  me  around  the  Triangle.  I  seemed 
to  be  talking  a  great  deal  to  him  all  the  way;  but  the  fact  was, 
for  every  word  I  uttered  he  spoke  sentences.  He  made  me  companion 
with  the  great  thinkers  of  the  past,  with  the  leading  spirits  of  the 
German  universities.  They  were  made  to  appear  very  near  to  me, 
older  friends  pointing  out  the  deeds  of  those  who  had  among  men, 
with  fidelity  and  sacrifice,  served  our  Lord  the  Christ.  I  have  often 
thought  how  in  that  walk  Bishop  Hurst  completely  blotted  out  his 
own  personality  that  he  might  surround  me  with  the  mighty  workers 
of  the  past  and  present.    The  memory  of  the  walk  lives  to-day. 

He  kept  himself  in  constant  touch  with  current  thought 
bearing  on  his  special  themes,  and  in  place  of  a  regular  lecture 
he  would  sometimes  spring  a  pleasant  surprise  upon  his  class 

His  Gentleness  and  Strength  197 

by  treating  them  to  a  delightful  talk  on  some  topic  or  book  or 
author.  Professor  Faulkner,  of  Drew,  speaks  in  the  Methodist 
Review  for  May  and  June,  1904,  of  his  "interesting  lectures 
in  the  old  northeast  room  in  Mead  Hall  and  the  still  more 
interesting  excursions  into  the  paths  of  history,  biography, 
and  literature."  Dr.  John  D.  Hammond,  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church.  South,  says : 

He  was  one  of  the  most  popular  and  beloved  teachers  I  have  ever 
known.  His  gentleness  and  strength  combined  not  only  to  win  to 
him  all  hearts,  but  also  to  give  him  dominion  over  all  minds. 

198  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  President 

At  Drew 

The  election  of  President  Randolph  S.  Foster  to  the  office  of 
bishop  at  the  General  Conference  of  1872  took  away  from 
"Drew"  its  official  head.  Six  months  later,  on  November  29, 
Bishop  Foster  resigned  both  his  professorship  and  the  presi- 
dency. The  trustees,  already  knowing  his  power  as  a  teacher 
and  confident  also  of  his  administrative  ability,  on  May  14, 
1873,  elected  Dr.  Hurst  president  of  the  Seminary.  The  ac- 
ceptance of  this  office  added  greatly  to  his  labors,  for  he 
retained  his  professorship  and  performed  the  duties  belonging 
to  it  to  the  full,  save  during  the  period  when  imminent  financial 
peril,  threatening  the  life  of  the  institution,  midway  in  his 
administration  drove  him  to  frequent  and  long  journeys,  and 
some  one  of  his  colleagues,  usually  Dr.  Kidder,  would  act  as 
his  substitute. 

Differing  in  temperament  and  method  from  the  two  presi- 
dents, the  scholarly  McClintock  and  the  philosophical  Foster, 
who  had  laid  strong,  broad,  and  deep  foundations  in  the  first 
six  years  of  "Drew."  he  admirably  united  with  his  scholarly 
labors  in  this  office  for  seven  years  the  practical  sagacity  of 
the  man  of  affairs  coping  successfully  with  each  rising  emer- 
gency ;  secured  the  preservation  and  perfecting  of  the  harmony 
existing  between  the  members  of  the  Faculty;  the  steady  ad- 
vancement in  the  grade  of  scholarship  among  the  ever-increas- 
ing body  of  students,  both  for  entrance  and  during  the  courses ; 
an  effective  junction  of  the  interests  of  the  school  with  the 
mind  and  heart  of  the  adjacent  Conferences  of  its  patronizing 

From  photograph  by  Garber. 


While  President  of  Drew  Theological  Seminary. 

An  Encounter  with  Bishop  Ames 


territory,  intensified  and  extended  to  the  whole  church  by  his 
heroic  restoration  of  the  lost  endowment;  and  a  constant 
pastoral  watchfulness  over  the  physical,  social,  moral,  and 
spiritual  well-being  of  the  young  men  who  came  from  every 
part  of  the  country  and  from  lands  beyond  the  seas.  His  rep- 
resentations of  the  Seminary  before  the  Annual  Conferences 
were  invariably  well  received.  In  1874  he  said  to  the  Newark 
Conference : 

Brethren,  we  earnestly  ask  your  prayers.  It  may  seem  an  easy 
task.  Not  so.  I  envy  you  your  fields  of  labor.  You  are  welcome 
to  our  homes  at  any  time.  Search  out  young  men.  Don't  let  them 
go  out  until  they  are  fully  ready.  We  want  earnest  men,  converted 
men,  called  men,  serious  men — men  who  know  what  they  are  pro- 

Supplemental  to  his  public  addresses  in  behalf  of  the  school 
he  wrote  and  published  a  telling  circular  of  sixteen  pages  en- 
titled "Should  a  College  Alumnus  attend  a  Theological  Semi- 
nary?" In  this  he  gives  five  reasons  why  he  should,  and 
answers  six  fallacious  objections.  An  incident  which  oc- 
curred while  he  was  visiting  the  Baltimore  Conference  in  1874 
is  vividly  described  by  Dr.  George  V.  Leech : 

Bishop  Ames  occupied  the  chair.  As  the  admission  of  a  young 
man,  even  on  trial,  was  always  regarded  as  a  vital  matter,  all  the 
information  possible  was  sought.  Hence  a  custom  had  grown  up 
of  informally  calling  on  the  professors  or  presidents  of  the  institu- 
tions in  which  the  candidate  had  studied,  if  such  were  at  hand. 
Such  testimony,  when  accessible,  was  not  only  sought,  but  was  a 
very  dominant  factor  in  the  decision  of  the  case.  A  young  man, 
whose  name  was  before  the  Conference,  had  been  a  student  at  Drew. 
Dr.  Hurst,  who  happened  to  be  present,  had  duly  represented  him. 
Bishop  Ames,  perhaps  unaware  of  the  custom  prevailing  in  this 
Conference,  and  well  known  as  insistent  on  exact  regularity  of 
procedure,  as  soon  as  Dr.  Hurst  had  finished,  made  some  remarks 
that  seemed  to  reflect  on  such  outside  interference,  as  out  of  place 
in  affairs  that  belonged  to  the  Conference  alone.  He  had  scarcely 
finished  when  the  Doctor  rose  again.  I  shall  never  forget  his  appear- 
ance.    A  man  of  medium  stature,  of  usually  gentle  and  benevolent 

200  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

countenance,  his  eyelids  drooping  heavily  over  eyes  that  were  pale 
blue,  I  anticipated  a  mild-mannered  apology  for  his  action  as  well 
intended,  though  thus  publicly  and  officially  disapproved.  I  heard 
nothing  of  the  kind.  He  seemed  to  rise  to  a  higher  stature  than 
before;  those  languid-looking  eyes  seemed  to  have  a  new  and  wide- 
awake expression.  First  came  a  few  well-chosen  words  of  explana- 
tion of  his  course,  as  suggested  by  others  and  as  justified  by  the 
custom  of  the  Conference  as  well  as  by  the  proprieties  of  the  case; 
then  those  eyelids  were  lifted,  a  very  fire  seemed  to  blaze,  and  the 
speaker  finished  by  informing  the  massive  and  dignified  presiding 
officer  that  he  understood  his  rights  in  such  matters  and  that  he 
allowed  neither  bishop  nor  anyone  else  to  reflect  on  him  for  such 
action ;  he  followed  duty  alone  and  was  content.  He  then  quietly 
took  his  seat.  It  was  the  end  of  the  matter.  A  thrill  of  admiration 
for  the  mild-mannered  man  who  had  thus  courageously  confronted 
a  bishop,  who  was  rather  feared  by  many  ministers,  ran  through  the 
Conference.  Bishop  Ames,  though  at  times  abrupt  and  combative, 
as  is  well  known,  looked  quietly  round  as  though  the  incident  was 
satisfactorily  closed,  and  proceeded  to  put  the  vote.  The  young  man. 
if  memory  serves  me  aright,  was  unanimously  admitted.  It  was  a 
very  easy  matter,  for  one  who  did  not  know  the  real  John  F.  Hurst, 
to  misjudge  his  character  for  courage.  He  was  utterly  unassuming. 
His  appearance  and  general  manner  of  address  gave  no  special 
indication  of  either  great  intellectual  power  and  learning  or  of  unusual 
courage.     In  reality  he  was  the  very  embodiment  of  all  of  these. 

On  the  last  day  of  1875  he  served  as  one  of  the  bearers  at 
the  funeral  of  the  centenarian  preacher,  Henry  Boehm,  at 
Woodrow,  Staten  Island,  and  in  September,  1876,  he  assisted 
at  the  funeral  services  of  Bishop  Janes,  to  whom  he  was  de- 
votedly attached. 

His  fraternal  address,  as  the  representative  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church,  at  the  Triennial  National  Council  of  the 
Congregational  Church  at  Detroit  in  1877,  was  a  most  happy 
combination  of  good  feeling  with  a  scholarly  and  appreciative 
tracing  of  Congregational  antecedents  and  history,  and  of 
parallels  as  well  as  contrasts  in  the  honorable  and  successful 
growth  of  both  Calvinistic  and  Arminian  churches.  Beginning 
with  a  blandness  that  bordered  well  on  pleasantry,  it  closes 

The  Preacher's  Study  201 

with  an  eloquent  appeal  of  a  clarion  note  for  a  solid  union  of 
forces  for  the  battle  to  preserve  the  Sabbath,  to  defeat  intem- 
perance, to  resist  infidelity,  and  to  check  the  political  aggres- 
sion of  Roman  Catholicism.  He  preached  frequently  during 
his  entire  connection  with  "Drew,"  visiting  the  camp  meetings 
at  seashore,  in  the  forest,  and  in  the  mountains.  Of  the 
Wyoming,  Pennsylvania,  camp  meeting  of  1878  an  eyewitness, 
Rev.  E.  W.  Caswell,  reports : 

Bishop  Hurst  and  Bishop  McCabe  mingled  among  the  multitude. 
The  face  of  Bishop  Hurst  shone  with  the  light  of  heaven.  All 
who  saw  him  on  that  occasion  knew  that  his  scholarly  mind  was 
illumined  with  the  love  of  a  great  heart. 

On  December  18,  1878,  he  delivered  a  powerful  address  at 
the  Educational  Convention  held  in  Syracuse.  He  found  time 
to  write  and  deliver  an  address  on  "Pastoral  Habits"  before 
the  Newark  District  Conference,  full  of  meaty  suggestions 
and  of  fundamental  principles  for  sermon-making.  Here  are 
two  or  three  of  its  gems  : 

The  study  should  be  as  undisturbed  by  an  intruder  as  was  Galileo's 
tower  in  the  moment  of  the  discovery  of  a  new  planet,  or  the  studio 
of  Michelangelo  when  at  work  on  his  Moses.  ...  A  mechanical 
division  of  the  hours,  such  as  we  sometimes  find  in  the  books  on 
ministerial  study,  has  about  as  much  common  sense  in  it  as  a  man's 
laying  down  rules  for  the  smiling  of  a  child,  the  singing  of  a 
bird,  the  enjoyment  of  Niagara,  or  the  absorbed  looking  at  the 
Sistine  Madonna.  .  .  .  We  must  remember  that  we  are  creatures  of 
inspiration  as  well  as  habit,  and  when  the  fire  is  on  one,  or  rather, 
in  him,  the  timing  of  himself,  the  fixing  an  exact  limit  to  his 
work,  is  like  a  Wellington  ordering  a  halt  in  the  hot  midst  of 
Waterloo,  or  Isaac  Newton  laying  aside  his  calculation  of  the  law 
of  gravitation  because,  forsooth,  his  watch  is  telling  him  he  is  already 
four  minutes  beyond  his  allotted  time. 

From  the  impressions  made  on  those  who  came  near  to  him 
during  his  career  as  president  of  this  school  of  the  prophets  we 
cull  a  few.    Professor  Faulkner  writes  : 

202  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

When  I  came  here  [Drew]  as  a  student  and  bashful  boy,  in  1878, 
I  was  told  that  I  might  find  him  somewhat  severe  and  reserved,  but, 
on  the  contrary,  the  first  time  I  called  on  him  I  found  him  pleasant 
and  friendly.  .  .  .  One  time  he  made  a  great  speech  in  the  chapel 
on  Ministerial  Devotion.  He  said,  "Bury  yourselves  in  your  work, 
and  earthly  honors  will  take  care  of  themselves." 

The  Rev.  X.  L.  Heroy,  of  yj"/,  says: 

Undecided  what  step  next  to  take  after  my  graduation  from  col- 
lege, I  wrote  to  Dr.  Hurst  for  advice  as  to  taking  a  course  at 
Drew,  suggesting  that  I  was  without  means.  His  prompt  reply  was, 
"Come  right  on ;  the  Lord  will  provide  for  all  whom  he  calls  to 
the  ministry."  I  found  out  subsequently  that  this  was  the  spirit  in 
which  he  invited  one  and  all  of  the  impecunious  candidates  for  the 

The  Rev.  E.  F.  Barlow,  of  New  York  Conference,  says : 

The  trait  in  Bishop  Hurst  which  impressed  me  most  was  his 
attention  to  the  individual.  The  few  times  I  met  him  he  gave  me  his 
thought  as  though  I  was  the  only  man.  So,  it  seemed  to  me,  he  did 
with  any  subject  or  matter.  During  the  time  of  its  consideration 
it  absorbed  all  his  thought — his  soul. 

From  Dr.  S.  O.  Royal,  of  the  Cincinnati  Conference: 

As  a  young  man,  already  consecrated  to  the  work  of  the  ministry, 
but  undecided  as  yet  whether  I  should  dare  to  enter  a  theological 
seminary,  to  continue  there  the  principle  of  self-support  by  which 
I  had  put  myself  through  college,  these  words  were  an  inspiration 
to  my  faith,  and  ended  my  inward  debatings.  In  his  first  letter  to 
me  he  said:  "Do  not  remain  away  from  here  in  order  to  teach. 
Come  right  along  without  any  work  in  view,  and  trust  in  the  Lord 
to  open  your  way.  I  will  see  that  you  get  the  aid  of  a  loan  or 
an  outright  gift  of  enough  to  meet  your  board  the  first  year.  But 
leave  all  these  things.  Provide  as  well  as  you  can,  and  leave  the 
rest  for  the  Lord  and  vour  friends  here  to  manage."  In  a  few  weeks 
another  letter  from  him  announced  that  the  aid  suggested  above  had 
been  secured,  and  I  decided  at  once  upon  the  path  wmich  changed  the 
direction  of  my  entire  life.  On  another  occasion  at  chapel  exercise, 
when  a  peculiar  temptation  was  haunting  me,  his  words  drove  away 
the  tempter,  the  air  cleared,  and  courage  came  back.     It  was  on  this 

J.  L.  Gilder's  Description  203 

wise.  He  said:  "Some  of  you  are  here  by  the  charities  of  strangers 
whose  interest  is  in  the  cause,  and  not  in  you  personally.  Think  none 
the  less  of  yourselves  on  that  account.  Your  Father  in  heaven  has 
many  children,  and  different  ways  of  caring  for  them.  Some  are 
provided  with  abundant  supplies  for  earning  their  own  support,  and 
others  are  for  the  time  assisted  by  the  generosities  of  those  whom 
the  Lord  has  made  the  stewards  of  his  bounty.  By  whatever  means 
our  bread  comes,,  it  is  from  him."  Such  a  spirit  as  those  words 
manifested  exerted  an  influence  for  which  earthly  measurements 
are  utterly  insufficient.     Eternity  alone  can  reveal  and  reward  them. 

The  Rev.  J.  L.  Gilder's  description  in  1877  is: 

To  the  uninitiated  President  Hurst,  from  his  very  youthful  appear- 
ance, would  be  the  least  likely  to  be  regarded  as  at  the  head  of  the 
institution.  We  opine  he  is  really  older  than  his  appearance  indi- 
cates. He  is  rather  under  the  medium  size,  but  well  proportioned 
and  compacted.  The  face  is  oval,  with  symmetrical  features;  the 
countenance  serene  and  placid — the  very  index  of  culture,  piety,  and 
benevolence.  In  manner  Dr.  Hurst  is  calm  and  undemonstrative: 
in  speech,  unimpassioned  and  deliberate,  but  perspicuous  and  im- 
pressive. He  is  a  good  organizer,  exhibits  executive  ability  of  a 
high  order,  is  free  from  all  taint  of  egotism  or  dogmatism,  and 
admirably  well  supports  the  dignity  of  his  position. 

A  Crisis,  A  Stand,  A  Victory 

From  the  opening  of  the  Seminary  in  November,  1867, 
until  December,  1875,  the  salaries  of  the  professors  and  other 
current  expenses  were  quite  amply  provided  for  by  the  annual 
payment  of  $17,500,  the  interest  on  Mr.  Daniel  Drew's  per- 
sonal bond  for  $250,000.  The  purchase  of  the  Gibbons  estate, 
with  its  mansion  and  beautifully  wooded  ninety  acres,  the 
transformation  of  the  buildings  for  the  new  purposes  of  the 
school,  the  erection  of  four  houses  for  the  homes  of  the  pro- 

204  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

fessors,  and  other  improvements  of  the  realty,  were  the  gift 
of  Mr.  Drew,  whose  cash  paid  for  all  these,  involving  the 
outlay  of  about  $250,000.  In  March,  1876,  while  the  life  at 
"Drew"  was  at  the  flood,  the  professors  working  with  enthu- 
siasm, the  classes  larger  than  at  any  previous  time,  and  the 
prospect  fair  for  steady  growth  in  every  department,  suddenly 
Mr.  Drew's  securities  or  investments  shrank  to  merely  nominal 
values.  The  failure  was  complete  and  hopeless.  President 
Hurst  promptly  visited  the  aged  capitalist  and  generous  giver. 
The  pathos  of  that  personal  meeting  between  the  strong  and 
hopeful  man  and  the  tremulous,  crushed,  despairing  financier 
can  be  easily  imagined. 

The  result  of  his  report  of  the  situation  to  the  Faculty  and 
conference  with  them,  and  the  resolute  courage  shared  with 
him  by  every  professor,  formed  the  theme  of  his  talk  to  the 
students  one  of  those  dark  mornings  in  chapel.  The  Rev.  W. 
H.  York,  of  the  Central  New  York  Conference,  reports  the 
president  on  this  occasion  : 

I  have  recently  had  an  interview  with  Mr.  Drew.  He  told  me 
he  could  no  longer  pay  the  interest  on  the  bonds  he  had  made  for 
the  endowment  of  Drew  Theological  Seminary.  I  looked  him  straight 
in  the  eye  and  said,  "Mr.  Drew,  the  report  of  such  a  failure  as 
this  will  go  around  the  world."  "I  know  it,  I  have  thought  of  it, 
but  I  can't  help  it."  Now,  I  am  glad  to  say  that  not  one  member 
of  the  Faculty  is  going  to  leave  his  post,  though  not  one  of  us 
knows  where  his  salary  is  coming  from. 

Early  and  most  helpfully  in  this  campaign  for  money  came 
a  princely  gift  from  the  president  of  the  National  Shoe  and 
Leather  Bank  of  New  York,  Mr.  Andrew  V.  Stout,  who  en- 
dowed the  Chair  of  Church  History  with  $40,000.  The 
writer  remembers  the  gleam  of  joy  that  overspread  the  face 
of  the  president  as  one  evening,  in  the  midst  of  a  busy  hour  of 
dictation  and  taking  of  notes  for  correspondence,  he  paused 
to  tell  some  particulars  of  that  banker's  heart-cheering  act: 

Hope,  Humor,  and  Work  205 

I  had  made  no  direct  personal  appeal  to  Brother  Stout.  He  knew 
the  situation  and  our  need.  I  was  his  guest  for  the  night  in  my 
canvass  for  funds,  and  knew  I  was  among  friends.  While  we 
sat  in  his  home,  each  quietly  reading  and  resting,  he  turned  toward 
me  and  taking  his  pencil  wrote  on  the  margin  of  the  paper  he  had 
been  reading  the  bare  figures  with  the  significant  mark  before  them 
— $40,000. 

It  is  doubtful  whether  the  weary  president  slept  as  well  or 
as  long  as  usual  that  night,  but  it  is  absolutely  sure  that  his 
rest  was  sweeter.  While  in  the  straits  for  money  the  pro- 
fessors for  a  time  resorted  to  the  plan  of  exchanging  with 
one  another  their  own  promissory  notes,  which  with  some 
collateral  security  were  honored  by  advances  at  the  local  banks. 

Another  professorship  was  secured  through  the  agency  of 
Professor  Buttz  from  the  heirs  of  the  Honorable  George  T. 
Cobb,  of  Morristown,  who  endowed  the  Chair  of  Xew  Testa- 
ment Exegesis,  by  the  gift  of  land  in  New  York  city  on  Tenth 
Avenue  between  Xinetv-second  and  Ninetv-third  Streets, 
valued  at  $40,000.  This  was  not  immediately  productive. 
On  July  8,  1877.  Dr.  Hurst  made  this  note  on  the  back  of  the 
stubs  of  his  bank-check  book : 

My  salary  due  by  the  Seminary  is  chiefly  paid  up  for  the  quarter 
ending  June  I.  Professor  Buttz  has  $100  paid  on  his  to  that  time. 
This  week  I  propose  to  pay  one  or  two  hundred  around  to  the  pro- 
fessors. My  salary  is  the  only  one  warranted  by  an  endowment, 
though  I  have  intended  to  distribute  it  equally. 

At  the  General  Conference  of  1876,  where  he  led  the  delega- 
tion from  Newark  Conference,  he  let  no  time  or  opportunity 
pass  without  making  it  tell  for  his  cause.  To  Mrs.  Hurst  he 
sent  among  many  others  these  messages  of  hope,  of  humor, 

and  of  work : 

Baltimore.  April  30. 
Mine  is  to  be  the  immortality,  if  any,  of  making  good  the  money 
that  Wall  Street  has  swallowed  up. 

206  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

May  8,  Monday. — I  preached  yesterday  in  the  Westminster  Pres- 
byterian Church  in  the  A.  M.  and  Goodsell  there  at  night.  That  is  the 
church  where  Poe  is  buried.  There  are  many  very  old  graves  in 
the  yard,  and  a  man  lives  under  the  church  among  the  old  tombstones. 
I  should  not  wonder  if  his  table  is  a  marble  slab.  He  says  he  has 
a  more  quiet  audience  than  the  preacher  in  the  church. 

This  relates  to  a  banquet  at  the  Carrollton  given  by  Mr. 
John  B.  Cornell : 

May  13. — Well,  the  good  supper  is  gone.  One  hundred  and  thirteen 
guests  present.  Speeches  by  Bishop  Simpson,  General  Fisk,  Buckley, 
Bishop  Peck,  Dr.  A.  C.  George,  Professor  Wells,  and  myself.  A 
great  and  good  time.  No  money  was  asked  for.  but  I  know  it  will 
come — at  least  one  professorship — in  the  time  to  come. 

Dr.  Hurst's  visitations  and  addresses  to  the  Conferences 
took  on  a  wider  circle  of  travel  and  a  more  appealing  tone  as 
he  strove  to  lav  his  burden  on  sympathizing  hearts  and  helpful 
hands.    In  1877  he  said  : 

Ten  years  ago  the  Seminary  was  established.  It  did  seem  that  if 
ever  an  institution  was  established  to  move  on  with  ease  and  com- 
fort and  uniform  success,  this  was  one.  But  it  was  not  so  to  be. 
God  had  wiser  thoughts.  The  magnetic  hand  of  McClintock  was 
soon  to  be  palsied  in  death :  his  ringing  voice  soon  to  be  hushed  in 
the  silence  of  the  past  and  the  grave.  Nadal,  the  earnest,  the  pure, 
the  chaste,  was  soon  to  stand  beside  his  brother  in  the  ranks  of  the 
bloodwashed  and  redeemed.  Thus  the  institution,  in  the  early  breath 
of  its  springtime,  was  compelled  to  pay  the  penalty  of  its  rich  and 
wealthy  endowment  of  intellect  by  following  its  first  princes  to  the 
grave,  and  to  depend  upon  more  moderate  capacities  for  its  subse- 
quent development.  But  it  had  other  penalties  to  pay.  Mr.  Drew 
gave  his  bond  for  the  endowment  fund,  on  which  he  paid  interest, 
until  December,  1875.  From  that  time  the  Seminary  has  been  the 
child  of  the  whole  Methodist  Church. 

On  May  18,  1877,  Professors  Strong.  Kidder,  Buttz,  and 
Miley  sent  him  this  written  message  of  brotherly  congratula- 
tion : 

The  Story  of  Drew  207 

We,  the  Professors  of  Drew  Theological  Seminary,  desire  to 
express  to  you  as  its  President,  in  this  frank  and  simple  manner, 
our  high  appreciation  of  your  skill  and  perseverance  in  the  task 
of  securing  the  current  support  and  the  reendowment  of  this  insti- 
tution. We  hereby  assure  you  of  our  best  wishes  and  prayers  for 
your  success  in  the  farther  prosecution  of  the  work  that  lies  before 
you.  and  also  of  our  hearty  cooperation  in  your  plans  and  efforts  for 
placing  this  school  for  ministerial  education  on  a  solid  financial 

A  year  later  the  story  of  "Drew's"  birth  and  work,  of  its 
brief  and  almost  tragic  past,  and  of  its  possible  future,  was 
told  in  varying  phrase  but  with  unfailing  faith  and  unflagging 
zeal ;  and  this  was  the  picture  he  drew : 

There  runs  by  Madison  the  old  colonial  road  leading  from  New 
York  to  Morristown.  Over  the  snows  of  this  historical  highway 
Washington's  invincible  little  army  passed  with  bare  and  bleeding 
feet  many  times.  About  forty-five  years  ago  a  gentleman  and  lady 
of  large  wealth  and  high  social  position,  originally  from  Georgia, 
were  riding  over  this  road,  and  came  to  a  magnificent  forest  of  stately 
trees  and  winding  roads  of  rare  beauty.  The  lady,  his  wife,  greatly 
admired  the  trees.  Afterward  she  expressed  her  admiration  many 
times,  and  her  husband  resolved  to  build  a  house  upon  it.  He  remem- 
bered a  baronial  estate  in  England,  which  he  believed  extremely 
tasteful  and  beautiful.  That  became  his  model.  He  erected  a  mag- 
nificent mansion.  The  work  was  all  done  by  hand.  The  locks  and 
hinges  on  the  doors  were  of  the  most  superb  and  lasting  workman- 
ship. The  basement  was  so  arranged  as  to  be,  one  part  a  vast  wine 
cellar,  and  the  other  rooms  for  his  troop  of  servants.  The  floors 
were  covered  with  the  best  carpets  that  Persian  and  French  looms 
could  produce.  The  walls  were  ornamented  with  the  best  pictures 
that  wealth  could  gather  from  the  Continental  artists.  The  grounds 
were  laid  out  with  exquisite  taste,  and  ornamented  with  rare  flowers. 
He  had  two  great  buildings,  additionally,  erected — one  for  his  full- 
blood  horses,  the  other  for  his  carriages.  He  finished  his  work  and 
walked  his  marble  halls,  and  could  say.  as  he  looked  through  the 
vistas  of  his  beautiful  grove,  "Is  not  this  great  Babylon  which  I 
have  builded?" 

He  was  a  skeptic,  and  had  builded  much  more  wisely  than  he  knew. 
He  had  no  sympathy  with  any  church,  and  would  not  give  for  great 

2o8  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

charitable  purposes.  One  day  a  plain  Christian  woman  climbed  up 
his  palace  steps  and  asked  him  for  a  subscription  for  the  new  Meth- 
odist church  in  the  town.  He  refused.  As  she  descended  his  palace 
steps  she  turned  to  him  and  said,  "This  house  you  have  built  will 
some  day  belong  to  our  church  and  preachers  of  the  gospel."  She 
was  as  true  a  prophetess  as  Miriam,  sister  of  Moses.  In  a  few  years 
the  owner  died;  his  wife  died;  no  one  lived  in  the  place.  All  the 
furniture  remained,  but  the  spiders  spun  their  webs  and  the  bats 
began  to  seek  shelter  in  its  stately  halls.  In  1866  Bishop  Janes 
visited  it;  went  through  it  from  cellar  to  garret;  and  on  his  recom- 
mendation, one  May  morning  in  1867,  at  about  8  o'clock,  it  was 
bought  by  Mr.  Drew,  and  was  paid  for  in  cash  on  the  spot. 

The  building  and  grounds  proved  a  perfect  adaptation  to  their 
uses.  The  wine  cellar  is  our  storehouse  for  coal.  The  suite  of 
bedrooms,  some  twelve  in  number,  stretching  from  wing  to  wing, 
are  the  perfect  alcoves  of  our  magnificent  library.  The  parlor  hap- 
pens to  be  my  lecture  room  in  Church  History;  the  dancing  hall  is 
now  the  place  where  young  men  study  the  doctrines  of  our  church; 
the  dining  hall,  whose  rich  carpet  required  six  men  to  pull  it  from 
the  room,  is  now  our  chapel.  The  two  outbuildings,  once  the  stables 
and  the  carriage  houses,  were  pulled  down,  all  save  the  walls,  and 
are  now  the  beautiful  and  comfortable  rooms  where  young  Methodist 
full-bloods  sleep,  eat,  and  get  ready  for  the  work  of  spreading  scrip- 
tural holiness  over  all  these  lands. 

Precisely  two  years  ago  our  endowment  failed  us.  All  pledges  were 
broken  because  of  the  failure  of  Mr.  Drew.  It  was  a  bitter  hour. 
I  have  heard  of  vessels  springing  a  leak,  but  I  have  never  heard 
of  one  where  the  entire  hull  dropped  apart  and  let  the  sea  in  and 
the  cargo  out,  at  the  mandate  of  a  single  cruel  wave  like  this.  I 
was  brought  up  on  an  old-fashioned  Maryland  farm.  The  dinner 
was  cooked  in  what  we  called  a  Dutch  oven.  I  have  known  the 
oven  to  get  cracked,  but  I  never  had  the  experience  of  the  whole 
bottom  dropping  out  and  letting  the  dinner  into  the  fire.  But,  Mr. 
President,  we  were  determined  that  Drew  Seminary  should  not  die. 
We  had  been  placed  in  charge  of  that  interest,  and  we  felt  that  the 
church  would  hold  us  responsible.  For  one,  I  had  no  share  in  my 
connection  with  that  interest.  I  was  in  Germany  at  the  time,  and 
no  one  knew  less  of  my  going  than  I  did.  It  was  no  part  of  my 
plan.  I  went  there ;  I  believed  in  it ;  I  loved  its  work ;  I  believe  in  it 
now.    I  know  its  future.    So  when  the  crisis  came  we  did  not  flinch. 

An  adaptation  from  Tennyson  closes  the  story: 

The  Victory  209 

"Was  there  a  man  dismayed? 
Not  though  the  soldier  knew 
Someone  had  blundered: 
Theirs  not  to  make  reply, 
Theirs  not  to  reason  why, 
Theirs  but  to  do  and  die: 
Into  the  Valley  of" — 

Bankruptcy  rode  that  Faculty  and  120  students.  They  are  coming  out 
again.  We  have  asked  the  church,  not  through  the  prints,  but 
privately,  for  $300,000.  We  have  succeeded  in  securing  $170,000. 
There  remains  to  be  subscribed  $130,000.  For  this  we  are  making  an 
appeal  to  the  church. 

Of  this  address,  at  the  West  Virginia  Conference,  Dr. 
George  C.  Wilding  says  : 

He  profoundly  moved  the  Conference  and  made  a  host  of  new 
friends  for  Drew  Seminary  as  well  as  for  himself.  All  of  us  caught 
a  new  conception  of  the  right  and  wrong  uses  of  wealth. 

As  the  new  school  year  was  beginning  he  sends  this  mes- 
sage to  his  loved  and  revered  friend,  Dr.  William  Nast : 

September  17. — I  have  been  very  busy  with  the  endowment  plan. 
It  is  growing  all  the  time,  and  I  have  little  time  for  study.  But  the 
better  day  is  coming. 

He  skillfully  organized  and  wisely  conducted  a  movement 
in  Philadelphia  in  which  Charles  Scott  was  of  great  assistance 
and  by  which  another  professorship  was  more  than  amply 
endowed,  although  it  cost  him,  as  he  afterward  told  the 
Preachers'  Meeting,  many  a  midnight  walk  on  the  streets  of 
that  city  and  a  broken  rest  on  his  return  trip  to  Madison.  By 
letters  numbering  many  hundreds  and  by  appeals  to  the 
preachers  at  the  Conferences  he  secured  another  professorship 
as  a  memorial  to  Bishop  Edmund  S.  Janes.  His  large-minded 
and  kind-hearted  trustees  subscribed  and  gave  another  pro- 
fessorship,  and   when   other  contributions   from   the  Ladies' 


210  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Endowment  Association,  the  alumni,  and  many  other  indi- 
vidual donors  had  been  gathered  in,  and  the  president  had 
been  made  bishop,  this  same  Board,  who  had  stood  bravely 
with  him  through  the  four  years  of  effort  for  the  reendowment, 
did  this  beautiful  act  at  its  meeting  in  the  fall  of  1880: 

The  Finance  Committee  reported  an  endowment  of  more  than 
$310,000  secured,  and  with  simple  justice  gave  the  credit  of  raising 
this  vast  sum,  in  a  time  of  unprecedented  business  depression,  chiefly 
to  Dr.  John  F.  Hurst.  The  endowment  is  a  fact,  and  Dr.  Hurst  was 
the  chief  factor  in  its  accumulation.  The  trustees,  however,  had  not 
failed  in  their  duty,  and  he  would  be  the  last  to  claim  any  credit 
due  to  others.  The  culmination  of  interest  was  reached  when,  on 
motion  of  General  Fisk,  the  name  of  the  Trustees'  Professorship, 
founded  by  their  gifts,  was  changed  to  the  "Hurst  Professorship." 
If  Bishop  Hurst  had  nothing  to  say,  his  genial  smile  was  reinforced 
by  a  tear  as  he  saw  that  the  trustees  added  personal  love  to  honor 
and  respect. 

Professor  George  R.  Crooks,  in  his  address  at  the  twenty- 
fifth  anniversary  of  "Drew,"  in  1892,  said: 

I  think  that  everyone  will  admit  that  the  President,  John  F. 
Hurst,  was  fully  equal  to  the  emergency.  If  other  men  were  dis- 
mayed, he  was  not.  It  was  proposed  to  mortgage  the  property  to 
meet  immediate  expenses ;  to  this  he  interposed  a  very  decided  nega- 
tive. He  believed  it  to  be  possible  to  reendow  the  school,  and  to 
that  devoted  all  his  strength  during  a  series  of  years,  which,  though 
not  many  when  counted,  must  have  seemed  to  him  interminably 
long.  It  was  pathetic  to  follow  President  Hurst  in  his  journey  from 
Conference  to  Conference,  pleading  wherever  he  went  for  a  cause 
that  had  been  lost  but  was  to  be  won  again.  He  was  pleading  with 
a  church  not  too  quick  to  respond  to  calls  for  help  to  maintain 
theological  training.  He  was  pleading  for  an  institution  which  in 
all  these  years  had  been  regarded  as  the  creation  of  one  man,  in  a 
certain  sense  as  his  property,  and  not,  therefore,  an  object  of  church 
sympathy.  A  little  slowly,  but  quite  surely,  the  transfer  of  feeling 
was  made.  The  church  took  Drew  Seminary  to  its  heart,  adopted 
the  school  as  its  own  child,  and  has  ever  since  watched  over  it 
with  a  parent's  solicitude.  By  that  divine  alchemy  in  which  God 
never  fails  evil  has  been  turned  into  good;  the  church  has  taken  the 

Heroic  Energy  Wins  21  r 

place  of  a  single  benefactor;  and,  while  we  gratefully  cherish  Mr. 
Drew's  memory,  we  are  satisfied  that  God  has  ordered  these  events 
for  the  best.  The  triumph  of  the  heroic  President  was,  however, 
followed  by  his  separation  from  the  Seminary.  For  as  Saul,  who 
went  out  to  search  for  his  father's  lost  property,  found  a  kingdom, 
so  he,  traveling  in  much  sorrow  to  recover  a  lost  endowment,  found 
a  bishopric. 

At  the  memorial  service  held  at  Meadville  during  the 
Bishops'  meeting  in  May,  1903,  Bishop  Foss  said  of  this 
achievement  and  of  his  presidency : 

The  forceful  and  persistent  young  president  leaped  at  once  into 
the  arena  to  retrieve  this  great  loss  and  to  endow  the  institution.  He 
first  of  all  assumed  the  payment  of  all  bills,  and  also  the  salaries  of 
the  professors  in  the  Faculty,  and  went  out  and  begged  for  money 
with  these  burdens  on  his  back,  and  secured  more  by  way  of  solid 
endowment  than  had  been  lost.  In  this  office  Bishop  Hurst  executed 
the  various  functions  with  conspicuous  success  and  great  intelligence. 

His  confrere.  Dr.  Buttz.  who  knows  more  of  this  period  of 
his  life  than  anyone  else,  bears  this  testimony : 

His  great  work  at  Madison  was  as  president  of  the  institution  and 
as  the  restorer  of  its  endowment.  He  threw  himself  into  the  work 
of  restoring  the  endowment  with  a  heroism  and  energy  that  can 
scarcely  be  overestimated.  Drew  Theological  Seminary  was  without 
funds.  The  trustees  were  to  be  informed  and  stimulated,  the  church 
was  to  be  reached,  private  benefactions  to  be  secured,  and  all  these 
things  were  done  by  him  with  a  master  hand.  It  has  been  said  by 
some,  and  not,  I  think,  unwisely,  that  his  work  in  the  restoration 
of  the  endowment  of  Drew  Theological  Seminary  was  the  great 
achievement  of  his  life,  and  the  success  of  that  work  his  greatest 

Bishop  McCabe  says : 

He  did  his  work  so  deftly,  so  swiftly,  so  thoroughly,  that  the  church 
scarcely  felt  the  jar  of  that  lost  endowment,  and  many  thousands  of 
our  members  do  not  realize  to  this  day  that  that  grand  institution 
of  sacred  learning  was  ever  in  peril  at  all. 

2i2  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 


The  President-Professor 

Vacation  Glimpses 

The  summer  months  during  his  term  at  Drew  were  usually 
passed  in  quiet  either  at  home  in  the  lovely  grove  at  Madison, 
or  at  some  retreat  like  Martha's  Vineyard,  with  his  family ; 
but  always  with  some  serious  work  on  hand,  either  a  new 
book  about  to  be  published  or  a  series  of  contributions  to  the 
press,  usually  both.  In  1873  he  took  charge  of  the  pulpit  of 
Pacific  Street  Church  in  Brooklyn  for  the  summer,  while  its 
pastor,  Dr.  W.  S.  Studley,  was  in  Europe,  but  managed  in 
July  to  take  one  of  his  favorite  pedestrian  tours  for  a  few 
weeks  in  the  mountains  of  Virginia.  His  company  were  Dr. 
Edward  Eggleston  and  Dr.  James  M.  Buckley,  then  pastor  of 
Hanson  Place  Church,  Brooklyn,  who  says : 

The  tour  included  a  large  part  of  Virginia.  Cholera  was  raging 
in  Greenville,  Tennessee.  Refugees  from  there  came  up  to  Glade 
Springs.  Unfortunately  I  was  attacked  by  it,  and  was  nursed  by 
Dr.  Hurst  and  Dr.  Eggleston  for  about  two  weeks.  Subsequently, 
after  Dr.  Eggleston's  engagements  had  required  him  to  depart,  Presi- 
dent Hurst  and  myself  continued  our  tour. 

Dr.  Eggleston  wrote  in  semi-humorous  vein : 

The  pedestrian  and  mountain-climber  par  excellence  of  our  com- 
pany is  Dr.  Buckley.  He  is  small,  light,  firmly  built,  and  vigorous. 
Look  at  his  shoes.  They  are  almost  large  enough  for  a  six-footer, 
broad- so aled,  like  himself, loose  on  the  feet,  firm  on  the  heel,  heavy-bot- 
tomed, low-heeled,  and  lacing  tight  across  the  instep.  Ornamental  ? 
Well,  no.  But  handsome  is  that  handsome  does.  These  shoes  have  a 
piece  of  rubber  in  the  shank,  an  English  device  to  give  them  elasticity 
under  the  hollow  of  the  foot.  Dr.  Hurst  has  quite  a  different  pair  of 
"shoemaker's  ponies."   Made  in  Germany,  they  are  short,  stout,  heavy- 

Vacations  in  Virginia  and  Maine  213 

soled,  and  remarkable  for  the  hobnails  on  the  bottom.  These  homely 
hobnailed  things  have  trodden  the  soil  of  every  European  country. 
My  own  shoes  would  make  delicate  music  in  an  Irish  shindy.  For 
company,  seek  men  congenial,  unselfish,  and  with  legs  that  fail  not. 
And  for  country  you  want  a  mountainous  one.  "White  Top,"  six 
thousand  feet  high,  at  the  junction  of  Virginia,  North  Carolina,  and 
Tennessee,  and  commanding  a  wonderful  landscape,  is  only  fifteen 
miles  away.  It  is  time  to  lace  our  shoes  and  strap  our  knapsacks  on 
our  backs.  I  wish  the  admiring  readers  of  that  learned  and  stout 
octavo  known  as  Hurst's  History  of  Rationalism  could  have  seen  the 
illustrious  author  of  it  as  he  bade  farewell  to  civilization,  and,  clad 
in  brown  shirt  and  pantaloons,  with  hob-nailed  shoes  and  knapsack, 
plunged  into  the  wilderness  of  Iron  Mountain  range. 

The  trio  of  tired  travelers,  including  the  temporary  "in- 
valid," who  showed  his  usual  marvelous  powers  of  recupera- 
tion, rested  that  night  in  the  mountain  home  of  Bird  Dinkens, 
their  host  for  two  days  and  guide  to  the  summit  of  old  White 

In  the  spring  and  early  summer,  1874,  he  supplied  with 
Professor  Buttz  the  pulpit  of  Saint  Paul's,  New  York,  during 
the  illness  of  Dr.  Chapman,  the  pastor,  and  in  July  he  took  a 
brief  respite  at  Mount  Desert  Island,  Maine,  in  company  again 
with  Dr.  Buckley  and  J.  B.  Faulks,  of  Newark  Conference. 
From  headquarters  at  Deacon  Clark's,  Southwest  Harbor,  he 
thus  writes  to  Mrs.  Hurst : 

July  9. — I  have  about  given  up  going  toward  Mount  Katahdin. 
I  would  be  five  or  six  days  away  from  telegraph,  and  I  can't  do 
that.  You  may  expect  this  to  be  my  address  all  the  time.  Here  are 
walks  and  sails  in  abundance  with  great  fishing.  Buckley  and  Faulks 
don't  want  to  give  me  up,  but  I  fear  you  may  be  sick,  or  something 
may  happen,  while  here  I  can  get  a  telegram  in  an  hour's  time. 
This  cool  sea  air  is  grand  for  my  tired  head.  To-day  we  start  on 
foot  (three  of  us)  for  a  fourteen  miles'  walk  to  the  summit  of  the 
highest  mountain. 

12. — I  am  doing  well,  getting  sea  air  and  bathing  every  day,  and 
am  within  telegraphic  communication  with  you  all  the  time.  You 
have  been  kind  to  wish  me  to  take  a  vacation,  and  I  know  I  never 

214  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

needed  rest  more  in  all  my  life.  How  much  I  love  you,  as  I  think 
over  your  sweet  nature  and  beautiful  character,  and  always  devel- 
oping mind.  You  are  always  growing  more  lovely  and  attractive 
to  me.  There  are  many  days  of  joy  before  us  here,  and  an  eternity 
of  happiness  beyond  them.  Well,  this  is  poetical,  and  yet  it  is  the 
language  of  my  heart.  I  know  it  is  just  as  much  that  of  yours.  The 
morning  I  wrote  you  last,  Faulks,  Buckley,  and  I  started  off  to  visit 
the  highest  mountain  (Green  Mountain)  on  the  Island,  which  we 
reached  nearly  at  night,  and  where  we  slept  that  night.  The  mountain 
lies  on  the  other  side  of  the  Island,  so  we  made  half  the  circuit. 
On  the  next  day  we  completed  the  circuit  of  the  Island,  making  in 
all  about  35  miles  in  the  two  days.  On  this  day  we  visited  the 
overhanging  cliffs  above  the  sea.  where  the  sea  birds  build  their 
nests;  the  caves  which  the  sea  makes  in  the  rocks,  and  other  points 
of  interest,  with  the  finale  of  a  rain  and  fog,  and  a  sail  home  of 
five  miles,  with  a  young  man  as  captain  who  was  courting  a  farmer's 
daughter  and  was  willing  to  interrupt  his  love  tryst  for  a  $5  bill. 

The  family  group  in  the  Madison  home  gave  a  glad  welcome 
to  the  third  daughter,  Blanche,  who  was  born  in  September, 
1874,  and  to  their  third  son,  Paul,  about  a  year  later. 

A  common  practice  with  him  was  to  visit  the  colleges  and 
universities  during  the  Commencement  season,  making  ad- 
dresses and  preaching  baccalaureate  sermons.  Invitations  for 
this  service  were  far  more  numerous  than  his  time  and 
strength  would  permit  him  to  accept.  One  of  these  was  to 
the  Ohio  Wesleyan  University  in  1876,  of  which  he  writes  to 
Mrs.  Hurst  from  Columbus,  June  1 7  : 

Left  Delaware  this  a.  m.  The  place  was  wild  with  joy  that  Hayes 
is  nominated.  He  was  born  there.  Dr.  McCabe  married  him  and 
his  wife,  and  says  she  is  a  devoted,  open  Methodist;  and  they  always 
go  to  the  Methodist  church.  Good !  I  had  a  most  delightful  time 
at  Dr.  McCabe's.  Talked  three  quarters  of  an  hour  with  the  students. 
Reached  here  at  8:30  and  followed  a  little  company  to  the  capitol. 
where  I  was  introduced  to  Governor  Hayes,  and  congratulated  him. 
He  is  a  plain,  genial  man.    I  am  much  pleased  with  him. 

In  1879.  in  need  of  rest  as  usual  from  his  toilsome  year  of 
professorial   and  literary  work,   and   closing  his   triumphant 

An  Outing  in  Europe  215 

canvass  for  reendowment,  he  spent  about  four  months  in 
Europe.  With  Edward  S.  Ferry  and  Olin  B.  Coit  as  com- 
panions, he  sailed  from  New  York  on  the  Bothnia  on  May  21 
and  landed  at  Queenstown  the  31st.  A  trip  through  Ireland, 
Scotland,  and  England  gave  him  a  chance  to  see  Cork,  Blar- 
ney Castle,  Killarney  (three  days),  Muckross  Abbey,  Gap 
of  Drenloe,  the  three  Lakes,  Innisfallen  Abbey,  the  home 
of  Spenser,  Dublin,  Londonderry,  Giant's  Causeway,  Belfast, 
Glasgow,  Ayr,  Edinburgh,  Lochs  Lomond  and  Katrine,  the 
Trossach  valley,  the  Highlands,  Abbotsford,  Melrose  Abbey, 
the  Lake  Country,  Westmoreland,  York,  and  London.  He 
spent  a  few  days  in  London  from  June  15  to  the  25th.  This 
absence  from  home  gave  opportunity  for  more  letters  to  Mrs. 
Hurst,  which  tell  of  his  summer's  wanderings  and  breathe 
the  spirit  of  this  busy  but  helpful  outing: 

June  20. — I  have  seen  here  the  inside  of  the  Bank  of  England, 
the  Abbey,  South  Kensington  Museum,  the  Tower,  and  the  book- 
stores. To-day  we  go  to  the  National  Gallery.  Yesterday  we  walked 
through  Hyde  Park,  and  saw  the  homely  aristocracy  in  their  gay 
equipages.    The  only  good-looking  people  we  saw  were  the  coachmen. 

22. — This  a.  m.  we  went  to  hear  Dean  Stanley  preach.  Immense 
crowd.  We  got  in  and  had  excellent  seats,  right  before  him.  The 
Dean  preached  about  half  an  hour  on  the  Prince  Imperial's  death. 

No.  3  Steffensweg,  Bremen-,  June  28. 
I  had  a  tedious  ride  to  Bremen  from  England.  On  a  map  you  will 
see  my  course :  Vlissingen,  Breda,  Yenlo,  Crefeld,  Osnabriick,  Miin- 
ster,  Bremen.  I  reached  here  up.  m.  and  came  to  Hilmann's  Hotel. 
It  fairly  drew  tears  to  my  eyes  as  I  thought  of  the  past.  After  I 
took  breakfast  I  walked  along  the  old  Wall.  It  was  just  like  Paradise 
itself.  The  Conference  adopted  very  complimentary  resolutions, 
resolved  that  I  take  part  in  their  deliberations,  and  that  I  have  a  seat 
beside  the  Bishop,  in  the  pulpit.  All  this  is  very  pleasant,  and  makes 
me  think  I  am  not  forgotten.  Sulzberger  said  he  had  been  long 
dreaming  about  me;  and  all  the  preachers  were  just  as  kind  as  they 
could  be.  I  am  assigned  lodgings  with  Doering.  3  Steffensweg. 
We  all  take  dinner  in  a  Restauration   in  the   Stadt,   near  Ansgar's 

216  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

church.  As  I  came  up  for  tea  to  Doering's,  I  knew  every  foot  of 
the  old  way.  I  came  through  the  Faulenstrasse,  stopped  at  Wil- 
helmi's,  where  we  bought  the  clock.  He  was  out,  but  his  wife  remem- 
bered me.  Vogt  has  the  grocery  store  just  the  same;  Stoecker  has 
the  same  dry-goods  store  yet.  Then  I  came  out  to  the  Wall  again 
and  walked  up  across  the  railroad  to  Steffensweg.  How  nice  every- 
thing looks  here !  Very  different  from  what  we  were  permitted  to 
have.  The  sitting  room  is  to  the  right  as  you  go  in.  Our  bedroom 
is  now  the  dining  room.  On  the  left  the  front  room  is  my  sleeping 
room,  and  back,  in  the  little  Jackson  room,  is  Bishop  Wiley's  room. 
He  chose  it,  because  it  was  away  from  the  street  and  more  quiet. 
I  send  you  a  leaf  from  one  of  the  old  five  hollies.  Two  leaves  from 
Sulzberger,  from  dear  sweet  Clara's  grave. 

Roederberg  88,  Fraxkfort-ox-Main,  July  4. 

On  reaching  the  Friedhof  I  went  directly  to  the  grave.  I  looked 
at  it  with  such  an  interest  as  I  have  no  language  to  express.  Dear 
child !  She  is  far  beyond  us  all  as  yet !  I  bought  the  prettiest  wreath 
I  could  find  from  one  of  the  wreath  women  who  sit  on  the  benches 
to  sell  them,  and  laid  it  on  the  grave.  It  touched  the  rosebush  and 
knocked  off  some  fading  roses,  and  I  send  you  some  of  the  leaves. 

July  6. — I  am  in  Frankfort  still,  you  see.  I  see  so  much  that  inter- 
ests me,  catching  up  with  all  the  books  at  Alt's  that  have  appeared 
in  the  last  eight  years,  and  walking  the  streets  and  alleys,  that  I  may 
stay  here  several  days  yet.  I  have  consulted  a  physician  here,  and 
he  recommends  me  to  go  to  Schwalbach,  where  I  shall  go  in  a  few 
days  more,  and  spend  two  or  three  weeks.  Then  I  shall  go  to  Switzer- 
land, on  my  tramp  there.  I  have  been  out  to  see  the  grave  of  Clara 
each  of  the  three  days  I  have  been  here,  and  taken  a  wreath.  Yester- 
day I  put  on  a  beautiful  basket  of  flowers.  The  monument  is  very 
pretty,  and  the  inscription  perfect  still.  Carl  Schurz  called  on  me, 
and  I  am  going  to  dine  with  him  to-day,  with  the  consul,  Mr.  Lee. 

9. — I  start  this  A.  M.  for  Berlin,  and  will  take  Halle  and  Leipzig 
on  the  way.  Last  night  the  consul,  Mr.  Lee,  President  Hayes's  par- 
ticular friend,  gave  a  dinner  party  for  me,  at  the  new  hotel,  Frank- 
forter  Hof,  in  the  new  Kaisersstrasse,  which  runs  off  from  left  of 
Hotel  d'Angleterre  to  the  depots. 

Leipzig,  July   10. 

Here  I  am  in  Leipzig,  having  come  on  yesterday  from  Frankfort, 
and  reached  here  at  n  130  last  night.  I  visited  the  Wartburg,  where 
Luther  translated  the  Bible  and  threw  the  inkstand  at  the  devil's 
head.     I  shall  call  on  Mr.  Gregory  here,  and  get  some  information 

In  Germany  and  Switzerland  217 

about  the  University.  He  is  an  American  from  Princeton.  Then  I 
shall  hear  three  or  four  of  the  lectures ;  and  to-morrow  a.  m.  call  at 
Halle  and  hear  three  or  four  more,  and  go  to  Berlin,  getting  there 
Saturday  night.  I  shall  stay  in  Berlin  two  days  and  then  return  to 
Frankfort,  and  go  at  once  to  Schwalbach,  and  take  the  Kur.  .  .  . 
Night  of  July  10. — I  have  reveled  in  the  old  Bookstores.  I  write 
them  in  capital  initial  because  of  my  reverence  for  them.  But  I 
buy  few  books.  Don't  give  yourself  much  trouble  on  that  score. 
I  have  heard  some  of  the  best  lecturers  here,  and  have  had  a  real 
treat:  Kahnis,  Fricke,  Lechler,  Delitzsch  (son),  Luthardt,  Delitzsch 
(father),  and  I  have  had  a  wonderful  time  hearing  them.  I  called 
on  Delitzsch,  Sr.,  and  had  a  delightful  interview  with  him.  I  had 
some  talk  about  the  Samaritans,  one  of  my  hobbies.  He  gave  me 
much  information,  and  had  many  books  I  had  not  seen.  In  the  A.  M. 
I  heard  lectures  and  saw  the  library,  and  in  the  afternoon  I  went 
around  among  the  Paradises  (Bookstores).  At  Brockhaus's  I  saw  a 
wonderful  place,  and  went  through  their  different  departments.  To- 
morrow I  start  for  Halle,  and  maybe  I  shall  get  to  Berlin  by  night, 
as  I  shall  have  less  to  hear  and  see  than  in  dear  old  Halle.  It  will 
make  me  sad  to  be  there  without  seeing  Tholuck  and  Julius  Miiller. 

During  a  short  tarry  in  Berlin  at  Hotel  Rome  he  met  Mr. 

J.  B.  Cornell  and  Dr.  Charles  S.  Harrower,  of  New  York. 

After  a  three  weeks'  stay  at  Schwalbach,  drinking  its  famous 

water  and  writing  his  Basel  address,  he  writes  Mrs.  Hurst 

from  Rigi,  Switzerland : 

August  12. — Well,  great  changes  here,  a  magnificent  hotel,  no  com- 
petition, big  prices,  and  much  impudence. 

Meyringex,  Switzerland,  August  15. 
I  am  pretty  tired  to-night,  having  walked  eight  hours,  with  knap- 
sack. But  I  will  not  go  to  bed  without  dropping  you  a  few  lines. 
I  am  very  well,  and  my  journey  is  doing  me  a  world  of  good.  You 
can  follow  me  with  a  map,  from  Zurich:  Zug,  Arth,  Rigi,  Waggis, 
Lucerne,  Fliielen,  Altorf,  Amsteg,  Andermatt,  Furka,  Rhone  Glacier, 
Grimsel,  Haudeck  Falls,  Guttannen,  and  here,  in  Meyringen.  This 
place  calls  up  our  delightful  visit.  They  lighted  up  the  Reichenbach 
Falls  to-night,  and  it  was  a  very  pretty  sight  from  balcony  of  hotel. 
We  crossed  the  Furka  Pass  yesterday,  and  slept  last  night  at  Grimsel 
Hospice,  right  among  the  snowdrifts.  We  snowballed  each  other 
yesterday,  and  ate  snowballs,  too.     The  inclosed  flowers  Olin  asked 

2i 8  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

me  to  send  to  you.  He  pulled  them  from  right  alongside  of  the  snow. 
To-morrow  we  start  for  the  Grindelwald,  and  to  Interlaken — just 
exactly  our  route  over  again. 

Martigny,  August  24. 

I  am  now  in  Martigny,  having  reached  here  after  a  long  9  hours' 
walk.  We  came  to  the  same  hotel  (de  la  Poste)  where  we  once 
stopped.  You  remember  how  old  and  quaint-looking  it  was.  It  was 
an  old  convent  three  centuries  ago.  I  think  the  same  people  have 
charge  of  it  now  as  then. 

Geneva,  August  29. 

Yesterday  we  saw  the  city  well.  Dr,  Stevens  was  our  cicerone. 
He  is  looking  as  well  as  I  ever  saw  him,  and  has  his  book  on  Madame 
de  Stael  nearly  ready. 

From  Basel,  after  his  able  address  in  German  at  the  Evan- 
gelical Alliance,  he  hastens  to  Clugny,  spends  a  few  days  at 
Paris  (Sorbonne),  is  at  Rouen  September  15,  in  London  the 
1 6th,  visits  Windsor  Castle,  and  the  Chnbbs  at  Chislehurst, 
goes  to  Cambridge  the  22d,  and  to  Oxford  and  Stratford  on 
the  26th. 

Rev.  Edward  S.  Ferry  says : 

He  always  had  his  plans  thoroughly  perfected.  He  knew  where 
and  how  and  when  each  step  was  to  be  taken.  When  we  returned 
to  London,  after  a  pleasant  evening  at  the  home  of  our  minister, 
Mr.  Welch,  of  Philadelphia  (an  old  companion  of  the  Bishop  on  a 
Nile  journey),  we  went  for  a  night  visit  to  Whitechapel,  the  work- 
house, the  cheap  lodging  houses,  a  famous  opium  joint,  and  other 
scenes  which  gave  us  an  idea  of  London  wretchedness  and  wicked- 
ness. By  Mr.  Welch's  kindness,  we  were  provided  with  an  official 
escort.  An  official  investigation  of  conditions  could  not  have  been 
more  searching  than  the  Bishop's.  He  questioned  anybody  and  every- 
body about  all  sorts  of  things.  He  knew  about  things,  because  he 
sought  knowledge  at  first  hand.  In  all  our  journeys  he  found  time 
for  extensive  correspondence  and  reading.  No  matter  how  early  the 
hour  appointed  for  the  day's  start — he  had  already  had  an  hour  or 
more  for  writing.  Much  of  his  work  was  accomplished  before  others 

On  his  arrival  in  New  York,  October  6,  he  sent  a  telegram 
to  Mrs.  Hurst,  stating  that  he  would  arrive  at  Madison  that 

A  Hearty  Welcome  Home  219 

morning  by  the  1 1  43  train.  This  information  was  immedi- 
ately conveyed  to  the  students,  who  had  appointed  a  committee 
to  arrange  for  his  reception.  This  committee  requested  the  stu- 
dents to  march  to  the  station  in  a  body.  Eighty-two  of  the 
students  complied  with  the  request  and  took  a  position  in  the 
procession,  according  to  the  class  to  which  they  belonged. 
When  they  arrived  at  the  depot  they  formed  themselves  in  two 
columns  extending  from  the  car  platform  where  the  Doctor 
would  get  off  the  train,  to  his  carriage.  He  passed  between 
the  columns,  amid  the  waving  of  hats  and  great  applause. 
Though  the  Doctor  was  greatly  fatigued  from  his  journey, 
he  manifested  his  appreciation  of  the  unexpected  ovation  by 
walking  in  front  of  the  procession,  with  three  of  his  colleagues, 
Drs.  Strong,  Miley,  and  Buttz,  from  the  depot  to  his  home, 
where  he  thanked  the  students  for  their  attention,  and  they 
dispersed.  At  eight  o'clock  in  the  evening  the  committee 
called  the  students  together  again  for  the  purpose  of  giving 
the  President  a  surprise  party.  They  repaired  to  his  house  and 
formed  themselves  into  three  columns,  around  the  piazza  and 
in  front  of  the  hall  door.    After  the  singing  by  the  students  of 

"Home  again,  home  again, 
From  a  foreign  shore," 

Dr.  Hurst  came  to  the  door  and  invited  them  in  to  spend  a 
social  hour. 

220  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  Delegate 

His  Address  at  Basel 

Set  like  an  apple  of  gold  in  a  picture  of  silver  is  his  address 
in  German  on  Christian  Union  at  the  meeting  of  the  Evan- 
gelical Alliance  in  Basel,  Switzerland.  Its  composition  and 
delivery  furnish  a  fine  illustration  of  his  power  of  isolating 
himself  from  the  easy-going  environment  of  a  much-needed 
vacation,  and  applying  himself  to  the  preparation  of  a  special 
literary  and  oratorical  endeavor  on  a  vital  theme  to  be  pre- 
sented to  the  highest  council  of  Protestant  Christendom.  To 
his  wife  he  wrote  from  Frankfort  on  July  6,  1879: 

I  must  be  somewhere  where  I  can  write  my  paper  for  the  Alliance, 
and  I  could  not  do  it  here,  for  I  would  be  interrupted  by  the  neighbors. 

On  the  ninth  he  had  reached  his  decision : 

I  shall  write  up  my  Evangelical  Alliance  paper  at  Schwalbach. 

On  the  eighteenth  he  was  at  Schwalbach,  and  there  on  the 
twentieth  he  writes  of  his  new  workshop  and  how  he  steeled 
himself  for  the  effort  which  as  we  shall  see  by  no  means  lacked 
the  knightly  spirit : 

I  am  delightfully  situated  in  the  Hotel  "Yier  Jahreszeiten."  I  have 
a  large  front  room,  three  windows,  that  let  in  the  blaze  of  the  sun 
all  day.  I  have  a  good  bed,  a  big  table  for  writing,  two  nice  rugs,  a 
rustic  armchair  (not  so  big  as  the  one  at  home),  and  always  a  good 
appetite.  I  can  do  my  share  of  sleeping,  too.  My  first  p.  m.  nap 
stopped  at  tfA  and  to-day  at  5 ;  so  you  see  I  am  doing  well  in 
that  respect.  I  take  my  "coffee"  in  my  room — which  means  a  pot 
of  chocolate,  bread  and  butter,  and  two  eggs.  At  dinner,  which  is 
at  I,  I  have  table  d'hote  at  a  hotel.     In  the  evening  I  take  anything 

Drinking  Steel  221 

I  please  and  where  I  please.  I  must  get  up  at  6  and  go  to  the  Steel 
Spring  and  drink,  then  walk  a  half  hour.  At  11  I  must  drink  more 
steel.  Then  at  12  I  must  take  a  fifteen-minute  bath  in  steel  water. 
So  I  am  getting  toned  up.  I  think  by  this  time  I  have  swallowed 
and  soaked  up  enough  to  make  several  knives  and  files.  And  this 
for  nearly  three  weeks !  I  shall  be  a  whole  cutlery  by  the  time  I  get 

August  3. — I  have  finished  my  address,  and  copied  it.  It  makes 
42  pages  large  letter  size.  I  am  going  to  reduce  it  very  much,  say 
10  pages,  and  Ferry  and  Coit  will  then  copy  it. 

Mr.  Ferry  says : 

As  Dr.  Coit  and  I  were  amanuenses  we  learned  something  about 
his  methods  of  composition.  His  words  were  chosen  with  what 
seemed  to  me  painful  deliberation — but  the  sentence  once  formed 
needed  no  revision,  and  for  simple  and  comprehensive  expressiveness 
could  hardly  have  been  bettered.  He  walked  through  his  address  as 
he  did  through  the  mountain  paths.     He  was  an  ideal  pedestrian. 

Dr.  Olin  B.  Coit,  now  of  the  Northern  New  York  Confer- 
ence, writes : 

I  heard  his  great  speech,  which  all  said  was  easily  the  master 
oration  of  the  evening.  He  wrote  it  in  English,  translated  it  into 
German,  had  Sulzberger  correct  it,  and  then  committed  it  to  memory; 
spoke  it  easily  and  had  faultless  accent. 

His  presence  and  address  at  Basel  on  September  6  are  de- 
scribed by  Rev.  Marcus  L.  Taf t  in  the  Christian  Advocate : 

That  genial  American,  with  manly  bearing,  walking  under  the 
long  avenue  of  trees,  and  greeted  now  and  then  by  acquaintances, 
foreign  and  native,  is  Dr.  Hurst,  president  of  Drew  Theological 
Seminary.  On  his  recent  pedestrian  tour  over  the  snowy  Alps,  the 
sun  and  the  glaciers  have  tanned  his  features  somewhat.  He  looks 
remarkably  fresh  and  strong,  as  if  he  never  knew  pressure  of  work 
at  Madison.  Dr.  Hurst's  theme  was  concerning  "True  Christian 
Unity."  His  touching  allusion  to  the  sainted  spirits — Tholuck,  Krum- 
macher,  Emile  Cook,  Hodge,  and  others — who  had  departed  from 
earth  since  the  last  session  of  the  Alliance  in  New  York,  and  who 
are  now  celebrating  true  Christian  Union  on  high,  produced  a  marked 
effect  upon  the  attentive  audience. 

222  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

His  full  topic  was  Christian  Union  as  a  Necessary  Factor 
for  Religious  Progress  and  Defense,  the  closing  event  of  the 
session.  Dr.  Plitt,  of  Prussia,  and  Pastor  Talbot,  of  France, 
were  the  preceding  speakers  on  the  general  theme  of  Christian 
Union.  He  characterized  the  spiritual  unity  of  the  primitive 
or  apostolic  church  as  an  ideal  for  modern  effort.  But  this 
unity  is  compatible  with  great  diversity  of  form.  Attempts 
at  enforced  uniformity  have  always  been  failures.  Denom- 
inational standards  and  independence  need  not  be  sacrificed. 
The  growing  spirit  of  Christian  unity  in  our  own  time  is 
showing  itself  in  an  irenic  theology,  in  the  approaches  and 
reunions  of  the  divided  churches,  the  revision  of  our  English 
Bible,  the  international  Sunday  school  lessons,  and  the  work 
of  the  Evangelical  Alliance  and  Young  Men's  Christian  Asso- 
ciation. The  church  has  more  in  common — its  Bible,  its  funda- 
mental doctrines,  its  hymnology,  its  heroes,  its  memories — 
than  it  has  to  sunder  it.  It  has  no  time  nor  energy  to  lose 
in  fruitless  controversy. 

In  writing  to  Dr.  William  Xast,  October  16,  Dr.  Hurst  says 
of  his  address : 

I  took  pains  with  it,  and  intended  by  it  to  do  the  best  service 
I  could  to  our  German  brethren  in  the  Fatherland  by  showing  the 
oneness  of  the  church  of  Christ,  and  the  claim  of  all  believers  to 
membership  and  work  and  recognition  as  members  of  the  one  church. 

Martyrs  to  the  Tract  Cause  223 

The  Author 

Writing    at    Drew. — Life  and   Literature   in    the   Fatherland. — Outlines   of 

Bible  and  Church  History. — Launching  of  the  Biblical  and 

Theological  Library  with  George  R.  Crooks 

The  heavy  tasks  and  daily  routine  of  the  professor  in  the 
class  room  and  lectures  to  the  groups  of  young  men,  and  the 
cares  of  administration  of  the  president  in  superintending  and 
executing  all  details  involved  in  his  relations  to  the  Faculty, 
the  trustees,  the  body  of  students,  and  the  Conferences,  did 
not  seem  to  interfere  with  the  constant  production  of  books, 
and  the  entrance  upon  ever-broadening  schemes  for  farther 
literary  work.  Even  the  extraordinary  drafts  upon  his  time 
and  energies  made  by  the  loss  and  necessary  retrievement 
of  the  endowment,  though  they  retarded  the  rate  of  progress, 
did  not  stifle  the  execution  of  his  plans. 

His  first  book  after  taking  the  chair  at  "Drew"  was  Martyrs 
to  the  Tract  Cause :  A  Contribution  to  the  History  of  the  Ref- 
ormation, issued  by  the  Methodist  Book  Concern  in  1872,  but 
prepared  for  the  press  partly  during  his  last  year  in  Frankfort 
and  completed  during  his  first  year  in  Madison.  While  resting 
one  day  in  1870  from  his  work  at  the  Institute  by  indulging 
in  his  favorite  pastime — rummaging  in  a  secondhand  book- 
store— he  purchased  a  copy  of  Otto  Thielemann's  Martyrer  der 
Traktatsache,  published  in  1864  by  the  Wupperthal  Tract 
Society,  at  the  celebration  of  the  Jubilee  anniversary  of  its 
organization  at  Barmen  in  1814.  This  work  he  translated  and 
to  it  added  important  portions  of  his  own.  Dr.  Faulkner's 
estimate  of  this  book  is  a  high  one : 

One  of  our  most  interesting  brief  contributions  to  church  history. 

224  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

From  the  same  press  and  in  the  same  year  came  the  first  of 
his  series  of  most  useful  little  compends  on  the  Outline  of 
Bible  History,  which  in  its  circulation  of  upward  of  30,000 
copies  in  English,  and  of  many  in  Italian,  has  been  to  multi- 
tudes at  once  a  guide  and  an  incentive  to  the  systematic  and 
analytic  study  of  the  Scriptures.  The  Rev.  J.  C.  Garritt,  Pres- 
byterian, says : 

I  used  the  work  in  the  course  of  instructing  two  classes  for  the 
ministry,  at  Han-kau,  China,  and  found  it  very  useful. 

His  next  book  was,  more  than  any  other  he  ever  wrote, 
the  outgrowth  of  his  own  personal  experience  and  history 
and  of  a  persuasion  deeply  felt  that  the  German  people  de- 
served and  the  American  people  needed  the  mutual  advantage 
which  his  Life  and  Literature  in  the  Fatherland  brought  to 
both.  It  was  brought  out  by  Scribners  in  1875  and  immedi- 
ately captured  the  attention  and  favor  of  the  public  press  and 
won  its  way  to  a  fine  distinction  among  works  treating  of  our 
Teutonic  cousins.  The  character  of  this  volume  and  the 
warmth  of  its  reception  appear  in  the  opinions  which  have  been 
given  by  competent  reviewers.     Professor  Faulkner  says : 

Few  books  equal  it  in  breadth  of  view  and  accuracy ;  racy,  interest- 
ing as  a  novel,  full  of  keen  and  genial  observations  of  one  who  had 
the  true  instincts  of  a  traveler. 

Professor  George  Prentice  says: 

The  author  attempts  nothing  like  wit,  yet  he  often  attains  the  effect 
of  it.  When  he  has  some  marvelous  legend  to  relate  the  tale  slips 
from  his  pen  with  such  entire  gravity  that  one  might  easily  suppose 
a  Bollandist  were  reciting  it  for  the  edification  of  the  faithful. 
Rarely  does  a  careless  word  betray  the  smile  that  lurks  around 
the  author's  lips  as  he  narrates  these  wonders  of  tradition.  Instances 
of  this  are  the  legend  of  the  planting  of  Christianity  at  Heilbronn, 
and  also  that  of  the  Chapel  at  Bottigen.  The  humorous  effect  is 
quiet,  but  irresistible. 

Praise  from  the  Press  225 

The  Chicago  Inter  Ocean  says : 

When  a  man  can  take  up  a  book  of  travel,  read  a  few  chapters, 
become  absorbed,  forget  that  the  cuckoo-clock  in  the  hall  beyond  has 
long  since  cooed  the  hour  when  honest  folks,  and  they  who  value  their 
immortal  complexions,  are  abed,  it  is  a  pretty  tolerable  indication 
that  that  book  has  been  written  by  a  master  hand,  and  that  its  con- 
tents are  of  no  common  order.  It  is  pleasant  to  meet  with  a  com- 
panion like  Mr.  Hurst,  a  man  so  observant,  so  sensible,  so  full  of 
sympathy,  so  genial,  and  withal  the  possessor  of  so  captivating  a  style, 
that  one  feels  loath  to  part  with  him.  From  beginning  to  end  Mr. 
Hurst's  book  is  a  model  of  descriptive  power. 

The  sober  and  solid  Sunday  School  Times  expresses  its 
wonder : 

It  seems  almost  incredible  that  any  human  being,  naturally  con- 
stituted, could  throw  himself  so  completely  with  German  modes  of 
thought  and  action,  and  at  the  same  time  exhibit  such  perfect  ease 
and  mastery  in  English  composition. 

The  Independent  praises  its  usefulness,,  but  adds : 

We  have  read  its  pages,  from  the  first  to  the  last,  with  so  much 
interest  and  pleasure  that  we  are  inclined  first  of  all  to  commend  the 
book  for  the  innocent  and  enjoyable  satisfaction  it  has  in  store  for  its 

It  must  have  been  with  peculiar  pleasure  that  the  editor  of 
the  Ladies'  Repository,  Dr.  Erastus  Wentworth.  his  old  pre- 
ceptor at  Carlisle,  penned  this  testimony  to  this  new  success 
of  one  of  his  pupils : 

His  pictures  of  life  in  Germany,  his  descriptions  of  the  universities, 

his  characterization  of  learned  professors,  his  accurate  delineation 

of  their  manners,  lives,  and  philosophies,  his  facts  about  university 

education,  its  value  and  usefulness  to  American  students,  his  memories 

of  the  Franco-Germanic  War,  and  his  excursions  into  the  Tyrol  are 

all  so  intensely  interesting  that  when  we  take  up  the  volume  we  do 

not  lay  it  down  till  we  have  devoured  its  contents  as  we  would  a 


226  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  Christian  at  Work  discriminates  finely : 

His  style,  which  is  very  pure,  is  characterized  alike  by  simplicity 
and  strength.  He  says  what  he  wants  to  without  putting  on  the 
airs  of  a  fine  writer.  His  pen  does  not  separate  him  from  the  human- 
ities. His  thoughts  are  linked  with  the  moving  and  breathing  world. 
With  an  inherited  instinct  he  finds  poetry  in  familiar  objects,  and  epic 
power  in  the  lowly  and  even  vulgar  botherations  and  trials  one  meets 
with  in  the  jolting  cars  which  carry  him  over  rough  places. 

His  Outline  of  Church  History  followed  in  1875,  by  Meth- 
odist Book  Concern  (revised  edition,  1879),  and  has  had  a 
circulation  of  more  than  20,000  copies.  Around  this  germinal 
brief,  it  may  be  said,  clustered  all  his  subsequent  and  larger 
works  of  church  history,  as  in  ever-enlarging  form  they  came 
from  either  his  producing  or  shaping  hand.  It  has  helped 
thousands  to  their  initial  grasp  upon  the  progress  of  the  church 
of  Christ  and  to  an  harmonious  view  of  the  ecclesiastical  de- 
velopment of  the  kingdom  of  God  among  men  as  an  integral 
fact  of  supreme  importance  in  human  affairs.  A  Spanish 
translation  was  published  in  Mexico  in  1878.  Like  its  prede- 
cessor, Outline  of  Bible  History,  it  was  translated  into  Italian 
by  Dr.  (now  Bishop)  William  Burt.  The  second  edition  of 
each  came  from  the  press  at  Rome  in  1904. 

In  the  centennial  year  of  the  republic  Randolph  (Xew  York, 
1876)  published  his  Our  Theological  Century,  a  discourse 
suited  to  the  time.  Its  delivery  on  a  few  public  occasions, 
once  in  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church  of  Madison,  occupied 
ninety-five  minutes,  usually  divided  between  two  services. 
With  some  additions  and  annotations  he  put  it  in  its  published 
form,  a  neat  duodecimo  of  70  pages.    Of  it  Dr.  Faulkner  says : 

The  pivotal  matters  of  our  history  are  touched  on  with  skill. 

While  in  the  very  vortex  of  travel  and  travail  for  reendow- 
ment  there  comes  from  the  Harpers'  press  (New  York,  1877) 
one  of  their  Greek  and  Latin  Texts,  prepared  conjointly  with 

Seneca's  Moral  Essays  227 

Dr.  Henry  C.  Whiting,  his  Seneca's  Moral  Essays,  with  Notes. 
In  it  may  be  found  a  learned  disquisition  on  Seneca's  personal 
history,  his  philosophy,  his  character,  his  works  in  their  sev- 
eral editions,  and  his  hypothetical  relations  with  Saint  Paul. 
Seneca's  On  Tranquillity  of  Mind  was  always  a  favorite  theme 
of  Dr.  Hurst  in  dealing  with  difficult  problems  in  practical  life 
and  one  which  he  illustrated  by  his  own  great  calmness  of  mind 
when  in  circumstances  ordinarily  most  perturbing.  The  book 
has  had  wide  use  in  schools  and  colleges  and  is  still  in  steady 
demand,  having  reached  its  seventh  thousand.  It  was  the 
fulfillment  of  a  desire  and  purpose  which  possessed  him  as 
early  as  1858.  when,  in  his  first  year's  pastorate,  he  wrote  in 
his  Journal': 

October  4. — Bought  a  translation  of  Seneca  at  Reeves's  Antiquarian 
Store,  New  York. 

and  again : 

November  1. — Wrote  to  J.  B.  Paton.  of  Sheffield  [an  English  Con- 
gregationalist  minister  and  friend  made  in  Italy].  Detailed  to  him 
plans  of  writing  an  edition  of  Seneca. 

Among  several  side  strokes  of  his  helpful  pen  were  the 
introductions  he  wrote  to  Dr.  James  H.  Rigg's  The  Living 
Wesley  as  He  Was  in  His  Youth  and  Prime  (London  and 
New  York,  1875)  ;  Mrs.  E.  J.  Knowles's  Christmas  Chimes 
(New  York,  1877)  ;  and  Dr.  L.  D.  McCabe's  Foreknowledge 
of  God  and  Cognate  Themes  (Cincinnati,  1878). 

His  address  at  Basel  in  its  English  form  was  prepared  sep- 
arately and  enlarged  for  the  press  and  published  by  the  Meth- 
odist Book  Concern  in  1880  under  the  title,  Christian  Union 
Necessary  for  Religious  Progress  and  Defense;  "a  satisfying 
paper,"  says  Professor  Faulkner,  "illuminated  with  lights  from 
his  wide  reading  and  softened  by  the  catholicity  of  his  large 

228  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

During  the  first  two  years  of  his  presidency  he  found  time 
to  enter  into  a  dual  alliance  with  Dr.  George  R.  Crooks  to 
create  under  a  joint  editorial  supervision  a  Biblical  and  The- 
ological Library.  Within  a  few  months  they  had  arranged 
for  a  schedule  of  books  to  be  prepared  which  embraced  nine 
treatises,  and  as  early  as  June,  1874,  ten  names  of  Methodist 
scholars  were  announced  to  write  them :  Theological  Ency- 
clopaedia and  Methodology,  Luther  T.  Townsend;  Introduc- 
tion to  the  Study  of  the  Scriptures,  Henry  M.  Harman;  Bib- 
lical Hermeneutics,  Henry  Bannister;  Biblical  and  Christian 
Archaeology,  Charles  W.  Bennett  and  George  H.  Whitney; 
Systematic  Theology  (two  volumes),  Randolph  S.  Foster; 
Evidences  of  Christianity,  Henry  B.  Ridgaway;  Christian 
Theism  and  Modern  Science,  Alexander  Winchell ;  History 
of  Christian  Doctrine  (two  volumes),  George  R.  Crooks;  His- 
tory of  the  Christian  Church  (two  volumes),  John  F.  Hurst. 

Such  was  the  dream  of  two  of  the  foremost  scholars  of 
American  Methodism  in  1874,  and  so  early  was  the  beginning 
of  its  fulfillment  that  Dr.  Harman's  Introduction  was  published 
in  1878.  To  trace  the  changes  of  plan  made  necessary  by 
death,  preoccupation,  and  other  sufficient  causes  would  furnish 
an  interesting  chapter  in  the  history  of  Methodist  literature; 
a  paragraph  here  must  suffice.  The  second  of  the  series  to 
appear  was  Hermeneutics,  from  the  hand,  not  of  Bannister 
the  beloved  and  beatified,  of  Garrett,  but  of  Dr.  Milton  S. 
Terry,  then  in  the  pastorate  in  New  York,  and  later  of  the 
same  institution,  published  in  1883  (revised  edition,  1892). 
In  the  same  year  it  was  announced  that  the  Systematic  The- 
ology would  be  written  by  James  E.  Latimer  instead  of  Bishop 
Foster ;  that  Christian  Theism  and  Modern  Thought  would  be 
prepared  by  Professor  Charles  J.  Little ;  and  that  the  work  on 
Encyclopedia  and  Methodology  would  be  written  by  Drs. 
Crooks  and  Hurst.     This  last-named  work  appeared  in  1884. 

Biblical  and  Theological  Library  229 

and  in  a  revised  edition  ten  years  later.  Dean  Latimer,  of 
Boston  School  of  Theology,  having  died,  it  was  announced 
in  January,  1886,  that  Bishop  Foster  would  write  the  System- 
atic Theology,  but  in  April  a  reconsideration  left  the  name  of 
the  writer  of  this  important  work  blank.  In  July  of  the  same 
year  Dr.  Bennett's  name  appeared  alone  in  connection  with 
the  announcement  concerning  Archaeology,  which  was  pub- 
lished in  1888,  and.  in  a  new  edition,  revised  by  Professor 
Amos  W.  Patten,  in  1898.  Systematic  Theology,  which  had 
been  assigned  to  Professor  John  Miley,  of  Drew,  came  out  in 
1892  (vol.  i)  and  1894  (vol.  ii).  The  History  of  the  Christian 
Church  by  Bishop  Hurst  appeared  in  1897  (vol.  i)  and  1900 
(vol.  ii).  The  Foundations  of  the  Christian  Faith,  by  Pro- 
fessor Charles  W.  Rishell,  of  Boston  School  of  Theology, 
published  in  1900,  was  substituted  for  the  Evidences  of  Chris- 
tianity first  planned  for  Dr.  Ridgaway.  The  volume  on  Chris- 
tian Theism  has  not  yet  (1905)  appeared,  and,  alas!  the 
History  of  Christian  Doctrine  had  never  been  written  when 
the  hand  of  the  scholarly  Crooks  dropped  the  pen  to  grasp  the 

One  of  his  last  friendly  acts  for  young  authors  before  leav- 
ing the  dear  oaks  and  cheery  firesides  of  Drew  for  the  new 
home  in  Des  Moines,  bearing  date  of  December  10,  1880,  wras 
his  four-page  introduction  to  Mary  Sparkes  Wheeler's  book, 
First  Decade  of  the  Woman's  Foreign  Missionary  Society  of 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  with  Sketches  of  Its  Mis- 
sionaries (New  York,  1881).  It  is  a  sprightly  and  cordial 
recognition  of  the  noble  work  of  God's  elect  women  in  sending 
and  carrying  the  gospel  to  those  who  had  never  seen  its  light 
or  heard  its  story  of  lcve. 

230  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 


The   Delegate 

Two  General  Conferences. — Elected  Bishop 

While  the  clouds  of  financial  disaster  hung  heavy  in  their 
first  gloom  over  his  loved  school  of  the  prophets  at  Madison, 
his  brethren  of  the  Newark  Conference,  to  which  he  had  been 
transferred  from  Germany  and  Switzerland  in  1873,  placed 
him  at  the  head  of  their  clerical  delegation  to  the  General  Con- 
ference of  1876,  meeting  in  Baltimore.  Note  has  already  been 
made  of  his  earnest  private  work  there  for  putting  the  Sem- 
inary on  a  firm  foundation.  On  the  election  of  Secretary  the 
first  day  he  served  as  one  of  the  four  tellers;  he  was  also  a 
member  of  the  standing  Committees  on  Episcopacy  and  Edu- 
cation and  of  the  special  Committee  on  Pastoral  Address.  On 
the  tenth  day  he  presented  the  action  of  the  Newark  Confer- 
ence against  the  election  of  presiding  elders,  and  the  fourteenth 
day  a  resolution  to  exempt  theological  students  from  exam- 
ination in  certain  studies,  and  also  his  report  on  Drew 
Theological  Seminary,  announcing  that  the  preparatory  de- 
partment had  been  discontinued,  and  that  vigorous  measures 
were  already  in  successful  operation  for  reendowing  the 

As  the  quadrennium  from  1876  to  1880  advanced  and  the 
preparations  for  the  next  General  Conference  were  in  progress 
the  opinion  prevailed  that  several  bishops  would  be  elected. 
Bishops  Janes,  Ames,  and  Gilbert  Haven  had  died.  Among 
the  names  canvassed  in  a  hundred  circles  of  interested  friends 
of  the  church  frequent  mention  was  made  of  President  Hurst 
as  one  of  the  few  who  would  receive  the  call  to  that  exalted 

Elected  Bishop  231 

office  and  station  in  the  church.  Many  of  his  friends  were  not 
slow  to  make  known  to  him  their  desire  and  expectation.  In 
writing  to  his  son,  John  La  Monte  Hurst,  on  March  9,  1880, 
he  said : 

It  is  much  better  for  me  to  remain  where  I  am.  If  I  am  elected, 
I  shall  have  nothing  to  say,  but  the  chances  are  not  favorable. 

He  led  the  Newark  Conference  delegation  again  in  1880 
at  the  General  Conference,  held  in  Cincinnati.  He  was  as 
before  a  member  of  the  standing  Committees  on  Episcopacy 
and  on  Education  and  presented  two  petitions  from  the  New- 
ark Conference  on  Church  Extension  and  on  temperance. 
Writing  to  his  son  John  from  Cincinnati,  May  3,  he  says: 

If  I  am  defeated  it  will  be  all  right,  and  you  must  not  be  disap- 
pointed. The  Lord  will  take  care  of  us  just  as  well  without  it  as 
with  it,  and  perhaps  it  is  best  that  there  be  no  change  in  my  work. 

And  on  May  7  to  Mrs.  Hurst : 

I  shall  take  it  very  quietly,  and  believe  all  will  be  well  in  the  end. 
I  will  telegraph  you  immediately  after  the  election,  let  me  be  in  or 
not.  Pray  that  it  may  turn  out  best  for  us  all.  I  shall  be  happy 
in  any  event,  whatever  that  may  be. 

On  Wednesday,  May  12,  the  tenth  day  of  the  Conference, 
he  was  on  the  first  ballot  elected  one  of  three  bishops — Henry 
W.  Warren  and  Cyrus  D.  Foss  being  the  other  two.  Dr. 
Hurst  voted  "nay"  on  a  proposition  to  postpone  indefinitely 
the  election  of  another  bishop,  and  on  a  third  ballot  Erastus 
O.  Haven  was  elected.  On  May  18  he  requested  to  be  relieved 
from  further  duty  as  a  delegate,  and  J.  B.  Faulks  was  admitted 
to  his  seat.  On  May  19  Dr.  Hurst  was  consecrated  Bishop 
of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  in  Pike's  Opera  House, 
Cincinnati,  Bishop  Simpson  presiding  and  conducting  the 
examination  of  each  bishop-elect.     The  house  was  filled  to 

232  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

overflowing.  He  was  presented  by  James  N.  FitzGerald  and 
William  Xast,  who  united  with  Bishops  Wiley  and  Scott  in 
the  laving  on  of  hands.  He  received  the  charge  from  Bishop 
Merrill,  and  with  the  three  other  bishops-elect  his  parchment 
from  Bishop  Harris.  Mrs.  Hurst  and  her  two  elder  sons 
were  present  in  the  proscenium  box  of  General  Fisk.  Wednes- 
day. May  26.  Bishop  Hurst  presented  his  report  on  Drew 
Theological  Seminary,  in  which  he  says : 

The  Endowment  Fund  has  been  restored,  and  now  amounts  to 
$311,000.  This  has  been  brought  to  pass  without  the  employment  of 
a  financial  agent  or  the  mortgaging  of  any  of  the  property.  All  the 
five  departments  of  instruction  in  the  Seminary  have  been  sustained 
during  the  financial  reverses  of  the  past  four  years. 

He  presided  over  the  General  Conference  for  the  first  time 
on  Thursday  morning,  May  27,  and  chose  Des  Moines  as  his 
residence  for  four  years.  Immediately  after  his  election  an 
observant  reporter  thus  describes  Bishop  Hurst : 

The  features  of  this  gentleman  are  very  marked.  He  has  large, 
lustrous  eyes,  a  Grecian  nose,  overarching  eyebrows,  a  mouth  which 
indicates  lofty  and  well-established  character,  and  a  high,  rounding 
forehead  in  which  the  reflective  faculties  preponderate  over  the  per- 
ceptive. His  hair  is  rather  thin,  inclined  to  be  a  little  sandy  in  color, 
and  generally  looks  as  if  the  gentleman  had  run  his  hands  through  it. 
His  only  facial  adornment  is  a  small,  sandy  goatee.  When  Bishop 
Hurst  smiles  there  is  such  an  illumination  of  his  countenance,  espe- 
cially of  his  eyes,  that  he  looks  positively  bewitching.  Such  a  smile 
is  better  than  a  fortune  of  gold.  In  walking,  Bishop  Hurst  stoops  a 
little  in  the  shoulders  and  holds  his  head  forward,  giving  the  chin  a 
slight  upward  inclination.  But  he  dresses  immaculately — the  regula- 
tion white  cravat  and  Prince  Albert  dress-coat,  closely  buttoned,  and 
looks  in  all  respects  like  a  man  of  distinction  in  the  world. 

The  alumni  of  Drew  Theological  Seminary  held  a  reception 
a  few7  evenings  after  the  election  at  the  Hotel  Emery  in  honor 
of  the  President,  Dr.  Hurst.  Bishop  Foster  presided,  and 
the  Board  of  Trustees  was   represented  by  Dr.   Curry,   Dr. 

Receptions  and  Greetings 

Ridgaway,  and  Mr.  George  J.  Ferry.  Dr.  Hurst  spoke  of 
his  regret  at  the  thought  that  his  connection  with  the  Seminary 
must  now  close.  Dr.  S.  M.  Vernon,  on  behalf  of  the  alumni,  ex- 
pressed the  regret  felt  at  losing  Dr.  Hurst  from  the  presidency. 
Dr.  Curry,  on  behalf  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  said  that  he  had 
felt  it  an  honor  and  a  pleasure,  not  unmingled  with  pain,  to 
have  an  immediate  interest  in  the  Drew  Seminary.  The 
institution  was  now  in  excellent  condition.  It  had  seemed 
once  that  it  was  on  the  very  brink  of  ruin,  but  it  had  proved 
otherwise.  The  munificence  of  Daniel  Drew  was  not  to  be  lost, 
though  he  was  unable  to  perfect  it.  Mr.  Ferry  remarked  that 
he  had  regretted  the  election  of  Bishop  Foster  to  the  Episco- 
pacy, and  he  now  felt  regret  because  Dr.  Hurst  was  to  leave 
the  Seminary.  The  work  which  Dr.  Hurst  had  performed  in 
raising  the  endowment  of  Drew  Seminary  was  of  the  greatest 
value,  a  work  that  would  deserve  gratitude  through  all  future 
time.  Bishop  Foster  said  that  he  cherished  very  tenderly  the 
memories  of  his  life  in  connection  with  Drew  Seminary;  that 
Dr.  Hurst  had  seen  the  happiest  days  of  his  life  and  would 
never  be  able  to  carry  on  anything  like  continuous  literary 

The  preachers  and  laity  of  the  Newark  Conference  united 
on  June  10  to  give  Bishop  Hurst  a  very  hearty  and  largely 
attended  reception  in  the  Central  Church  at  Newark,  under 
the  general  conduct  of  its  pastor,  William  V.  Kelley.  Bishop 
Harris  made  the  main  address.  Another  popular  reception 
was  given  him  at  the  Arlington  House,  Ocean  Grove,  on  July 
5.  His  alma  mater  conferred  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Laws 
upon  him  in  June.  1880,  and  De  Pauw  (Indiana  Asbury) 
University  in  July  conferred  the  same  honor. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  students  of  Drew  Theological  Sem- 
inary, held  Wednesday  evening,  December  15,  1880,  the  fol- 
lowing resolutions  were  unanimously  adopted : 

234  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Whereas,  Bishop  Hurst,  our  former  President,  is  about  to  leave  us 
to  assume  the  wider  responsibilities  of  his  present  office;  and, 

Whereas,  During  his  presidency  the  Seminary  suffered  the  loss 
of  its  entire  income  through  the  failure  of  Daniel  Drew  and  thus 
reached  a  financial  crisis  unprecedented  in  the  history  of  literary 
institutions ;  and, 

Whereas,  Relinquishing  plans  for  literary  labor  which  were  dear 
to  him  and  giving  himself  to  the  sole  object  of  building  up  the 
financial  interests  of  the  Seminary,  he  has  in  conjunction  with  his 
colleagues  succeeded  so  signally,  and  now  leaves  the  Seminary  on  a 
firmer  basis  than  it  has  possessed  at  any  time  during  the  past ;  and. 

Whereas,  His  devotion  to  the  personal  interests  of  the  students 
has  been  both  warm  and  constant;  therefore, 

Resolved,  That  we,  the  students  of  Drew  Theological  Seminary, 
do  express  our  deep  sense  of  our  deprivation,  by  his  departure,  of  the 
instruction  and  counsel  of  a  faithful  Professor  and  do  thank  him 
for  those  advantages  which  are  due  to  his  untiring  efforts  in  restoring 
the  institution  to  a  prosperous  condition,  and  do  extend  to  him  our 
heartiest  Godspeed  in  his  new  and  broader  relations  to  the  work  of  the 

At  the  following  session  of  the  Newark  Conference  a  paper 

was  adopted  by  his  Conference  class.     It  reads  as  found  in 

this  letter: 

Jersey  City,  April  6,  1881. 

Rev.  Bishop  J.  F.  Hurst — Dear  Brother:  At  a  meeting  of  the 
class  of  1858,  held  at  this  city  last  evening,  the  following  preamble 
and  resolution  were  unanimously  adopted: 

Whereas,  Our  beloved  classmate,  John  F.  Hurst,  has  been  elected 
and  ordained  a  bishop  of  our  church ;  therefore, 

Resolved,  That  our  sincere  and  hearty  congratulations  are  hereby 
presented  to  our  esteemed  classmate ;  and  that  we  assure  him  of  a 
cheerful  toleration  on  the  part  of  his  classmates  whenever  he  comes 
to  exercise  episcopal  authority  over  us. 

John  F.  Dodd,  Class  Secretary. 

A  Welcome  to  Iowa  235 

The  Bishop 

At  Des  Moines. — 1880-81. — Fifteen  Conferences  in  Five  Central  States 

This  prophecy  was  made  in  one  of  the  local  prints  of  New 
Jersey  in  the  fall  of  1880: 

Rev.  Dr.  Hurst  is  to  move  soon  to  Des  Moines,  Iowa.  If  any 
degree  of  arrogance  is  needed  for  a  bishop,  then  Dr.  Hurst  will  fail ; 
but  if  a  man  full  of  "sweetness  and  light,"  whose  simple  presence 
seems  a  benediction,  is  wanted,  Dr.  Hurst  will  be  found  to  be  the 
right  man. 

A  few  weeks  later  his  welcome  to  Iowa  was  reported : 

Des  Moines  Methodism  extended  her  warm  hand  of  greeting  last 
evening  (December  30)  to  Bishop  John  F.  Hurst.  The  hand  was  as 
warmly  received  as  it  was  warmly  proffered.  As  the  Bishop  and  his 
family  had  taken  temporary  quarters  at  the  Kirkwood,  and  the  pro- 
prietors of  the  excellent  house  had  offered  their  parlors  for  the 
occasion,  the  reception  was  given  there.  The  parlors  were  crowded 
with  a  bright,  intelligent,  joyous  assemblage.  If  anyone  came  expect- 
ing cold  ceremonies  and  restraint,  he  was  happily  disappointed.  The 
genial  faces  of  the  Bishop  and  his  good  lady  and  their  cordial  manner 
won  every  heart  to  them.  A  short  and  hearty  address  of  welcome 
was  given  by  the  Hon.  George  G.  Wright.  He  referred  to  the  85,000 
Methodists  standing  back  of  him  who  welcomed  the  Bishop  to  their 
hearts  and  homes.  The  Bishop  then  followed  with  a  most  impressive 
and  eloquent  reply,  touched  up  with  occasional  flashes  of  genuine 
humor  and  pathos.  This  address  left  all  who  heard  it  his  friends, 
and  proved  that  he  will  very  amply  cover  the  footprints  of  his  illus- 
trious predecessor. 

In  a  letter  from  Centerville,  September  8,  1880,  the  first 
day  of  his  first  Conference,  the  Iowa,  he  tells  Mrs.  Hurst  about 
his  experiences  at  Allerton,  where  he  dedicated  a  church  on 
his  way  to  Conference : 

23^  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

I  had  a  great  experience  at  Allerton.  I  was  invited  to  a  hotel 
to  stop  with  a  Mr.  Meekins.  He  proved  to  have  been  a  tailor  boy 
in  Cambridge,  whom  I  used  to  like,  and  he  never  forgot  me.  White 
Hurst's  name  (a  cousin,  brother  of  John  E.)  was  on  the  register. 
He  had  come  25  miles  from  Leon,  where  he  lives,  to  be  with  me 
and  hear  me  preach.  I  spent  the  night  in  two  sleeping  cars  and 
one  hotel — so  I  slept  by  sections.  After  breakfast  came  the  dedication. 
Sam  Hurst  (another  cousin)  and  his  wife  came  into  the  church, 
and  also  Frank  Swiggett,  still  another  cousin,  whom  I  had  loved  like 
a  brother,  and  had  not  seen  for  25  years.  Here  were  children  of 
three  brothers  and  one  sister !  Well,  I  begged  and  dedicated.  All 
the  cousins  gave.  As  I  went  into  the  church  the  painters  were  at 
work  ornamenting  the  spire.  And  what  do  you  think  they  were  paint- 
ing as  the  name  of  the  church?  The  ''Hurst  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church."  It  just  took  my  breath.  We  got  all  the  money.  The 
officers  named  it  after  me  as  their  Iowa  bishop  and  his  first  dedica- 
tion. I  had  a  good  time  in  my  first  session.  How  these  preachers 
stared  at  me  ! 

On  the  second  night  at  the  educational  anniversary,  after  an 
excellent  address  by  S.  S.  Murphy  on  the  Iowa  Wesleyan 
University,  Bishop  Hurst  followed  with  what  a  correspondent 
describes  as  "one  of  the  grandest  addresses  I  ever  listened 
to,  keeping  the  whole  audience  in  rapt  attention,  and  inspiring 
all  to  a  far  deeper  interest  in  the  education  of  our  youth." 
E.  L.  Schreiner,  the  youngest  of  the  six  presiding  elders  at 
that  session,  gives  this  interesting  account  of  Bishop  Hurst's 
first  presidency : 

What  impressed  me  first  was  his  insight  into  the  situation,  and 
helpfulness  in  my  ignorance,  by  permitting  none  of  the  older  and 
more  experienced  members  of  the  Cabinet  to  take  advantage  of  my 
lack  to  the  detriment  of  my  district.  His  manner  was  affable  and 
deferential  to  the  older  members  of  the  Cabinet,  but  in  a  way  that 
left  no  doubt  that  he  was  the  Bishop.  In  several  crises  that  arose 
in  making  the  appointments,  he  showed  that  he  had  the  courage  of  his 
convictions  and  took  the  responsibility  of  the  situation.  The  most 
marked  of  these  was  his  appointment  of  a  man  to  one  of  the  districts, 
against  the  protest  and  vote  of  five  of  the  six  presiding  elders,  the 
sixth  being  indifferent.     Subsequent  events  justified  his  decision.     As 

His  First  Conference  j^y 

a  presiding  officer  in  the  Conference  he  was  firm  and  dignified,  dis- 
patching business  with  promptness  and  method,  making  a  favorable 
impression  on  the  members,  who  eyed  him  critically  at  the  beginning 
of  the  session,  but  at  the  close  said,  "He  will  do."  "He  is  a  Bishop." 
His  Sunday  sermon  made  a  profound  impression,  not  so  much  for 
its  oratorical  qualities  as  its  depth  of  thought  and  breadth  of  scholar- 
ship. His  address  to  the  class  for  admission  was  fresh  and  inspiring. 
He  talked  to  the  young  men  like  one  accustomed  to  deal  with  them, 
and  who  knew  what  most  they  needed. 

From  Wyandotte,  Kansas,  at  his  second  Conference,  the 
West  German,  he  writes  to  Mrs.  Hurst,  September  16: 

I  am  getting  along  nicely  with  the  Conference  here.  They  ad- 
journed for  10  minutes  this  a.  m.  to  shake  hands  mit  dem  Bischof. 

Rev.  J.  Tanner  says : 

We  were  very  glad  to  have  him  in  1880  and  also  in  1883 ;  yes,  proud, 
as  he  was  able  to  preach  to  us  in  German,  and  the  proceedings  of  the 
Conference  were  at  his  request  mostly  in  German.  In  Cabinet  work 
and  also  in  open  Conference  he  was  kind  and  brotherly.  We  called 
him  the  German  Bishop,  and  in  reality  he  was.  We  would  have  been 
much  pleased  if  we  had  been  permitted  to  have  him  more  as  our 

Of  his  third  Conference,  the  Central  Illinois,  at  Fairbury, 
Rev.  C.  Springer  says : 

He  showed  the  deepest  interest  in  every  question  pertaining  to 
the  church  or  the  pastor.  His  sermon  was  a  scholarly  and  able  effort. 
All  felt  that  he  was  a  man  with  a  message — a  great  message,  a 
message  which  he  profoundly  believed.  His  style  of  delivery  was 
easy  and  natural.  Indeed,  it  seemed  to  be  the  simplicity  of  eloquence 
and  the  eloquence  of  simplicity. 

Of  his  fourth  Conference,  the  Chicago  German,  at  Water- 
town,  Wisconsin,  Jacob  Bletsch  says : 

As  the  Bishop  understood  and  spoke  the  German  language,  he 
gave  us  the  privilege  to  speak  in  German,  and  so  we  had  the  first 
German-speaking  Conference.    This  gave  the  brethren  present  great 

238  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

pleasure.  The  sermon  of  the  Bishop  on  Sunday  was  also  in  German, 
to  the  great  joy  of  the  preachers  and  people  in  general.  The  sermon 
was  powerful  and  a  great  blessing  to  all.  We  were  so  pleased  with 
Bishop  Hurst  that  we  expressed  the  desire  that  he  would  preside  at 
all  our  sessions  in  future. 

On  his  way  to  the  fifth  Conference,  Rock  River,  Rockford, 
Illinois,  he  stopped  at  Chicago,  where  he  writes  Mrs.  Hurst: 

I  had  a  pleasant  time,  but  there  is  no  fun  going  round  among  the 
bookstores  here. 

At  the  Rock  River,  when  presenting  W.  H.  Smith  in  the 
name  of  the  brethren  of  his  district  a  silver  service,  he  said : 

These  are  not  to  be  put  away  in  flannel  bags,  but  are  for  everyday 

His  second  group  of  Conferences  included  the  South  Kan- 
sas, at  Wellington,  the  Kansas  at  Concordia,  the  Missouri  at 
Cameron,  and  the  Saint  Louis  at  Carthage.  On  his  way  to 
the  first  he  stops  at  Pleasanton,  and  sends  this  message  on 
February  28,  1881,  to  his  wife: 

Had  to  sleep  with  Creager.  He  took  up  more  than  half  of  the  bed, 
but  did  not  snore.  Your  books  are  in  the  library  at  Pleasanton.  and 
a  lady,  where  I  took  dinner,  had  read  them,  and  that  was  about  all 
she  knew  of  the  Hurst  family.     Such  is  fame. 

The  session  at  Wellington  was  a  stormy  one.     C.  R.  Rice 


Charges  had  been  preferred  against  two  of  the  most  prominent 
and  active  men  in  the  Conference.  They  had  been  most  intimate 
friends,  but  now  they  were  arrayed  against  each  other,  and  the 
preachers  were  divided.  The  young  bishop  groaned  and  travailed 
in  pain  over  the  condition.  He  was  cautious,  and  gained  the  confi- 
dence of  nearly  every  preacher  by  his  transparent  impartiality.  He 
bravely  and  prayerfully  faced  the  difficulties.  I  never  met  a  better 
leader  than  Bishop  Hurst. 

In  Kansas  and  Missouri  239 

The  third  day  of  his  stay  at  Concordia  brought  out  this 
note  of  discomfort,  if  not  of  discord : 

March   12. 
To  Mrs.  Hurst: 

No  fire  in  my  room — have  to  sit  in  the  family  room,  where  I  can't 
write,  or  even  say  my  prayers.    Misery ! 

But  the  day  following  matters  had  changed  greatly  to  his 

My  host  has  got  a  stove  in  the  room,  and  now  at  last  I  have 
some  heat  and  heart  and  comfort. 

P.  T.  Rhodes  writes : 

The  town  was  flooded  with  rain,  mud  prevailed  on  the  streets. 
Without  sidewalk  or  carriage  the  Bishop  had  to  plunge  and  wade 
through  as  best  he  could.  He  lost  one  of  his  shoes  in  the  mud. 
But  he  came  into  the  Conference  and  Cabinet  as  calm  and  serene  as 
though  he  had  been  brought  by  a  coach  and  four. 

Richard  Wake  says: 

We  were  impressed  chiefly  by  the  modesty  of  his  bearing,  amount- 
ing almost  to  timidity  at  times. 

From  Cameron  he  wrote  to  Mrs.  Hurst,  March  22 : 

I  have  for  the  first  time  a  fire  in  my  room.  I  wrote  to  the 
preacher  here  to  provide  me  such  a  place,  and  but  for  that  I  should 
be  freezing  here.  I  have  just  finished  an  article  for  Advocate  on 
"Our  Kansas  Field."  the  first  I  have  written  since  leaving  home,  and 
because  of  my  first  fire. 

March  24. — This  Bishop  business  is  a  wonderful  thing — everybody 
wanting  to  do  something  for  you,  and  some  against  you.  But  a  queer 
business,  after  all — biggest  man  in  a  small  town  for  a  week,  and  then 
off  to  another ! 

O.  M.  Stewart  says  of  him  at  the  Saint  Louis  Conference: 

His  spirit  was  kind  and  tender,  but  his  purpose  granite.  I  learned 
early  in  our  session  that  he  would  appoint  me  presiding  elder,  and  I 
resisted  it  with  all  the  assistance  I  could  command,  but  without  avail 
— I  now  see  he  was  correct. 

240  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

B.  F.  Thomas  joined  this  Conference  that  year  and  dreaded 
to  meet  the  Bishop ;  but  he  says : 

I  was  really  amazed  at  the  fatherly,  or,  perhaps  better,  the  brotherly, 
spirit  he  showed  me.  What  had  been  painful  suspense  became  admi- 
ration, reverence,  and  almost  devotion.  My  trepidation  had  been 
much  intensified  by  days  of  waiting,  but  Bishop  Hurst's  gentle  hand 
and  kindly  smile  dissipated  all  my  fears  and  I  felt  I  had  found  a 

F.  S.  Beggs  says : 

He  was  greatly  admired  for  his  urbanity  and  gentlemanly  bearing 
toward  the  humblest  preacher  as  well  as  those  of  greater  prominence. 

He  was  elected  president  of  the  trustees  of  Cornell  College, 
Mount  Vernon,  in  1881. 

On  August  28  he  preached  in  the  evening  at  First  Church, 
Des  Moines,  at  the  union  of  Fifth  Street  and  Centenary 

His  fall  Conferences  in  1881  were  the  Southern  Illinois  at 
Greenville,  Saint  Louis  German  at  Burlington,  Iowa,  Des 
Moines  at  Indianola,  Upper  Iowa  at  Waterloo,  Northwest 
Iowa  at  Algona,  and  the  Dakota  Mission  at  Sioux  Falls.  His 
sermon  on  Sunday  at  Greenville,  one  of  great  power  and 
beauty,  was  preached  in  a  grove  to  an  immense  congregation. 
Of  his  work  at  the  Upper  Iowa,  J.  T.  Crippen  says : 

He  seemed  to  know  everything  in  history,  philosophy,  and  current 

Of  his  dedication  of  the  First  Church  in  Ottawa,  Iowa,  in 
December,  1881,  C.  R.  Rice  says: 

At  the  close  he  made  an  extemporary  prayer  that  will  never  be 
forgotten.     He  prayed  the  heavens  down  upon  the  throng  of  people. 

Near  His  Old  Home  241 


1882. — Eleven  Conferences. — East  and  "West. — The  Accident  Insurance  Man 

His  assignments  for  the  spring  of  1882  were  Wilmington 

at    Middletown,    Delaware ;    Central    Pennsylvania    at    Lock 

Haven ;  his  own  dear  Newark  at  Newark ;  and  the  Wyoming 

at   Carbondale,    Pennsylvania.     Just  before   starting   on   his 

eastern   trip   he    received   this    friendly   note   from    Schuyler 

Colfax : 

I  write  to  say  how  disappointed  I  shall  be  not  to  meet  you  at  Des 
Moines  next  week.  What  was  in  my  mind  was  to  have  a  chat  with 
you.  I  wanted  to  have  my  memory  brightened  up  on  one  of  those 
funny  stories  you  told  us  marines  on  the  briny  deep. 

Dr.  Buckley,  editor  of  The  Christian  Advocate,  thus  reports 

a  part  of  Bishop  Hurst's  opening  remarks  at  the  Wilmington 

Conference : 

Brethren,  I  come  to  the  Wilmington  Conference  with  emotions 
such  as  I  cannot  feel  in  visiting  any  other  Conference,  and  will  not 
attempt  to  describe.  I  was  born  within  the  bounds  of  the  Conference : 
here  both  my  parents  died,  and  in  this  Conference  I  was  left  a  lonely 
orphan.  Brethren,  I  see  here  to-day  the  minister  who.  when  I  had 
no  thought  of  becoming  a  Christian,  as  I  was  returning  from  a  little 
debating  society  in  the  Academy  in  Cambridge,  asked  me  if  I  did 
not  wish  to  meet  my  parents  in  heaven.  I  told  him  I  did.  That 
man,  brethren,  who  led  me  to  the  altar  I  see  here  to-day.  I  well 
remember  the  first  New  Testament  I  ever  owned.  I  see  the  minister 
here  to-day  who  gave  it  to  me,  and  in  all  my  wanderings  I  have 
preserved  that  little  Testament,  and  have  it  here  with  me  in  Middle- 
town  now. 

Dr.  Buckley  adds : 

This  was  eloquence,  not  of  voice  or  manner,  but  of  penetrating  fact, 
and  it  reached  every  heart.  No  wonder  tears  filled  all  eyes.  I  have 
never  heard  anything  equaling  the  simplicity  and  pathos  of  this 
account  of  his  conversion.  As  a  brother  afterward  said  in  the  cars, 
"It  is  one  of  the  things  that  grow  on  one  the  longer  he  thinks  of  it." 

24^  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

From  Wilmington  he  wrote  to  Mrs.  Hurst : 

Went  out  after  getting  here  to  Bishop  Scott's.  He  lives  five  miles 
from  here,  on  a  farm.  He  told  me  about  taking  my  mother  into  the 
church.  Says  he  feels  differently  toward  me  from  anybody  else,  and 
was  so  happy  when  I  was  elected. 

March  10. — It  was  very  affecting  this  afternoon  that  Rev.  J.  A. 
Brindle,  who  received  me  into  the  church,  came  to  talk  with  me 
about  his  appointment. 

Dr.  Robert  W.  Todd  writes : 

In  the  Cabinet  meetings  at  Middletown  he  showed  great  anxiety 
to  be  just  and  kind  to  all  concerned,  advising  us  to  confer  freely 
with  pastors  where  changes  were  deemed  necessary,  so  as  to  avoid, 
if  possible,  the  friction  of  disagreeable  surprise,  and  secure  loyal 
acquiescence  all  around.  His  presidency  was  both  dignified  and 
kindly,  and  his  general  official  demeanor  was  that  of  a  man  dominated 
by  the  consciousness  of  a  Heaven-imposed  responsibility.  While 
Bishop  Hurst  was  a  greater  scholar  than  orator,  there  were  times  when 
his  fire-touched  lips  poured  forth  a  message  of  exquisite  sweetness 
and  wonderful  power. 

Before  holding  the  Newark  Conference  he  spent  Sunday 
at  Elizabethport  with  his  former  congregation  in  Fulton  Street 
Church.  It  was  a  special  occasion,  and  they  raised  sixteen 
hundred  dollars  to  pay  all  their  debts.  From  Newark  on 
March  30  he  writes  Mrs.  Hurst : 

Dr.  Locke,  of  Illinois,  writes  me  he  has  sent  a  copy  of  Reynolds's 
Life  and  Times,  of  Illinois.  Did  it  get  to  you?  If  so,  it  is  a  great 
find,  and  worth  $13 — old  as  it  looks,  long  out  of  print,  and  has 
matter  no  other  book  has  about  the  Suckers  of  Illinois. 

D.  B.  F.  Randolph  writes : 


The  urbane  and  scholarly  manner  in  which,  at  the  Newark  Con- 
ference of  1882,  he  received  the  visiting  East  German  Conference 
then  assembled  in  the  same  city,  speaking  both  in  German  and  in 
English,  excited  universal  comment  and  admiration  on  the  part  of 
both  bodies. 

Note  on  Jane  Welsh  Carlyle  243 

At  the  close  of  the  Wyoming  Conference,  says  Dr.  J.  E. 
Smith : 

He  came  to  Scranton,  Pennsylvania,  where  I  was  then  stationed. 
He  was  to  take  the  midnight  train  for  the  West.  As  my  guest  for 
a  few  hours,  I  hoped  for  a  good  long  chat  with  him.  But  he  was  then 
at  work  on  his  Bibliography.  As  soon  as  he  entered  my  library  he 
began  to  examine  my  books.  I  could  get  nothing  out  of  him.  Flat 
on  the  floor,  he  pulled  down  volume  after  volume  until  it  was  time  to 
start  for  the  train.  After  the  work  of  the  Conference  he  seemed  to  be 
as  fresh  as  a  boy. 

On  April  16  he  preached  by  invitation  before  the  Cornell 
University  at  Ithaca,  New  York,  and  on  May  7  at  Garrett 
Biblical  Institute,  Evanston,  Illinois. 

A  jotting  of  his  now  infrequent  entries  in  his  Journal  is 
that  of  June  15,  1882: 

On  train,  on  my  way  to  Mount  Pleasant  to  lecture  on  the  Revenges 
of  History  at  the  College  commencement.  I  have  finished  Froude's 
Carlyle — first  forty  years.  I  could  have  voted  against  him  for  a 
scullion  in  a  nobleman's  kitchen  because  of  his  treatment  of  his 
wife.  But  now,  after  some  days  of  ruminating,  he  comes  up  again, 
and  I  ask :  Did  not  Jenny  Welsh  know  him  well  ?  Was  she  not  free, 
and  did  not  he  say  so — not  to  marry,  even  after  the  engagement? 
What  better  could  she  have  done  had  she  married  crazy  Edward 
Irving,  whom  she  loved?  "Had  I  married  Irving  there  would  have 
been  no  tongues,"  she  said.  How  do  you  know,  dear  Jennie?  So 
thinks  always  the  woman  who  finds  herself  chained  for  life  to  a 
brute  or  a  donkey. 

He  spent  two  days  at  Berea,  Ohio,  during  commencement 
in  June,  preaching  the  baccalaureate  sermon  on  Sunday  morn- 
ing, visiting  the  orphan  asylum  in  the  afternoon,  and  in  the 
evening  giving  an  address  in  German  on  education.  On  Mon- 
day he  spoke  to  the  trustees  on  the  importance  of  the  work 
among  the  Germans.  He  always  maintained  a  deep  personal 
interest  in  the  success  of  the  German  Wallace  College. 

A  group  of  seven  Missions  and  Conferences  called  him  to 

244  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

the  Pacific  Coast  in  the  summer  and  fall  of  1882.  These  em- 
braced Utah  Mission  at  Salt  Lake  City,  Montana  Mission  at 
Bozeman,  Columbia  River  at  Baker  City,  Oregon,  the  Oregon 
at  Albany,  Southern  California  at  San  Luis  Obispo,  the  Cali- 
fornia at  Oakland,  and  the  Nevada  at  Reno.  Mrs.  Hurst 
accompanied  him  to  California,  and  Carl  was  with  him  on  his 
trip  to  the  Northwest.    F.  A.  Riggin  says  of  him  in  Montana : 

Imagine  the  scholarly  Bishop  Hurst,  unaccustomed  to  pioneer  life, 
plunging  into  the  wilderness  and  amid  the  wilds  of  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains, traveling  over  the  valleys  and  the  ranges,  and  eating,  sleeping, 
and  living  in  the  most  primitive  style.  So  thoroughly  was  he  equipped 
for  his  work  that  in  every  detail  he  measured  up  to  its  requirements. 
We  met  him  accompanied  by  Secretary  (now  Bishop)  Fowler  at 
the  terminus  of  the  railroad,  and  drove  hundreds  of  miles  by  private 
conveyance.  Conference  over,  they  visited  the  Yellowstone  National 
Park.  They  scaled  the  rugged  peaks,  cooked  their  food,  slept  upon 
the  ground,  and  traversed  the  mysterious  regions  of  wonderland. 
Bishop  Hurst  was  the  first  of  our  Bishops  to  traverse  these  trails. 
He  was  careful,  considerate,  farseeing,  and  wise  in  planning.  Mon- 
tana will  never  cease  to  feel  the  effects  of  his  prudent  administration. 

W.  S.  Turner  says : 

The  Columbia  River  Conference  tested  his  mettle  because  of  an 
exciting  debate  over  an  unfortunate  brother  who  was  under  a  strong 
fire  through  serious  rumors  affecting  his  moral  character.  Bishop 
Hurst  did  himself  great  credit  because  of  his  manly  and  wise  bearing 
through  the  protracted  discussion  which  occupied  two  sessions  under 
closed  doors.  Myself  and  a  few  others  were  threatened  with  vio- 
lence by  an  outside  mob,  such  was  the  excitement  awakened  by  this 
case  during  the  session ;  but  Bishop  Hurst  under  God  by  his  wise 
course  averted  such  a  catastrophe. 

In  selecting  from  the  preachers  of  the  Oregon  Conference 
those  whom  he  wished  to  read  the  ritual  for  the  ordination 
of  elders  he  fell  upon  Secretary  Wolfe,  whose  voice  and  manner 
he  liked,  for  the  gospel  lesson.  But  the  incongruity  of  a  man 
of  that  name  reading,  "the  wolf  catcheth  them,"  caused  the 

On  the  Pacific  Coast  245 

secretary  to  decline,  and  the  Bishop  kindly  made  a  change. 
At  the  California  Conference  he  was  confronted  by  a  state  of 
the  public  mind  bordering  on  frenzy  in  the  wild  reign  of 
intemperance,  Sabbath  desecration,  hatred  of  the  Chinese, 
sand-lot  oratory,  and  mob  violence.    Dr.  H.  B.  Heacock  says : 

His  address  at  the  opening  session  was  one  of  rare  power,  which 
showed  the  true  philanthropist,  the  farseeing  Christian  statesman, 
and  the  defender  of  the  oppressed.  I  never  sat  in  the  Cabinet  with 
a  Bishop  who  seemed  more  desirous  to  get  all  the  facts  in  every  case. 

To  the  Independent  Bishop  Hurst  recounts  his  conversation 
with  the  accident  insurance  man  near  Los  Angeles : 

"Why  should  I  insure?" 

"Reason  enough.  You  have  a  bandaged  face.  You  have  had  a 
misfortune,  and  may  meet  with  another  pretty  soon." 

"I  cannot  see  it  just  as  you  do.  Six  weeks  ago  I  had  a  runaway 
accident  up  in  the  Yellowstone  Park,  and  yesterday  in  Los  Angeles 
I  came  in  contact  with  a  piece  of  redwood  lumber,  which  was  either 
in  the  wrong  place  or  I  was,  and  I  am  to  be  home  in  two  weeks 
more.  Don't  you  think  now,  as  an  experienced  insurance  man,  that 
I  shall  get  along  safely  the  rest  of  the  way?  Haven't  I  had  my 
average,  considering  the  time?" 

He  dropped  into  a  profound  meditation,  and  for  a  moment  was  lost 
in  the  ecstasy  of  his  profession.  Then,  looking  up  in  a  way  truly 
merciful  and  encouraging,  he  replied:  "You  are  right.  I  think  you 
have  run  your  risks."  Then  he  released  me,  and  I  thanked  him 
for  his  solicitude.  If  I  ever  do  insure  against  accidents,  that  is  the 
man  who  should,  if  I  only  knew  his  name,  have  the  business. 

While  in  attendance  at  the  General  Committee  meetings  in 
New  York  he  writes  to  Mrs.  Hurst,  November  9 : 

How  I  want  to  get  at  my  Church  History!  It  is  needed,  and 
I  think  I  shall  satisfy  the  public.  You  are  a  very  great  inspiration 
in  all  my  work.  But  for  my  encouragement  from  you,  I  could  not 
work  as  I  do. 

246  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 


1883-64. — Thirteen   Conferences  in   Ten    States,  South,  Central,  and   East. 

— Impress  on  Iowa 

His  first  Conferences  in  the  South  came  in  the  early  months 
of  1883.  They  were  the  Mississippi  at  Meridian,  Louisiana 
at  Alexandria,  Little  Rock  at  Pine  Bluff,  and  Arkansas  at 
Little  Rock.  From  Meridian  he  writes  to  his  wife  on  Janu- 
ary 21 : 

I  have  had  a  great  time  to-day.  My  first  sermon  to  the  colored 
people.    They  shouted  and  cried  out,  and  we  had  a  good  time. 

On  his  way  to  Alexandria  to  hold  the  Louisiana  Conference 
as  he  passed  through  the  little  village  of  Plaquemine,  where 
there  were  but  two  or  three  members  of  our  church  living,  one 
of  the  number,  "Sister  Cheney  Nelson,"  boarded  the  train 
and  rode  a  few  miles  with  him.  She  pleaded  so  well  for  a 
preacher  to  be  sent  to  them  that  he  appointed  a  pastor  who 
built  the  house  of  worship  that  bears  the  name  of  Hurst 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church.     Pierre  Landry  says : 

Two  of  the  young  preachers,  who  had  dropped  out,  one  to  the 
overseership  of  a  rice  plantation,  and  the  other  to  a  government  con- 
tract in  the  mail  service,  sought  to  return  on  trial.  Though  it  was 
shown  that  they  had  carried  on  special  missionary  work  in  their 
respective  localities,  they  were  met  with  the  positive  opposition  of 
some  of  our  leaders.  Having  patiently  listened  to  the  objectors  in  a 
special  conference,  the  Bishop  said,  "  Brethren,  your  opposition  to  the 
readmission  of  these  young  men  has  disclosed  to  me  their  excellence 
of  character.  I  see  in  them  those  qualities  of  leadership  of  which, 
if  you  live  long  enough,  you  will  be  proud.  Give  them  a  chance." 
In  both  cases  his  prediction  was  fulfilled. 

Of  his  address  at  the  funeral  of  Bishop  Peck  in  May,  1883. 
the  Rev.  Dr.  Arthur  Copeland,  who  was  present,  says: 

A  Walk  in  Baraboo  247 

How  vividly  he  portrayed  a  scene  at  a  camp  meeting  held  on  the 
"old  neck"  of  Maryland,  where,  under  the  light  of  burning  pine 
stumps,  he  first  saw  and  heard  Bishop  Peck.  It  was  a  most  beautiful 
tribute  that  he  paid  that  real  Episcopos  and  shepherd  of  souls,  and 
in  language  which  seemed  chiseled  like  the  marbles  of  the  Parthenon, 
both  strong  and  ornate.  The  Protestant  Episcopal  Bishop  of  Central 
New  York,  Dr.  Dan  Huntington,  sat  near  me  in  the  crowded  audi- 
torium, and  seemed  much  impressed  by  what  he  saw  and  heard. 

Seven  Conferences  claimed  his  oversight  in  the  fall  of  1883 ; 

The  Black  Hills  Mission  at  Rapid  City,  West  German  at  Saint 

Joseph,  the  Illinois  at  Danville,  West  Wisconsin  at  Baraboo. 

Wisconsin   at   Milwaukee,   Tennessee   at   Murfreesboro,   and 

Central  Tennessee  at  Hollow  Rock.     At  Danville  he  says,  in 

a  letter  to  Mrs.  Hurst: 

September  20. — Lewis  Janes  thanked  me  for  my  address  to  the 
preachers  yesterday.  I  told  them  if  they  had  any  burdens  or  trouble 
about  appointment,  and  wished  to  speak  with  me,  to  come  to  my 
lodgings  and  do  so;  if  I  could  not  help  them,  it  would  be  at  least 
a  gratification  to  have  tried.  It  seems  it  struck  fire,  and  they  have 

Dr.  E.  L.  Eaton  says : 

He  was  both  lovable  and  approachable.  A  little  shy  about  courting 
the  personal  attention  of  those  in  official  position,  I  was  therefore 
much  surprised  when  he  put  his  arm  in  mine  one  day  at  the  Baraboo 
Conference  and  proposed  a  walk  in  the  grove.  I  had  in  my  pocket  at 
that  time  an  official  request  to  transfer  to  another  Conference  and 
take  an  important  appointment.  Naturally  I  had  set  my  heart  on 
going.  But  I  did  not  go.  When  that  walk  was  ended  I  was  willing 
to  go  to  the  ends  of  the  earth  if  Bishop  Hurst  desired  it.  And  yet 
he  seemed  to  say  little  or  nothing  to  dissuade  me. 

He  visited  the  University  at  Madison  on  his  way  to  Mil- 
waukee, whence  he  writes  Airs.  Hurst: 

October  2. — The  library  is  a  perfect  wonder  of  treasures.  They 
seem  to  have  searched  the  country  and  the  century  in  order  to  find 
the  books  they  have.  The  librarian  had  the  kindness  to  show  me 
some  duplicates  which  he  will  exchange  for  some  of  mine. 

248  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

While  in  attendance  upon  the  Committee  meetings  in  New 
York  in  November  he  stole  away  and  on  the  15th  wrote  Airs. 
Hurst : 

On  the  Chesapeake,  to  Baltimore. — From  a  station  on  the  railroad 
I  could  see  the  place,  I  think  the  very  house,  where  I  was  born.  I 
walked  about  the  farm  (Sallie's)  where  I  used  to  live  later,  looked 
at  the  old  trees  I  used  to  climb  and  gather  cherries  from  in  a  tin 
bucket.  The  trees  that  were  young  and  strong  are  now  old  and  rotting 
away.  I  went  to  the  creek  where  I  used  to  swim  and  fish — how 
changed !  I  came  into  town  and  Sallie  with  me,  and  we  went  to 
the  graveyard,  and  saw  our  parents'  graves. 

Ten  days  after  adjournment  from  Murfreesboro  he  is  in 
Nashville,  whence  he  writes  Airs.  Hurst: 

November  27. — To-day  Young  [E.  K.]  and  I  went  out  ten  miles 
to  Hermitage,  President  Jackson's  home.  We  had  a  lovely  ride  and 
saw  his  furniture,  carriage,  room  he  died  in,  grave — a  splendid 
old  Southern  mansion  in  ruins.  We  visited  afterward  the  Fisk 
University,  and  went  upon  the  Capitol,  and  overlooked  the  whole 
city.  We  called  on  the  widow  of  ex-President  Polk;  she  was  too 
feeble  to  see  us,  but  we  saw  her  house.  No  lady  ever  left  a  finer 
name  in  the  White  House  than  she. 

Hollow  Rock,  November  28. 

I  was  put  into  a  room  which  was  pretty  cold — Young  and  I  were 
together.  Had  a  fireplace  fire — four  men  in  room  above  us.  About 
5  this  a.  m.  two  other  men  came  into  our  room  to  warm  up,  and  I 
had  to  ask  them  to  stop  talking,  so  I  could  sleep  more.  Later  they 
left,  and  came  back  while  I  was  dressing.  Breakfast  was  in  an  open 
hall — no  fire.  It  is  a  poor  hotel,  kept  by  a  dentist,  whose  big  chair 
and  buzz-saw  are  in  the  room.  I  think  I  will  begin  dentistry  on 

His  assignments  in  this  country  for  the  spring  of  1884  were 
two  Conferences :  New  York  East  at  Brooklyn,  and  New 
Hampshire  at  Manchester.  William  T.  Hill,  of  the  former 
body,  says : 

I  recall  his  assiduous  devotion  to  his  task  of  studying  how  to 
serve  the   best   interests   of  the   churches   and   the   members   of   the 

Impress  on  Iowa  249 

Conference,  not  only  the  effective,  but  also  the  ineffective,  and  the 
dignity,  without  assumption  of  superiority,  with  which  he  was  wont 
to  preside.  His  sermon  at  that  session  was  of  such  worth  that  the 
Conference  unanimously  requested  a  copy  for  publication.  Its  subject 
was  ''The  Gospel  a  Sword." 

During  his  residence  in  Des  Moines,  at  618  Third  Street, 
he  won  the  love  of  the  people  and  of  all  workers  in  the  cause 
of  righteousness.  He  was  abundant  in  his  labors  for  temper- 
ance and  education.  His  presidency  and  addresses  at  the 
second  Methodist  State  Educational  Convention  in  June,  1881, 
together  with  a  reception  to  the  four  hundred  delegates  at 
his  house,  were  of  signal  service.    W.  F.  Harned  says : 

On  the  night  of  the  great  temperance  victory  in  Iowa  (June  27, 
1882),  when  the  state  went  overwhelmingly  for  Prohibition,  he  and 
I  were  on  the  streets  about  midnight  when  the  first  reports  came  in. 
I  remember  the  Bishop's  remark.     He  said,  "That  is  glorious." 

He  immediately  published  a  congratulatory  address  to  the 
Methodist  ministers  of  the  state  for  their  help  in  the  campaign 
and  the  triumph.  C.  W.  Blodgett,  who  knew  him  intimately, 
writes : 

He  was  a  busy  man.  His  library  room  was  a  workshop  often 
for  ten  or  twelve  hours  in  a  day.  He  was,  however,  never  too 
busy  to  hear  the  voice  of  the  humblest  of  preachers.  His  tender  heart 
always  responded  to  the  appeal  for  help — either  of  sympathy  or 
money.  He  was  one  who  never  indulged  in  criticism  of  his  brethren. 
I  saw  him  at  one  time — when  a  less  masterful  man  would  have  com- 
promised the  high  position  he  occupied.  By  a  very  prominent  layman 
in  public  the  Bishop's  motives  were  impugned  and  his  word  questioned. 
The  following  speech  the  Bishop  was  to  make.  Xot  in  the  most 
remote  degree  did  he  refer  to  the  unkind,  unjust,  and  inconsiderate 
remarks  of  his  assailant.  Nor  did  he  ever  permit  himself  to  reply. 
He  did,  however,  excuse  the  brother  and  say  he  was  under  a  pressure 
that  few  men  could  endure  without  irritation.  His  life  in  the  West 
was  a  constant  inspiration  to  the  younger  men.  They  were  through 
him  profoundly  impressed  with  the  importance  and  necessity  of 
sanctified  scholarship. 

250  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

E.  L.  Schreiner  writes  : 

While  with  us  in  the  state  he  was  in  "labors  more  abundant," 
dedicating  churches,  speaking  on  great  public  occasions,  and  par- 
ticipating in  functions  both  within  and  without  the  church  that  added 
new  luster  to  the  name  of  Methodism  in  the  great  Methodist  state 
of  Iowa. 

F.  W.  Vinson  says  : 

I  knew  Bishop  Hurst  as  one  of  the  noblest,  truest  of  men,  and  one 
of  the  most  faithful  of  friends  and  brave  in  doing  what  he  believed 

Upon  leaving  Des  Moines  to  go  to  General  Conference  and 
thence  to  Europe,  a  magnificent  reception,  combined  with  their 
silver  wedding  anniversary,  a  little  anticipated,  was  tendered 
Bishop  and  Mrs.  Hurst  in  the  First  Church.  Dr.  Young 
presided,  Dr.  Ryman  prayed,  Bishop  Foss,  present  from  Min- 
neapolis, and  Bishop  Hurst  spoke.  At  the  banquet  which 
followed,  Judge  George  G.  Wright  was  toastmaster,  and 
Governor  Sherman,  Hon.  C.  F.  Clarkson.  Rev.  Dr.  J.  B. 
Stewart  of  the  Presbyterian  Church,  Dr.  Pomeroy  of  Callanan 
College,  Dr.  Kennedy,  Rev.  Dr.  Frisbie,  Colonel  Gatch,  Judge 
Nourse,  and  Bishop  Hurst  made  fitting  responses  to  a  variety 
of  toasts  in  which  flashes  of  wit  vied  with  affectionate  tender- 
ness to  make  the  occasion  memorable  and  happy.  A  message 
which  greeted  him  shortly  before  he  sailed  for  Europe  was 
this  one  from  Mrs.  Hurst : 

Don't  spend  money  on  books — wait  until  you  return  from  Europe. 
You  know  you  are  easily  tempted. 

The  Bishop  Abroad  251 


1884-85. — Abroad. — Twelve    Conferences    in    Eight    Countries    of    Europe 

and  Asia 

Prior  to  his  sailing  for  Europe  in  June,  the  General  Confer- 
ence at  Philadelphia  claimed  his  service.  He  presided  on  three 
days,  May  8,  17,  and  26.  On  the  226.  he  joined  with  Bishops 
Simpson,  Bowman,  and  Foss  in  the  laying  on  of  hands  in 
the  consecration  of  Bishops  Fowler  and  William  Taylor,  and 
made  the  presentation  of  the  Scriptures  to  the  same.  On  the 
26th  the  question  having  arisen  in  connection  with  the  report 
of  the  Committee  on  Cooperation  in  Church  Work  as  to  Bishop 
Wiley's  right,  as  chairman,  to  close  the  debate,  Bishop  Hurst 
decided  that  he  had  such  a  right.  Dr.  Buckley  appealed  from 
the  decision  on  the  ground  that  the  rule  applied  solely  to  mem- 
bers of  the  Conference,  and  the  appeal  was  sustained.  Bishop 
Hurst  gave  as  the  grounds  of  his  decision : 

The  Committee  on  Cooperation  in  Church  Work  is  a  creature  of 
the  General  Conference.  This  body  appointed  a  member  from  each 
General  Conference  District,  and  directed  that  the  Board  of  Bishops 
should  designate  one  of  their  number  besides,  who  proved  to  be 
Bishop  Wiley.  All  these  together  should  constitute  the  Committee. 
It  would  seem  that  Bishop  Wiley  is  as  much  a  member  of  the  Com- 
mittee as  any  other  man  on  it,  because  he  was  designated  by  order 
of  the  General  Conference.  If  he  were  not,  it  would  be  clear  that 
the  conclusions  which  the  Committee  reached,  and  this  report,  would 
be  of  no  legal  force.     To  this  opinion  I  must  still  adhere. 

Buffalo  having  been  designated  as  one  of  the  episcopal  resi- 
dences, Bishop  Hurst  chose  this  city  as  his  home  for  the 
ensuing  four  years,  but  was  a  traveler  abroad  for  more  than 
a  year.  His  first  episcopal  tour  of  fourteen  months  in  for- 
eign lands  covered  the  European  Conferences,  four  of  them 
twice,  and  the  two  in  India :  Germany  and  Switzerland  at 
Zurich,    Sweden    at   Upsala,    Norway   at    Bergen,    Denmark 

25-'  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Mission  at  Frederikshavn,  Bulgaria  Mission  at  Sistova,  South 
India  at  Hyderabad,  North  India  at  Bareilly,  Italy  at  Bologna, 
Sweden  at  Motala,  Norway  at  Trondhjem,  Denmark  Mission 
at  Copenhagen,  and  the  Germany  and  Switzerland  at  Lud- 

His  seventh  trans- Atlantic  trip  together  with  his  family, 
excepting  John,  having  been  accomplished  and  having  pre- 
sided as  a  brother  over  his  own  loved  Conference  in  Zurich, 
conducting  the  business  and  the  ritual  service  and  speaking 
and  preaching  in  German,  he  leaves  Mrs.  Hurst  and  the  three 
younger  children  in  Berlin  and  starts  with  Carl  for  his  Scan- 
dinavian work.  A  pleasantly  in  her  letter  of  July  9  to  the 
Bishop  contains  a  true  prophecy  in  interrogative  form: 

Who  knows  what  "  Mother  "  can  do  or  can't  do  ?  Mrs.  Trollope 
didn't  begin  to  write  until  she  was  fifty.  Younger  than  that  is  this 
child.  Who  knows  but  my  grandchildren  will  read  their  grand- 
mother's productions  with  the  same  interest  that  they  will  the  works 
of  their  Bishop  grandfather  ! ! ! 

Of  his  presidency  at  Upsala  J.  M.  Erikson  says: 

We  were  all  delightfully  surprised  when  he  opened  the  Conference 
by  reading  the  Twenty-third  Psalm  in  Swedish.  The  manner  in 
which  he  led  the  proceedings  of  the  Conference  and  the  interest  he 
showed  in  the  welfare  of  all  the  brethren — old  and  young — won  the 
hearts  of  all.  He  was  kind,  yet  strong  and  firm,  sincere,  and  had 
nothing  of  phariseeism  or  bigotry  in  him. 

The  journey  from  Upsala  to  Bergen  was  by  Christiania,  and 
thence  by  water  over  the  Skagerak  and  North  Sea.  Dr. 
Buckley  says : 

The  Bishop,  accompanied  by  the  resident  and  neighboring  ministers, 
took  passage  on  a  steamer  for  Bergen,  224  English  miles,  as  the 
vessels  go,  northwest.  The  entire  membership  of  our  churches  in 
Christiania  accompanied  them  to  the  pier,  and  there  remained,  filling 
the  available  space,  singing  hymns  and  spiritual  songs,  led  by  the 
excellent  choir,  till  the  boat  started.     Hundreds  of  the  people  of  the 

The  Social  and  the  Revival  Joined  253 

city,  attracted  by  the  singing,  came  down  to  the  shore  and  swelled 
the  concourse.  Not  only  so:  the  brethren  and  sisters,  to  show  their 
affection  for  their  pastors,  brought  beautiful  bouquets  and  wreaths 
of  flowers  in  profusion  to  present  to  them.  As  the  ship  sailed  the 
music  of  their  songs  followed  it  as  far  as  their  voices  could  reach. 
and  still  they  could  be  seen  waving  their  adieus.  The  vessel  stopped 
long  enough  to  receive  and  discharge  cargo  at  several  ports,  some- 
times remaining  some  hours.  Arrangements  had  been  made  by  tele- 
graph to  hold  services,  and  as  soon  as  the  boat  landed  the  preachers, 
accompanied  by  the  Bishop,  went  to  the  church,  where  the  people 
were  assembled,  and  a  regular  service  was  held.  A  scene  similar  to 
that  in  Christiania  was  enacted  on  the  departure  from  each  place, 
where  the  resident  pastor  joined  his  brethren  on  shipboard.  During 
the  Sabbath  of  Conference  five  Methodist  services  were  held  at  one 
time  in  the  city.  When  the  last  day  came  a  supper  was  held  in 
a  hall  that  would  contain  1,200  people.  A  crown,  equal  to  27  cents  of 
our  money,  was  charged  for  admission.  Such  was  the  crowd  that 
the  refreshments  gave  out.  The  pastor  offered  to  give  back  the 
money  to  any  who  were  dissatisfied.  None  asked  its  return.  Supper 
being  ended,  they  began  to  sing  and  relate  what  God  had  done  for 
them.  Bishop  Hurst  and  others  spoke  to  the  unconverted,  and,  to 
crown  all,  when  the  invitation  was  given,  upward  of  seventy  rose 
for  prayers. 

From  Bergen  he  writes  to  Helen,  July  28 : 

I  am  very  glad  that  you  and  mamma  and  Paul  and  Blanche,  all. 
are  well,  and  that  you  run  out  in  the  Thiergarten.  It  must  be  real 
fun  to  get  caught  in  the  rain,  just  like  rabbits,  and  then  have  to  run 
under  a  fruit-stand,  and  have  a  good  excuse  to  buy  some  cherries 
and  strawberries. 

Carl  F.  Eltzholtz  says: 

When  Bishop  Hurst  visited  our  Denmark  Mission  he  and  our 
superintendent,  Rev.  Karl  Schou,  were  invited  to  tea  by  a  prominent 
Lutheran  clergyman,  who  also  was  interested  in  the  work  of  the 
Evangelical  Alliance;  there  was  also  a  learned  professor  present 
who  tried  to  draw  the  Bishop  out  and  to  sound  the  depths  of  his 
knowledge.  He  went  through  the  ordeal  in  a  magnificent  manner : 
he  told  them  about  old  Bible  manuscripts  and  other  things  which 
they  seemed  to  know  very  little  about. 

254  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Bishop  Hurst  also  preached  from  manuscript  in  Danish 
in  our  church  in  Copenhagen.  To  Mrs.  Hurst  he  writes  from 
Frederikshavn,  August  3 : 

Carl  and  I  get  along  first-rate.  We  have  very  loving  times — and 
pillow  fights,  and  our  own  fun. 

From  Consul-General  James  R.  Weaver  at  Vienna  he  re- 
ceives a  message  which  must  have  given  him  a  quiet  laugh 
upon  his  fellow  traveler  on  many  a  journey,  for  whom  he 
had  recently  interpreted  an  address  in  Berlin  and  who  had 
just  recovered  from  a  severe  illness  in  the  first-named  city: 

Dr.  Buckley  dined  with  us  last  evening  and  made  final  adieus,  to 
our  great  regret;  as  for  the  last  five  or  six  weeks  he  has  been  an 
inexhaustible  source  of  good  cheer.  Last  evening  in  the  bank  he 
told  me  a  story  for  the  second  time.  I  said,  "Doctor,  I  am  sorry  you 
told  me  that,  for  it  is  the  only  one  you  have  repeated  during  your 

A  month  later  he  holds  an  interview  with  Prince  Alexander 
of  Bulgaria,  cheers  the  brave  little  band  of  workers  in  the  Mis- 
sion meeting  at  Sistova,  and  is  off  for  the  Orient.  Through 
the  mysteries  and  pressure  of  quarantine  he  decides  to  make 
the  trip  to  Constantinople  over  the  Balkans.  As  was  his  habit, 
he  takes  a  side  excursion  to  Bucharest  at  the  close  of  the  Con- 
ference.   His  letter  to  Paul  of  October  6  from  Bucharest  says : 

I  had  a  busy  day  yesterday,  as  I  had  to  preach,  and  was  at  three 
services.  This  a.  m.  I  got  up  at  a  quarter  before  5,  and  had  a 
little  cup  of  tea  and  some  bread,  and  a  carriage  took  me  down  to  the 
river.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomoff  were  along.  We  crossed  the  Danube  in 
three  quarters  of  an  hour  in  a  little  bit  of  a  steamboat.  On  reaching 
the  other  side  of  the  river  we  took  another  carriage,  and  rode 
through  Guirgevo  to  the  station  for  Bucharest.  At  the  station  we 
waited  until  8:10  for  the  train.  It  took  us  two  hours  to  ride  to  B. 
Bucharest  is  a  big  city.  They  speak  the  Roumanian  language,  which 
is  really  the  old  Latin.  The  people  are  descended  from  a  colony 
planted  by  Adrian,  the  Roman  emperor,  whom  he  placed  there  after 
he  had  conquered  the  tribes  living  there,  and  this  colony  blotted  out 

The  Balkans  and  Classic  Troy  255 

the  old  language,  and  planted  the  Roman  instead.  This  learning  (  ?) 
is  for  mamma.  Now  comes  something  for  you.  Candy  is  sold  along 
the  streets,  but  it  is  dirty-looking.  I  saw  a  boy  with  two  doves 
in  a  little  basket,  with  a  net  over  it.  How  he  did  love  them !  They 
were  pretty  doves,  nearly  white.  You  shall  have  some,  dear  Paul, 
when  we  get  to  Buffalo,  and  Blanche  shall  have  a  cat,  or  a  silk 
dress,  whichever  she  wants,  and  Helen  shall  have  two  silk  dresses, 
any  color  she  likes,  and  mamma — well,  what  shall  we  give  her?  To- 
night I  go  back  to  Guirgevo,  and  in  the  morning  will  be  in  Rustchuk, 
and  then  start  across  the-  mountains.  I  think  this  is  better  than  by 
boat  and  quarantine.  But  mamma  will  not  hear  much  from  me 
now  for  a  week. 

The  same  day  he  writes  Carl : 

On  Saturday  I  had  a  private  audience  with  the  Prince  of  Bulgaria, 
Alexander  I,  and  was  fully  satisfied  with  his  assurance  concerning 
the  future  of  our  mission  in  that  country.  .  .  .  To-morrow  a.  m.  I 
start  by  wagon  across  the  Balkan  Mountains.  I  do  it  to  avoid  quar- 
antine. The  journey  will  take  six  days.  I  shall  be  in  the  track  of 
the  Russian  army,  and  pass  through  places  where  the  Bulgarian 
atrocities  took  place. 

Riding  in  a  cart  drawn  by  buffaloes,  he  makes  safely  the 
passage  of  the  mountain  roads,  passing  Tirnova,  Gabrova, 
Shipka  Pass,  and  Kazanlik,  goes  through  Philippopolis  and 
Adrianople,  and  in  a  week  is  at  the  home  of  his  dear  friend, 
Professor  Albert  L.  Long,  of  Robert  College  in  Constanti- 
nople. Dr.  Long  tells  of  this  visit  and  of  their  joint  excursion 
to  the  plains  of  Troy  in  an  article  for  the  Pittsburg  Advocate : 

Quarantine  is  after  all  not  an  unmitigated  evil.  It  has  recently 
done  very  well  by  me.  It  has  prevented  Bishop  Hurst  from  rushing 
through  this  place  on  his  way  to  India  without  giving  me  the  visit 
to  which  I  had  so  long  looked  forward. 

The  two  days  and  nights  of  their  delightful  companionship 
on  this  classic  outing  furnished  the  theme  which  under  Dr. 
Long's  polished  pen  grew  into  nearly  a  page  of  the  aforesaid 
paper.    In  it  he  tells  of  a  trip  in  a  caique  up  the  Golden  Horn 

256  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

to  the  Convent  of  the  Holy  Sepulcher  at  Fanar;  a  look  at 
the  manuscript  of  the  "Teaching  of  the  Twelve"  granted  by 
the  Archimandrite  Polycarp;  a  call  at  the  Home  School  for 
girls  at  Scutari ;  a  drive  to  the  Convent  of  the  Howling  Der- 
vishes ;  then  on  the  Austrian  steamer  gliding  out  of  the  harbor 
and  down  toward  the  Hellespont ;  a  night  of  good  rest  on  the 
Marmora ;  a  short  halt  at  Gallipoli ;  then  on  ,.0  the  Dardanelles ; 
the  landing  in  a  crushing  crowd ;  a  cordial  welcome  and  a 
good  breakfast  from  Consul  Calvert;  the  hiring  of  a  Jewish 
guide,  a  Turkish  muleteer  and  four  good  horses  for  the  two 
days'  riding;  the  arrival  at  Hissarlik  at  evening;  the  prospect 
of  sleeping  in  the  same  room  with  a  dozen  armed  ruffians,  and 
the  acceptance  of  the  hospitality  of  the  imam's  house,  with 
blanket  and  pillow  on  the  earthen  floor ;  his  own  wakefulness, 
but  the  Bishop's  sound  sleep;  his  fear  of  capture  and  demand 
for  ransom  by  the  brigands ;  the  outbreak  of  the  expected 
row  among  the  rough  men  at  the  coffeehouse,  but  without 
harm  save  the  nervous  shock  of  pistol  shots  and  loud  shouts 
near  their  window ;  the  early  ride  to  the  ruins  of  Troy,  and 
the  sunrise  while  viewing  the  excavations  made  by  Schliemann 
and  reveling  in  the  scenes  before  their  eyes;  a  ride  across 
the  plain  to  the  river  Scamander,  and  the  fountains  of  Forty 
Eyes ;  a  halt  and  dinner  at  Bonnar  Cashi ;  a  view  of  the  plain 
from  this  high  point  of  vantage ;  the  return  to  the  Dardanelles, 
where  they  arrived  at  sundown ;  a  repast,  a  pleasant  evening, 
and  a  night  of  rest  at  the  home  of  the  Calverts ;  and  then  the 
parting.  Dr.  Long  returning  to  his  home  and  Bishop  Hurst 
taking  the  Russian  steamer  the  next  day,  October  20,  for 
Alexandria.  He  writes  Mrs.  Hurst  from  the  Dardanelles, 
October  19: 

We  had  a  wonderfully  interesting  time.  I  would  take  no  price  for 
this  tour.  It  has  been  the  dream  of  my  life  .  .  .  and  now  I  have  seen 
it  at  last !     We  had  a  Homer  with  us,  and  read  it.     Near  here  is 

In  a  Ship  Carpenter's  Room  257 

where  Leander  swam  across  the  Hellespont  to  Hero  (and  so  would 
I  to  you) ;  also  where  Byron  swam  over.  The  house  in  which  he 
stopped  is  near  here. 

Of  his  few  days  in  Egypt  and  his  trip  to  Cheops,  his  letter 
to  Helen,  from  Cairo,  October  28,  will  tell : 

Yesterday  I  went  to  see  the  ruins  of  Memphis  and  also  the  great 
Pyramid  of  Cheops.  Two  gentlemen  were  with  me.  We  took  cars 
for  fifteen  miles,  and  each  of  us  had  a  donkey,  which  rode  on  the 
cars  until  we  reached  the  place  near  Memphis.  Each  donkey  had  a 
name :  Flying  Dutchman,  Champagne  Charley,  and  Yankee  Doodle. 
The  first  was  mine.  He  is  a  stumbler,  and  fell  sprawling  with  me 
when  in  full  gallop.  But  neither  of  us  (donkey  nor  I)  hurt  ourselves. 
We  all  took  lunch  in  a  hut  in  the  desert  which  now  covers  Memphis. 
Then  we  rode  fifteen  miles  toward  home,  off  one  side  of  Cairo,  to 
the  great  Pyramid.  That  was  a  big  job.  But  it  was  a  bigger  one 
to  go  up  it.  One  man  lifted  at  one  side  and  the  other  pushed.  It 
was  a  grand  view  when  we  reached  the  top.  Then  we  rode  twelve 
miles  home,  and  reached  here  just  at  dark.  To-morrow  I  leave  for 
Suez,  and  next  day,  30th,  go  on  board  the  steamer. 

To  Mrs.  Hurst  from  Suez,  October  30. — I  am  in  my  new  quarters. 
I  had  a  hard  time  getting  a  berth.  Last  night  I  reached  Suez, 
after  a  ride  of  eight  hours,  including  an  accident  of  two  hours  on 
the  way,  in  the  desert,  to  the  engine,  and  saw  the  agent  before  going 
to  bed.  He  said  he  would  try  to  get  a  good  room  for  me,  but  the 
boat  was  crowded.  I  left  land  this  a.  m.  at  nine,  and  came  out  to 
the  steamer  (Sutlej,  just  arrived  from  London)  in  a  little  steam 
tugboat,  with  the  agent,  and  found  that  there  were  but  two  vacant 
berths,  two  people  landing  here.  They  were  very  poor,  and  two  or 
three  people  in  each  room.  So  I  began  to  negotiate  to  buy  out  an 
officer.  The  second  mate  and  the  doctor  had  sold  out.  The  third 
mate  would  not  sell,  at  £8  to  Bombay.  So  I  at  last  bargained  with 
the  carpenter  for  £6.  I  have  drawers,  writing  table,  and  a  nice 
hair  mattress,  and  a  good  square  window,  high  up,  and  every  way 
nice.  It  is  awfully  dirty  and  greasy.  My  steward's  name  is  "Light," 
and  I  said  to  him,  "Now,  Light,  if  you  want  to  earn  an  extra 
shilling,  get  your  soap  and  water  and  scrub  out  everything,  wash  out 
the  grease,  put  the  toilet  fixings  in  shipshape."  "I'll  do  it,  sir," 
said  Light,  and  he  is  at  it  with  a  vengeance.  It  is  getting  into  good 
order  now.  He  has  only  a  white  powder  that  he  scrubs  with,  and 
he  says,  "That  brings  the  paint  and  dirt  both  off."  When  he  gets 

258  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

through  I  shall  have  a  beautiful  room.  The  carpenter  has  taken  his 
things  out,  and  I  have  my  books  in  the  little  rack,  and  my  things  in 
the  drawers,  and  am  in  nice  shape.  I  can  write  every  day  and  be 
entirely  alone. 

To  Mrs.  Hurst,  November  12. — I  am  in  Bombay  at  last.  Arrived 
two  days  ago,  Monday,  at  four  p.  m.,  and  went  ashore  in  captain's 
launch.  Presiding  Elder  Fox  met  me  on  the  dock,  and  took  me, 
bag  and  baggage,  to  a  home  in  the  second,  or  as  we  would  say  third, 
story  of  a  building,  the  first  floor  of  which  is  used  as  a  cotton  ware- 
house.    The  family  is  called  F ,  Eurasians,  children  of  English 

father  and  native  mother.  It  is  a  large  family,  children  in  abundance. 
My  room  is  in  the  rear  part  of  the  great  dining  room,  and  shut  off 
from  the  rest  by  boards  only  a  little  higher  than  my  head.  All  the 
racket  of  the  family  went  on  about  me — piano,  and  rattle  of  kitchen 
things.  Early  in  the  morning,  say  at  five,  rattle  again,  perpetual 
agony  of  noises,  and  then  at  last  breakfast.  I  was  in  agony  all  the 
time,  slept  but  little,  good  old  lady  coughing  all  night.  Dined  out 
at  Missionary  Hard's  last  night,  and  after  dinner  an  elderly  lady, 
widow,  called  to  take  me  along  the  sea,  the  great  drive,  the  "  Queen's 
Road."  She  finally  asked  me  if  I  was  comfortable.  I  told  her  at  last 
how  things  were.  She  immediately  said,  "  You  ought  to  go  to  a 
hotel.  You  can't  stand  it."  "  Well,"  said  I,  "  I'll  try  it  another 
night."  She  replied,  "  You  ought  to  go  now."  After  getting  back 
again  I  went  upstairs,  and  about  eight  went  to  bed.  Rattle  to  bang ! 
Rolled  and  pitched !  Clatter,  clatter !  Got  up,  packed  every  rag  I 
had,  and  went  out — about  nine  p.  M.  "  Where  is  Mr.  F ,  chil- 
dren ?  "     "  Gone  to  church  !"     "  Mrs.  F. ?  "     "  Gone  to  church  !  " 

"  Well,  tell  your  parents  I  am  nervous  and  have  lost  sleep,  and  have 
gone  to  Watson's  Hotel."  Children  amazed !  Grandmother,  poor 
soul,  who  did  the  coughing,  amazed.  I  called  a  "  vici  "  (carriage), 
put  in  my  "  yaller  bag,"  and  was  off  in  a  jiffy.  Bang  at  my  door 
now — two  missionaries !    They  say  Cleveland  is  elected.    Bang  again  ! 

Coolie  has  come  for  the  wash.     Now  back  to  F 's.     Sent  for  rest 

of  my  baggage,  with  beautiful  note,  if  I  do  say  it  myself,  explaining. 
Beautiful  note  in  reply  from  Mrs.  F .  All  serene.  It  was  provi- 
dential— that  ride  with  the  old  English  lady,  who  gave  me  good 
advice,  and.  if  I  meet  her  again,  I  shall  thank  her. 

J.  A.  Northrup,  secretary  of  the  South  India  Conference, 
writes : 

We  were  deeply  impressed  with  the  beautiful  spirit  of  fraternity 

Reading  Ritual  in  Hindustani  259 

and  brotherly  kindness  which  he  manifested  constantly  toward  all 
the  members  of  our  Conference,  both  American  and  native.  The 
idea  of  his  superiority  never  seemed  to  enter  his  noble  mind  and 
heart.  He  treated  us  all  as  brethren  beloved  with  such  perfect  ease 
and  naturalness  that  we  saw  in  him  a  striking  exemplification  of  our 
Saviour's  humility.  No  evening  meeting  or  Sunday  service  during 
that  session  of  the  Conference  ever  closed  without  an  earnest  appeal 
from  the  Bishop  to  the  unconverted  to  turn  to  Christ.  Even  the 
ordination  services  were  crowned  with  seekers  of  salvation  responding 
to  his  loving  invitation.  Bishop  Hurst,  without  the  aid  of  an  inter- 
preter, conducted  the  ordination  of  the  native  candidates  in  the 
Hindustani  language,  reading  the  ritual  himself  from  a  Roman  Urdu 
copy  with  such  correctness  that  his  native  auditors  perfectly  under- 
stood the  reading.  The  marvel  was  that  such  a  stranger  to  the 
language  could  so  well  prepare  himself  for  that  feat  in  only  a  few 
hours  of  study  and  practice. 

Between  the  sessions  of  the  South  and  North  India  Con- 
ferences he  spends  Christmas  at  Cawnpore,  then  on  to  Luck- 
now  for  a  few  days,  then  to  Shahjehanpore  and  Bareilly.  Rev. 
(now  Bishop)  J.  E.  Robinson  writes: 

How  glad  I  was  to  see  the  dear  man,  whom  I  found  as  approach- 
able and  affable  as  ever !  Elevation  to  the  episcopacy  had  not  spoiled 
him  in  the  least. 

After  adjournment  at  Bareilly  he  held  the  Central  Confer- 
ence— the  joint  delegated  body  of  the  North  and  South  India. 
Then  he  visited  the  Punjab  in  company  with  Dennis  Osborne 
and  Professor  Frank  W.  Foote,  of  Cawnpore,  taking  in  Lahore 
and  Agra.  Next  in  order  was  a  trip  over  the  district  of  the 
Central  Provinces,  800  miles  long,  with  the  presiding  elder, 
Clark  P.  Hard,  who  writes  of  the  affection  of  his  people  for 
the  Bishop,  and  quotes  from  a  letter  written  by  one  of  these. 
"O,  how  we  love  him!"  To  Mrs.  Hurst  he  writes  on  train 
to  Lahore: 

January  17,  1885. — Everything  is  going  on  in  the  same  old  way — 
banging  about  on  cars,  in  wagons,  and  every  way.     I  have  been  well 

260  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

ever  since  I  have  been  here,  except  a  few  days'  overwork  in  Calcutta. 
But  I  soon  got  over  it.  I  was  at  five  services,  preaching  twice  and 
speaking  besides  three  times.  But  I  am  now  all  right  again,  and  hope 
to  have  no  farther  trouble.  I  am  sure  this  Indian  trip  will  be  a  great 
advantage  to  me — the  perpetual  sun-bath  is  splendid.  The  nights 
are  now  cold.  I  have  to  take  all  my  bedding  with  me.  Cars  furnish 
nothing  except  the  water.  You  find  everything  yourself — every  stitch 
of  towels  and  bedding.  But  the  parcels !  Think  of  what  a  roll  one 
has  to  travel  with !     My  bedding  is  as  big  as  a  barrel ! 

How  he  filled  the  interstices  of  this  network  of  travel  from 
the  time  he  landed  at  Bombay  early  in  November,  1884,  to 
his  departure  in  early  February,  1885.  he  tells  in  that  inform- 
ing book,  Indika,  the  fruit  of  his  journey  and  after-reflections. 
A  slow  trip  on  the  Siam  up  the  Arabian  and  Red  Seas  in 
February  and  a  short  excursion  to  review  a  few  points  in 
Palestine  in  early  March  bring  him  to  Syria.  March  9  he  is 
at  Beirut,  where  he  pens  these  lines  to  Mrs.  Hurst : 

We  went  to  Damascus  last  Tuesday,  the  3d,  60  miles,  by  diligence 
in  one  night.  Stayed  two  days  and  went  to  the  ruins  of  Baalbec. 
This  whole  journeying  is  a  splendid  experience,  everything  helping 
me  in  my  Church  History.  Martin  met  me  on  my  return.  Dr.  Bliss 
made  me  promise  to  come  to  his  house — splendid  home — on  a  prom- 
ontory overlooking  the  sea.  I  sail  to-night  for  Smyrna,  and  shall  be 
there  a  week,  in  the  region  of  Ephesus,  and  Seven  Churches  of  Asia. 
I  preached  here  yesterday — read  every  word. 

The  meeting  with  Dr.  Bliss  is  thus  described  by  Professor 
W.  W.  Martin,  then  teaching  in  the  college  with  Dr.  Bliss : 

This  veteran  missionary  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  and  the  real 
builder  of  that  noble  college  was  immediately  won  by  Bishop  Hurst's 
simple  and  pleasant  manner.  The  two  talked  together  as  if  old-time 
friends.  The  Druse  massacre  in  the  Lebanon,  the  strange  complex 
of  the  Mohammedan,  making  him  possessor  of  the  noblest  faith  in 
one  God,  yet  blighted  in  all  the  best  traits  of  our  common  humanity 
through  a  false  and  narrow  civil  code,  and  all  that  varied  life  of  the 
Orient,  as  it  was  lived  under  the  shadows  of  Lebanon,  were  grouped 
in  the  panorama  of  their  mutual  conversation.     As  we  returned  to 

Conferences  in  Europe  261 

the  college  Dr.  Bliss  remarked  upon  the  fullness  of  the  information 
possessed  by  Bishop  Hurst,  and  said,  "  One  would  have  thought  that 
the  good  Bishop  had  lived  among  us  and  had  shared  our  experiences. 
Your  Bishop  is  a  great  man." 

His  letters  give  us  hints  of  his  routes  of  travel  and  his 
anxiety  for  little  Blanche  in  her  illness  during  the  summer 
of  1885.  after  he  again  struck  European  soil.  To  Rev.  J.  M. 
Erikson,  Stockholm,  from  Naples,  April  13: 

I  am  delighted  to  hear  of  the  revivals  in  various  parts  of  Sweden. 
I  sympathize  deeply  with  you  in  the  loss  of  your  child.  I  know 
just  what  that  great  sorrow  is.  The  Lord  comfort  and  bless  you 
and  your  wife  in  your  hours  of  trial ! 

To  Mrs.  Hurst  from  Copenhagen,  May  18. — I  have  an  article  in 
the  Pittsburg  Advocate — Mediterranean  Log  Book — like  the  others 
you  have  seen.     I  leave  here  to-day  for  Motala. 

Motala,  May  25. — I  have  just  finished  an  article  of  33  pages  this 
size   (note),  for  Chautauquan,  on  Athens. 

Stockholm,  May  29. — Gothland  has  a  wonderful  history :  used  to  be 
a  Hanse  island,  and  its  chief  city,  Wisby,  was  very  wealthy,  like 
Liibeck  and  Hamburg.  Now  it  is  a  city  of  ruins,  and  the  new  town 
is  coming  up  again.  I  intend  to  make  a  Harper  article  on  it,  and 
have  the  photos  for  it. 

Goteborg,  June  5. — Should  anything  happen  to  Blanche  telegraph 
me  immediately  at  one  of  those  Conferences  as  named  in  the  letter. 
I  could  meet  the  Cabinet  and  fix  appointments  and  appoint  a  President 
and  leave.  How  I  wish  I  could  carry  the  dear  sweet  child  up  and 
down  stairs ! 

Christiania,  June  8. — Perhaps  the  Lord  means  to  test  our  faith,  and 
will  save  dear  Blanche,  and  so  make  us  better  Christians. 

On  train  coming  from  Norway  Conference,  June  15. — Yesterday 
was  a  great  day  at  Conference  (Trondhjem).  In  the  afternoon 
we  had  a  real  revival  service  in  the  large  Industrial  Hall — said  to  be 
the  largest  hall  in  Norway.  About  100  came  to  the  altar,  and  there 
were  about  20  conversions. 

Copenhagen,  June  20. — I  hope  to  preach  a  Danish  sermon  to- 

Chemnitz,  Germany,  July  1. — I  reached  here  this  a.  m.  at  8,  from 
Conference.  Our  church  in  Saxony  has  always  been  troubled  with 
imprisonments   and   arrests,   and,   as   I   had  some   success   with   the 

262  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Prince  in  Bulgaria,  and,  I  think,  in  Denmark,  I  made  up  my  mind 
to  make  a  trial.  I  heard  that  the  Mayor  of  this  city  was  friendly 
to  us;  and  he  is  also  a  member  of  the  Saxon  Parliament.  So,  on 
my  way  to  Dresden,  I  got  out  at  Chemnitz,  and  have  had  a  delightful 
visit  with  him.  He  is  on  very  close  terms  with  the  Minister  of 
Public  Worship,  and  intimate  with  the  King.  He  gave  me  very 
important  information,  and  directions  as  to  what  to  do.  I  am  to 
go  to  Dresden,  call  on  the  Minister,  and  present  our  request,  and 
then,  when  Parliament  meets  in  the  fall,  present  a  formal  application 
by  letter  to  this  gentleman,  and  he  will  send  it  on  its  course.  Nothing 
may  come,  but  if  our  preachers  can  be  saved  from  arrest  it  will  be 
a  great  end  gained. 

Dresden,  July  2. — Last  night,  at  10,  I  got  the  permission  of  the 
Minister  of  Public  Worship  for  an  interview  to-day  at  12.  I  had 
telegraphed  here  from  Ludwigsburg  to  know  if  he  was  at  home,  and 
the  answer  was  "  No."  But  he  was,  and  I  came  on  the  venture. 
I  also  saw  the  U.  S.  Consul,  who  is  greatly  interested.  He  is  going 
to  help  get  things  in  shape.  He  advises  me  to  go  to  Berlin  and  see 
Pendleton,  the  new  U.  S.  Minister. 

Berlin,  July  4. — I  reached  here  last  night  from  Dresden,  and  went 
to  see  Mr.  Pendleton.  He  became  greatly  interested  in  our  matters, 
gave  me  coi.siderable  help,  and  told  me  to  depend  upon  him.  The 
Consul  in  Dresden  has  taken  the  matter  up  with  great  vigor.  Think 
of  their  arresting  our  preachers,  and  not  allowing  our  preachers  to 
read  the  service  over  a  dead  child  in  a  graveyard,  and  trying  to 
stop  our  services !  I  think  there  is  an  end  of  this,  and  that  the 
United  States  government  will  have  something  to  say. 

Having-  spent  ten  days  in  Frankfort  and  Kaiserslautern  for 
a  little  rest,  he  joins  his  family  in  Paris.  Soon  they  cross  the 
Channel,  and  he  spends  the  most  of  August  in  travel  to  differ- 
ent points.  They  attended  the  funeral  service  of  General  Grant 
in  Westminster  Abbey,  then  he  hurried  away  to  Newcastle  to 
attend  the  Weslevan  Conference,  where  he  made  an  address 
August  6,  "one  of  the  most  deeply  interesting  of  the  entire 
Conference — has  never  been  excelled  by  any  speaker  to  the 
Conference  from  the  other  side  of  the  Atlantic,"  says  the 
correspondent  of  the  Daily  Chronicle ;  the  next  day  to  Ep- 
worth,  where  he  was  welcomed  by  the  rector,  Dr.  Overton,  and 

Why  Not  in  Singapore?  263 

saw  all  the  relics  of  the  Wesleys ;  joined  his  family  again  in 
London;  dined  with  his  family  at  Sir  William  McArthur's, 
the  ex-Lord  Mayor;  attended  City  Road  Chapel;  reveled  a 
few  hours  in  the  antiquarian  collection  of  George  John  Steven- 
son; then  away  to  Oxford,  to  Warwick  and  Kenilworth 
Castles,  and  Stratford-on-Avon  ;  then  on  to  Edinburgh  and 
other  points  in  Scotland,  whence  he  retraces  his  steps  in  time 
to  get  the  steamer  of  August  27  from  Liverpool  to  New  York. 


A  Bold  Stretch  of  Faith  and  Authority 

The  story  of  the  founding  of  Singapore  Mission,  the  great- 
est stroke  of  his  entire  foreign  tour,  is  thus  told  by  the  Bishop 
himself  in  a  letter  (1891)  to  Secretary  (now  Bishop)  McCabe: 

In  the  autumn  of  1884  I  took  a  miserable  Russian  steamer  at 
Dardanelles,  Asia  Minor,  for  Alexandria.  It  was  called  The  Tsar, 
and  was  used  for  carrying  horses.  I  had  just  finished  my  tour  to 
Troy,  and  had  to  pay  the  penalty  for  the  privilege  of  visiting  the  scene 
of  the  Iliad  by  a  three  days'  sail  in  that  wretched  boat  across  the 
eastern  end  of  the  Mediterranean.  There  were  but  two  passengers 
besides  myself.  I  wondered  there  was  anyone.  One  was  a  German 
connected  with  the  German  consular  service  at  Cairo.  The  other 
was  a  young  German  on  his  way  to  Singapore.  I  conversed  much 
with  this  latter  young  man.  He  described  Singapore  as  I  had  never 
heard  it  described  before — a  meeting  place  of  languages,  nations, 
faiths,  and  a  stopping  point  for  vessels  in  the  Oriental  trade  of  many 
nations.  The  thought  occurred  to  me,  "  Have  we  ever  had  a  Meth- 
odist missionary  there?"  Then  it  appeared  .to  me  that  we  never 
had,  but  that  from  South  India  it  would  be  most  convenient  to 
send  one. 

On  reaching  Bombay,  I  think  it  was  the  first  question  I  asked 
Dr.  (now  Bishop)  Thoburn:  "Why  don't  we  have  a  missionary  in 
Singapore?  " 

"  Can't  send  one,"  he  answered ;  "  we  have  no  man  and  no  money." 

264  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

"  Let's  send  one  when  our  Conference  meets  in  a  fortnight  in 
Hyderabad,"  I  replied. 

aw  he  wanted  it  badly,  but  how  to  find  the  man  was  the  question. 
When  tlu-  appointments  of  the  South  India  Conference  were  read 
off,  I  announced:  "Singapore,  W.  F.  Oldham." 

Wlio  and  where  was  Oldham?  He  was  on  his  way  to  India  to 
take  charge  of  our  press  at  Rangoon,  in  Burma.  Dr.  Thoburn  met 
him  and  told  him  where  he  had  been  appointed.  Imagine  his  surprise 
i.i  "  he  on  his  way  to  Burma,"  and  to  be  "shot  off  one  thousand  five 
hundred  miles  beyond  India"!  But  Dr.  Thoburn  told  him  he  would 
go  witli  him  and  see  what  could  be  done. 

Now,  not  a  dollar  was  appropriated  for  Oldham,  or  for  a  school, 
or  for  any  beginning.  It  was  a  matter  of  faith  and  works  only. 
During  the  winter  Dr.  Thoburn  and  Brother  Oldham  went  to  Singa- 
pore,  began  meetings,  received  a  gift  for  a  school  from  a  Chinaman, 
and  organized  a  little  society.  From  that  hour  to  this  the  Mission 
has  grown.  It  is  as  fully  a  child  of  Providence  as  any  work  our 
church  has  undertaken. 

The  General  Missionary  Committee,  in  November,  1887,  refused 
to  make  of  Singapore  a  Mission,  but  after  a  long  and  earnest  debate 
referred  the  whole  subject  to  the  approaching  General  Conference. 

What  did  the  General  Conference  do?  It  not  only  established  the 
Mission,  hut  elected  that  same  Dr.  James  M.  Thoburn  Bishop  of 
India  and  Malaysia.  Singapore  was  thus  made  not  only  a  part  of 
Bishop  Thoburn's  official  territory,  but,  under  the  name  of  Malaysia, 
was  made  the  point  of  central  work  and  departure  for  the  thirty 
Malaysian    millions. 

To  this  appointment  of  Dr.  (now  Bishop)  Oldham  Bishop 
MeCabe  made  eloquent  reference  at  Bishop  Hurst's  funeral 
in  1003 : 

Bishop  Hurst  seemed  to  have  a  sort  of  inspiration  in  opening  new 

work.     When  he  went  to  hold  the  Conferences  in  India  he  learned 

upon  the  steamer  before  reaching  Alexandria,  from  a  perfect  stranger 

who  showed  him  a  map  of  Malaysia,  of  the  commercial  importance 

>iii£apore.     He  immediately  resolved  to  occupy  it.     Even  in  his 

dreams  Bishop  Hurst  saw  a  kingdom  of  God  coextensive  with  all 

the  earth.     There  was  a  young  man  coming  from  the  United  States 

take   charge   of   our   work   in   Rangoon.     His   name   was   W.    F. 

Bishop    Hurst    immediately    determined    to    send    Oldham 

Oldham  in  Singapore  265 

to  Singapore,  and  when  the  young  man  arrived  at  Calcutta,  where 
he  thought  his  journey  was  ended,  Dr.  Thoburn  told  him  that  his 
appointment  was  1,500  miles  farther  on.  Brother  Oldham  obeyed 
promptly,  and  went  to  Singapore  and  planted  that  Mission,  which 
is  now  one  of  the  most  successful  in  all  Methodism.  It  has  connected 
with  it  a  self-supporting  boys'  school,  and  the  latest  statistics  show 
that  that  school  has  in  it  twenty-three  instructors  and  705  (later 
1,000)  scholars,  and  is  a  center  of  religious  and  intellectual  power 
for  all  that  country  and  for  Siam  and  Borneo.  The  Bishop  created 
that  Mission  with  the  stroke  of  his  pen. 

There  is  one  incident  connected  with  this  school  that  used  to  make 
tears  rush  down  Bishop  Hurst's  cheeks. 

Brother  Oldham  needed  a  helper,  and  we  sent  C.  A.  Gray  there, 
from  Zanesville,  Ohio.  As  Brother  Oldham  saw  him  get  off  the 
steamer,  and  looked  upon  his  stalwart  form  and  noted  his  quick  step, 
he  said,  "  That  is  the  very  man  for  me."  Mr.  Gray  took  charge  of 
the  school,  and  in  ten  weeks  he  was  taken  ill.  As  a  surprise  to 
himself,  and  a  great  surprise  to  his  friends,  he  was  told  by  his  physi- 
cian that  he  must  die.  He  thought  about  it  a  little,  and  then  gravi- 
tation shifting  turned  the  other  way,  and  he  wanted  to  go  home  to 
his  Father,  young  and  strong  as  he  was.  He  said  to  Brother  Oldham: 
"  Call  in  the  boys,"  and  they  came  in — forty  boys,  from  Malaysia 
and  Siam.  "  Boys,"  he  said,  "  I  have  sent  for  you  to  let  you  see 
how  a  Christian  can  die.  I  want  you  to  pass  by  and  let  me  grasp 
each  of  you  by  the  hand."  And  while  those  boys  were  going  by  him 
he  began  to  sing,  all  alone: 

"  Down  at  the  cross  where  my  Saviour  died, 
Down  where  for  cleansing  from  sin  I  cried, 
There  to  my  heart  was  the  blood  applied, 
Glory  to  his  name  !  " 

Nobody  could  sing  but  the  dying  man.  When  the  vacation  came 
Brother  Oldham  went  up  into  Java  to  get  some  new  students,  and 
he  took  dinner  at  the  house  of  an  old  man.  At  the  table  one  of  his 
boys  was  sitting.  The  lad,  who  was  the  oldest  son  of  the  host,  told 
the  story  of  how  the  man  sang  when  he  was  dying.  Greatly  agitated, 
the  boy's  grandfather  took  Brother  Oldham  by  the  coat,  and  said  to 
him  in  the  presence  of  the  assembled  company :  "  Do  you  see  that 
boy?  That  is  my  grandson.  He  is  the  light  of  these  old  eyes.  Take 
him  and  fill  him  full  of  that  religion  that  makes  a  man  sing  when 
he  dies." 

266  l"M\    Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  fame  of  that  wonderful  song  went  all  over  that  country.  If 
Bishop  Hurst  could  have  known  what  was  to  happen,  if  he  could 
have  known  about  the  Spanish  war  and  its  results,  he  could  not 
have  done  a  wiser  thing  than  to  plant  that  Mission  at  Singapore. 
That  filled  up  the  gap.  That  made  a  chain  of  Methodist  missions 
clear  around  this  globe.  Now  you  can  sail  around  the  earth  and  not 
be  very  far  at  any  time  from  a  Methodist  mission,  and  it  was  the 
farsighted  wisdom  of  Bishop  Hurst  that  did  that. 

In  a  letter  from  Madras  to  The  Christian  Advocate  of 
March  5,  1885,  Bishop  Hurst  says: 

Fifty  years  ago,  when  Bishop  Emory  stood  before  the  British  Wes- 
leyan  Conference  with  a  flush  of  prophecy  upon  him,  he  exhorted 
its  ministers  to  go  East,  while  the  young  American  daughter  would 
go  West,  and  the  two  would  grasp  hands  somewhere  in  the  Pacific 
Ocean.  Little  he  thought  the  time  would  come  when  the  daughter 
herself  would  send  one  force  East  and  another  West,  and  that  the  two 
would  meet,  in  the  Malay  world,  at  the  equator.  Yet  that  is  what  she 
does.  The  Methodism  of  China  and  that  of  India  have  met,  and 
now  look  each  other  in  the  face.  The  westernmost  missionary  in 
China  can  drop  down  the  coast,  while  the  Singapore  pastor  can  go 
up  to  meet  him :  and  together  they  can  sing  doxologies  over  the  fact 
that  the  church  which  has  sent  them  out  from  its  warm  heart  has 
put  its  zone  around  the  earth. 

Bishop  Oldham  writes: 

Bishop  Hurst  did  me  the  high  honor  to  appoint  me  to  the  opening 
of  our  Mission  in  Singapore,  though  he  knew  there  was  no  missionary 
apportionment  to  sustain  the  enterprise.     His  quiet  confidence  in  my 
ability  to  meet  the  strange  situation  was  one  of  my  chief  assets,  for  it 
would  have  required  more  courage  to  disappoint  such  cheerful  confi- 
dent   than  to  achieve  success  in   the  face  of  almost  any  difficulty. 
W  hen,  after  a  few  months,  I  was  greatly  beset  with  the  unexpected 
emergencies  with  which  neither  experience  nor  resource  gave  me  much 
fitting  to  cope,  I  was  again  greatly  helped  by  kind  personal  letters, 
which  were  better  for  me  at  that  time  than  any  missionary  subsidy 
:   could   have   come.     I    found   him   ever  after   eagerly  interested 
the  affairs  of  that  Mission,  and  so  urbane  and  considerate  in 
treatment  of  me  personally  that  it  was  to  me  always  a  matter  for 
ratulation  to  be  thrown  into  his  company. 

"  And  Malaysia  "  267 

To  have  a  man  of  his  massive  attainments  so  continually  at  work 
with  the  details  of  the  church  has  always  impressed  me  with  the  feel- 
ing for  the  necessity  of  us  smaller  men  to  be  untiring  in  our  own 

On  the  steamer  Siam  when  fairly  out  of  sight  of  India  on 
the  Arabian  Sea  and  he  had  turned  his  face  toward  his  family, 
who  were  spending  the  winter  in  Paris,  he  wrote  again  on 
February  10  to  the  Advocate  of  April  30: 

If  from  all  the  lands  where  our  people  are  now  singing  their 
Centennial  psalms  our  church  were  suddenly  blotted  out,  there  is 
aggressive  force  enough  in  India  Methodism  alone  to  sail  to  all  the 
continents  and  islands  and  plant  it  over  again.  I  have  no  regrets 
at  the  appointment  of  Dr.  Thoburn  as  Conference  evangelist.  It 
means  an  evangelist  for  all  India.  He  is  just  now  in  Singapore,  away 
down  on  the  equator,  and  within  sight  of  China.  Dr.  Thoburn  and 
the  new  pastor  for  Singapore,  the  Rev.  W.  F.  Oldham,  went  down 
together  to  organize  our  church  there.  All  honor  to  Allegheny 
College  for  sending  out  the  first  man  for  the  Malay  millions,  and 
to  complete  the  connection  between  India  and  China !  Think  of  the 
joy  which  the  heroic  Bishop  Wiley  would  have  had  had  he  been 
a  witness  to  the  arrival  of  these  men  there  !  But  who  knows  how 
much  he  did  see?    The  map  of  his  sublime  faith  was  very  broad. 

When  in  1888,  on  the  day  of  Dr.  Thoburn's  election  as  Mis- 
sionary Bishop,  the  presiding  Bishop  announced  that  fact, 
and  used  the  words  "for  India,"  Bishop  Hurst  instantly  rose, 
walked  rapidly  to  the  chairman,  and  told  him  to  give  the  full 
title — "for  India  and  Malaysia."  The  correction  was  made, 
and  when,  a  few  months  later,  an  attempt  was  made  to  close 
the  Malaysia  Mission,  a  reference  to  the  General  Conference 
action  sufficed  to  end  the  controversy.  How  fitting  was  the 
election  of  Dr.  Oldham  by  the  General  Conference  of  1904 
as  Missionary  Bishop  and  his  assignment  to  Southeastern  Asia 
with  headquarters  at  Singapore! 

John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

1&56-57. — At    Buffalo. — Blanche's    Death. — Fifteen    Conferences    in    Eight 
States,  East,  Central,  and  South 

The  arrival  of  Bishop  Hurst  and  his  family  in  America 
in  September  was  soon  followed  by  a  most  hearty  and  suc- 
cessful public  reception  at  Buffalo  in  the  auditorium  and  par- 
if  the  Delaware  Avenue  Church.  Presiding  Elder  Albert 
X.  Fisher  presided.  Dr.  W.  S.  Studley,  of  Lockport,  offered 
prayer,  Dr.  John  B.  Wentworth  spoke  in  behalf  of  the  min- 
isters, and  Mr.  F.  H.  Root  spoke  for  the  laity.  Greetings  were 
read  also  from  the  preachers  and  laymen  of  Rochester.  The 
church  was  thronged  with  people  not  only  from  the  city,  but 
from  many  of  the  adjoining  towns  in  Western  New  York. 
Bishop  Hurst  replied  informally  but  heartily  to  these  various 
kindly  expressions  of  regard,  thanking  all  for  the  pleasing 
warmth  of  his  reception.  He  felt  for  the  first  time  that  he 
lived  here,  though  he  had  lately  been  giving  his  residence 
as  Buffalo. 

He  rounds  out  1885  with  three  Conferences:  Genesee  at 
Lima.  Xew  York  (his  new  home  Conference),  the  Holston 
at  Johnson  City,  Tennessee,  and  the  East  Tennessee  at  Knox- 
ville.  A  line  jotted  down  by  the  wrriter  at  Lima  on  October 
1  was:  "Bishop  Hurst  presides  easily."  At  the  Educational 
Anniversary  in  College  Hall  (of  old  Genesee  College)  he  spoke 
and  neatly  opened  the  way  for  a  generous  subscription  in 
behalf  of  the  Genesee  Wesleyan  Seminary.  On  Sunday 
besides  preaching  he  spoke  with  his  usual  effectiveness  at 
two  missionary  anniversaries.  On  his  way  to  Tennessee  he 
takes  in  a  brief  visit  to  Cambridge,  Maryland,  where  he  revives 
y  memories : 

To  Mrs.  Hurst.  October  11: 

The  pastor  met  me  at  the  boat,  and  invited  me  to  preach,  which 

U/lfriA  cyw? 




Death  of  Blanche  269 

I  did.  The  church  is  greatly  improved,  and  is  handsome.  A  fine 
congregation  present.  Leader  of  the  choir  was  an  old  schoolmate; 
another  sat  in  the  front  seat ;  another,  when  I  was  only  nine  years 
old,  and  attended  school  in  the  woods,  was  present.  We  had  fought 
many  a  time.  One  fine-looking  but  very  aged  lady  told  me  this : 
She  nursed  me  when  I  was  sick  and  in  infancy.  One  night  I  was 
supposed  to  be  dead,  and  gave  no  sign  of  life.  My  father  and  mother 
thought  I  was  dead,  took  leave  of  me,  and  went  upstairs.  About 
midnight  I  roused  up,  and  called  for  water.  My  father  and  mother 
came  rushing  downstairs.  The  old  lady  said,  "  I  reckon  you  never 
saw  a  prouder  set  in  your  life."  To  make  the  story  more  remarkable. 
her  mother  nursed  my  mother  in  her  final  illness. 

October  12. — I  saw  the  old  house  where  I  used  to  leave  my  horse 
when  I  first  rode  '*  into  town  "  to  school. 

On  his  way  from  the  Holston  to  the  East  Tennessee  he 
writes  to  Paul : 

Morristown,  October  20. — Three  Presidents  were  from  Tennessee 
— Jackson,  Polk,  and  Johnson.  Johnson  was  a  tailor,  from  Green- 
ville, and  his  sign  is  still  over  the  little  shop  where  he  used  to  sit 
cross-legged,  and  sew  clothes. 

Returning  from  Philadelphia,  he  finishes  settling  in  the  new 
home  at  the  recently  purchased  episcopal  residence,  455  Frank- 
lin Street,  preaches  to  the  Germans  of  Mortimer  Street  Church 
in  his  facile  and  happy  use  of  their  language,  and  addresses  the 
District  Conference,  November  24,  on  the  New  South.  Here, 
just  as  the  family  were  rejoicing  to  find  the  quiet  harbor 
after  eighteen  months  of  travel  and  broken  plans,  a  new,  yet 
not  unknown,  and  sore  sorrow  broke  upon  his  home  and  heart 
in  the  sudden  illness  and  death  of  the  sweet  and  loving  Blanche 
from  diphtheria.  For  ten  days  they  battled  bravely  and  pa- 
tiently, and,  from  the  nature  of  the  disease,  well-nigh  alone. 
On  December  7  her  gentle  spirit  took  its  flight  to  the  bosom 
of  her  Saviour,  leaving  her  father  and  mother,  twice-stricken, 
with  empty  arms.  After  a  very  private  funeral  on  the  10th. 
conducted  by  Drs.   Iglehart,  J.   E.   Smith,   and   Fisher,  her 

John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

precious  dust  was  deposited  in  beautiful  Forest  Lawn.  While 
bowing  in  humble  and  hopeful  resignation  both  Bishop  and 
.Mrs.  Hurst  felt  most  keenly  the  loss  of  the  child  who  even 
beyond  her  years  took  a  knowing  interest  in  the  affairs  of  the 
home,  and  by  her  natural  trend  to  domesticity  had  become. 
though  "iily  in  her  twelfth  year,  in  no  small  measure  the 
helpful  adviser  and  close  companion  of  her  mother.  Mrs. 
Hurst  never  fully  recovered  her  buoyancy  of  spirit,  and  there- 
after her  interest  in  the  labors,  cares,  and  joys  of  life  with  her 
loved  ones  and  numerous  friends  on  earth  seemed  divided 
with  a  longing  for  the  coming  joys  of  reunion  with  those 
gone  before.    Of  his  own  sorrows  Bishop  Hurst  once  wrote: 

The  most  unpleasant  element  in  the  most  of  my  severe  disciplines 
i>  that  each  stands  largely  alone,  and  there  cannot,  in  most  instances, 

iie  an  opportunity  when  the  special  wisdom  learned  from  the  dark 
experience  can  ever  be  applied  again. 

Xot  thus  was  it  in  this  repeated  sorrow-  of  a  lovely  daughter 
taken  from  his  side.     For  he  wrote  again: 

What  are  our  griefs  but  wishes?  Every  tear  of  sorrow  is  the 
language  to  a  desire  that  the  case  were  otherwise.  Folly  indescribable ! 
If  my  two  daughters  were  living  within  a  block  of  me  in  all  joy  and 
comfort,  every  hour  a  song  and  every  year  a  chain  of  delights, 
c-ould  T  wish  them  to  come  into  my  cold  and  dreary  hut.  where  the 
le  is  scanty  and  the  language  that  of  toil  and  pain?  No,  not  for 
a  moment.  My  happiness  would  be  to  know  their  happiness.  Neither 
rnn  I  wish  them  back  upon  the  earth.  Their  mansions  are  the  homes 
inscrutable — fair,  suited  to  their  taste,  prepared  for  them  by  the 
Hand  which  never  makes  an  unloving  stroke. 

ing  under  engagement  to  speak  at  a  mass  meeting  in 
Xew  York  in  the  interests  of  the  effort  to  raise  a  million  dollars 
i  year  for  missions,  he  sought  release  in  this  note  of  mingled 
ef  and  faith  to  Secretary  McCabe: 

December  T4. — The  great  sorrow  which  has  fallen  upon  my  home 
will  prevent  my  participating  in  the  missionary  meeting  at  the  Acad- 

Missionary  Address  in  New  York  271 

emv  of  Music  on  the  evening  of  the  17th.  I  had  made  all  my  prepara- 
tions, but  if  I  were  with  you  I  could  not,  with  my  present  terrible 
burden,  do  justice  to  you,  or  the  occasion,  or  myself.  My  bleeding 
heart  would  be  more  in  the  immediate  past,  I  fear,  than  in  the  future. 
My  duty,  just  now,  is  with  my  stricken  family.  Having  seen  our 
work  in  Europe  and  India  the  last,  I  should  have  been  glad  to  give 
what  picture  I  could  of  our  great  field.  I  sympathize  fully  with  the 
effort  for  the  million.  It  is  as  certain  as  the  rising  sun.  No  better 
or  more  sure  battle  cry  has  been  heard  upon  our  front  line. 

But  in  response  to  repeated  and  urgent  invitations  he  finally 
consented  to  go  to  this  sixty-fifth  anniversary  of  the  Mis- 
sionary Society  and,  smothering  his  sorrow  as  best  he  could, 
took  his  part  in  the  prepared  programme.  Bishop  Harris 
presided,  Dr.  William  Butler  offered  prayer,  Dr.  John  M. 
Reid,  General  Clinton  B.  Fisk,  and  Dr.  James  M.  Buckley 
all  spoke  in  characteristic  vein.     Dr.  O.  H.  Warren  says : 

All  the  addresses  were  interesting  and  impressive,  while  that  of 
Bishop  Hurst  is  especially  commended,  not  only  for  its  character, 
but  its  adaptation  to  the  needs  of  the  hour. 

With  what  vivid  and  heart-capturing  pictures  did  he  show 
the  obligation  to  missionary  effort  growing  out  of  interna- 
tional kinship !     Here  is  one : 

If  any  should  say  that  there  is  no  parental  bond  uniting  us  with 
India,  it  may  be  replied  that  long  before  the  civilization  of  Greece 
and  Rome,  or  even  before  Pelasgic  times,  the  Teutonic  family  was 
on  the  high  table-lands  of  Asia.  When  William  Butler  was  in  India 
he  was  an  Aryan  boy  carrying  the  gospel  to  the  old  home.  If  Paul 
could  say,  "  I  am  debtor  to  the  Jew  and  the  Greek,"  much  more  may 
the  American  say  he  is  debtor  to  each  of  the  lands  whence  his 
national  life  is  drawn.    We  are  only  visiting  our  Aryan  relatives  there. 

The  writer  was  at  this  time  pastor  of  the  Colden.  Boston, 
and  West  Falls  Circuit  on  Buffalo  District.  Bishop  Hurst 
spent  a  part  of  March  6,  7,  and  8,  1886,  with  him.  preaching 
and  conducting  the  communion  service  at  Boston  on  Sunday 

John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

morning  in  the  Baptist  church,  which  was  opened  for  us,  to 
accommodate  the  large  congregation,  more  than  filling  the 
modest  Methodist  church.  The  Baptist  brethren  were  present 
and  communed  with  us — in  spirit — in  their  own  house  of 
worship,  really  in  the  Lord's  house.  In  the  evening  he  gave 
an  inspiring  address  on  missions  in  the  Colden  church.  This 
service  he  rendered  to  the  hard-worked  presiding  elder,  A.  N. 
Fisher,  in  lieu  of  the  same  promised  three  months  before  just 
at  the  time  of  dear  Blanche's  fatal  illness.  It  lingers  a  pleasant 
memory  of  the  people. 

His  official  duties  called  him  in  the  spring  of  1886  to  the 
presidency  of  the  New  Jersey  Conference  at  Bridgeton  (at 
the  close  of  which  he  visited  his  sister  in  her  final  illness  and 
was  with  her  at  her  death,  on  March  18,  at  Cambridge),  the 
East  German  and  the  Xew  York  both  in  New  York,  and  the 
Vermont  at  Chelsea.  The  session  of  the  New  York  Con- 
ference was  one  to  test  his  powers,  his  patience,  and  his  judg- 
ment to  the  utmost.  Three  trials  of  preachers  were  a  part 
of  the  severe  ordeal.    Dr.  A.  K.  Sanford  writes: 

By  the  skill  and  prudence  which  characterized  his  presidency  he 
carried  the  Conference  wisely  and  safely  through  the  storm. 

While  attending  the  semiannual  meeting  of  the  Bishops  in 
Minneapolis,  in  May.  1886,  he  dedicated  the  Central  German 
Church.     G.  E.  Hiller.  their  pastor,  says: 

<  )n  Sunday  morning  he  arrived  very  early  before  the  opening  of 
our  Sunday  school,  which  took  place  at  nine  o'clock.  He  first  went 
to  the  Norwegian  Sunday  school,  two  blocks  away,  and  made  an 
address  in  Norwegian,  then  he  went  to  our  Thirteenth  Avenue  Church 
(  one  block  away)  and  spoke  in  English,  and  at  10:30  he  preached  the 

licatory  sermon  of  our  church,  in  German.  He  spoke  with  remark- 
able correctness  and  fluency. 

While  traveling  through  Ohio  he  writes  on  train,  Monday, 

July  26,  to  Mrs.  I Turst: 

Our  "  Methodist  Melanchthon  '  -73 

Saturday  evening  went  to  a  lecture  in  Mount  Union  College,  by 
Mr.  McKinley,  Congressman,  on  Civil  Service. 

Ocean  Grove  was  among  the  places  he  visited  in  x\ugust, 
and  his  sermon  there  on  the  18th,  on  "Christ  the  Liberator," 
made  a  profound  impression.  The  reporter  for  the  Philadel- 
phia Inquirer  says : 

For  correctness  and  beauty  of  style,  for  scientific  accuracy  in 
delineation  and  argument,  for  adherence  to  the  rules  of  rhetorical 
address,  for  elegance  of  diction  and  classical  taste,  for  close  observ- 
ance of  the  principles  of  scriptural  exegesis,  the  sermon  evoked  great 
attention,  and  was  closed  with  a  most  fervent  appeal  to  the  people 
to  accept  Christ  as  their  liberator  from  the  bondage  of  sin. 

His  fall  Conferences,  1886,  called  him  to  the  Detroit  at 
Adrian,  the  Michigan  at  Kalamazoo,  then,  after  the  General 
Committees,  during  which  he  took  time  to  make  the  dedicatory 
address  of  the  New  Hall  of  Theology  at  Boston  University 
on  November  10,  his  theme  being  the  "Theology  of  the  Twen- 
tieth Century,"  away  to  the  Texas  group:  Austin  at  Dallas, 
Southern  German  at  Perry,  Texas  at  Huntsville,  and  the  West 
Texas  at  Victoria.  Of  his  address  at  Boston,  when  Professor 
Buell  introduced  him  as  our  "Methodist  Melanchthon,"  Dr. 
Louis  A.  Banks  says  : 

The  ninety  minutes  sped  by  as  if  they  were  oiled.  Every  listener 
felt  the  inspiration  to  do  grander  work  for  Christ. 

Having  finished  his  work  in  Texas,  he  goes  to  inspect  the 

work  and  preside  over  the  Conference  in   Mexico,   held   at 

Puebla,  in  January,   1887.     The  importance  of  his  Mexican 

tour  justifies  a  separate  treatment  under  another  caption.     His 

return  from  Mexico  was  early  enough  to  permit  him  to  preside 

in  the  spring  at  the  North  Indiana  Conference  at  Marion, 

and  the  Delaware  at  Chestertown,   Maryland,  and  to  assist 

Bishop  Harris  at  Troy  Conference  by  presiding  and  preaching 

274  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

for  him.    He  spent  a  few  days  at  home  in  June,  during  which 
he  writes  on  the  28th  to  Mrs.  Hurst  in  Philadelphia: 

Mail  small;  no  calls.  Flowers  all  watered — pigeons  happy — plenty 
of  light  in  windows — no  flies — plenty  to  eat — Osborn  here — clocks 
wound  up — busy  all  the  time. 

He  served  in  1887  with  Dr.  J.  M.  Buckley  and  General 
Clinton  B.  Fisk  as  a  committee  of  correspondence  with  the 
pastor  of  City  Road,  Wesley  Chapel,  London,  on  the  design 
fi  »r  the  memorial  window  to  Bishop  Simpson.  In  a  letter  of 
August  4  to  C.  C.  McCabe  he  said : 

The  saloon  will  be  as  complete  an  antiquity  as  a  slave  block  or 
the  fuming  laboratory  of  a  mediaeval  adept  in  the  Black  Art. 

His  service  as  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Education  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church  began  in  December,  1886,  when 
he  was  chosen  to  fill  the  vacancy  caused  by  Bishop  Harris's 
death,  and  continued  to  his  life's  end. 


Official  Tour  in  Mexico 

After  completing  at  Victoria  his  presidency  of  the  four 
nferences  in  Texas,  and  having  been  joined  by  Mrs.  Hurst. 
Helen,  and  Paul,  he  traveled  easily  and  reached  Mexico  city 
on  New  Year's  morning.  1887.  For  the  first  time  in  its  his- 
tory the  annual  session  of  the  Conference  was  held  outside 
of  the  capital,  this  year  at  Puebla.  in  the  school  building  of 
the  Woman's  Foreign  Missionary  Society.  He  devoted  about 
two  months  to  visiting  the  more  important  places — nearly  two 
weeks  before  and  about  six  weeks  after  the  five  days  at  Puebla. 
Besides  several  days  of  inspection,  preaching,  and  reconnoiter- 

On  the  Mountains  of  Mexico  275 

ing  in  the  city  of  Mexico,  he  made  an  excursion  to  several 
places  in  the  state  of  Hidalgo.  Of  the  ride  from  Pachuca 
to  El  Chico  he  says  : 

One  after  another  the  horses  came  in  from  the  street  and  sauntered 
about  the  patio.  Once  on  the  upper  hills,  the  great  valley  stretches 
out  about  us.  We  are  climbing  up  the  mountains  beyond  Pachuca, 
which  is  8,150  feet  above  the  level  of  the  gulf.  Here  are  mines, 
and  mines  and  mines  again — no  less  than  150  in  this  neighborhood  in 
activity.  One  mine  out  of  twenty-five  pays  expenses.  The  rest  are 
successful  only  in  raising  expectations.  The  conclusion  is,  "  Keep 
out  of  them  all." 

But  our  horses  have  struck  the  cobble  stones  of  the  old  town  of 
El  Chico.  Dr.  Rule,  an  English  gentleman,  has  presented  to  our 
church  a  new  edifice,  which  cost  eighteen  hundred  dollars,  and  I  am 
to  dedicate  it  to-night.  He  comes  out  to  bid  us  welcome  and  stands 
at  the  gateway  of  his  hacienda.  Our  horses  file  into  his  large  court 
and  are  evidently  glad  to  get  rid  of  their  riders.  Faithful  they  have 
been,  for  not  one  has  fallen  with  his  rider.  The  four  hours  have 
been  a  short  bit  of  Mexican  enchantment.  On  our  return  from  El 
Chico  to  Pachuca  we  made  a  side  excursion  bv  wagron  from  Velasco 
to  Regla  Hacienda  and  back  by  way  of  the  famous  mines  of  Real 
del  Monte. 

Dr.  S.  P.  Craver  says  of  his  supervision  of  the  Conference 
at  Puebla : 

The  routine  business  was  dispatched  with  rapidity,  the  Bishop 
having  acquired  such  acquaintance  with  the  Spanish  language  that 
he  understood  a  large  part  of  the  discussions  and  motions  without 
interpreting.  The  Mexican  brethren  were  surprised  and  pleased  to 
hear  him  read  the  Scripture  and  the  prayer  of  consecration  in  the 
celebration  of  the  Lord's  Supper  in  their  own  language.  Some  of 
the  brethren  were  surprised  to  find  what  a  grasp  he  had  upon  the 
situation,  the  conditions  and  needs  of  the  work,  and  of  special  phases 
of  it,  since  he  appeared  to  have  given  little  or  no  attention  to  those 
aspects  of  it  when  he  had  been  spoken  to  about  them.  He  would 
go  out  for  a  walk  with  some  brother  who  desired  to  lay  before  him  a 
case,  and  would  listen  with  apparently  little  concern,  but  would  be 
sure  to  find  his  way  to  some  old  bookstall  and  pick  up  some  odd 
volume  which  seemed  to  attract  his  attention  more  than  the  particular 
subject-matter  in  hand.     But  the  next  day  he  would  ask  a  question 

j-,,  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

that  showed  he  had  not  lost  a  word  of  what  had  been  told  him,  and 
that  he  had  pondered  the  whole  case  carefully.  He  showed  great 
interest  in  any  literary  work  the  missionaries  might  be  doing,  and 
stimulated  them  to  make  good  use  of  the  pen,  laying  special  stress 
upon  the  broader  influence  they  could  thereby  wield. 

Alter  the  Conference  was  over  he  made  a  trip  to  the  work  in 

(  )rizaba  and  Cordova  on  the  Vera  Crnz  Railway,  and  another 

«m  horseback  into  the  mountain  region  of  Puebla.    At  Xochia- 

pulco   he  dedicated   another   new  church.     Of  this  trip   and 

•.cation  he  says: 

My  riding,  of  some  weeks  before,  to  the  Regla  Hacienda  had  been 
on  a  Mexican  saddle,  and  I  never  want  anything  better,  for  a  fixed 
condition.  You  get  twisted,  and  braced,  and  curved,  and  involved, 
and  then  packed  far  down  into  your  rawhide  compress,  and  after 
three  or  four  hours  the  thing  becomes  a  part  of  you,  and  then  it  is 
ier  to  stay  there  the  rest  of  the  day  than  to  get  out.  The  machine 
never  turns.  A  girth,  which  makes  it  easier  for  a  horse  to  turn 
a  somersault  without  itself  moving  an  inch,  is  an  outcome  of  a  long 
and  combined  Toltec,  Aztec,  and  Spanish  civilization.  Whatever 
goes  wrong  with  one  here  in  Mexico,  he  must  be  sure  of  two  things 
—a  perfect  girth  for  his  saddle  and  a  revolver.  With  one  day's 
exception.  I  have  had  no  revolver.  A  trusty  weapon  was  offered  me. 
witli  the  belt  full  of  bristling  cartridges;  but  the  machinery  would 
not  fit  me,  and  I  handed  it  back.  So  my  whole  defensive  outfit  has 
been  only  a  pocketknife,  a  bunch  of  keys,  and  a  pocketful  of  small 

Range  after  range  we  crossed.  Up  and  down  and  along  great 
barrancas  lay  our  bridle  path.     Often  it  was  a  mere  narrow  groove, 

'->ped  out  of  precipitous  mountain  sides.  Now  and  then  we  reached 
a  lofty  point,  where  new  teeth  of  the  Sierras,  or  combs,  came  into  view. 
In  two  hours  we  arrived  at  a  crest  where  great  Orizaba,  with  its 
beautiful  hood  of  everlasting  snow,  stood  before  us,  as  if  to  say,  "  I 
am  more  than  a  picture."  By  and  by  we  came  in  sight  of  Xochia- 
pulco,  perched  on  a  hilltop.  For  miles  we  saw  the  tower  of  our 
beautiful  new  church,  the  highest  object  in  the  old  Aztec  town.  Flags, 
rinp  the  Mexican  colors  of  red,  white,  and  green,  fluttered  from 
both  the  outer  and  inner  walls  of  the  church.  The  floor  was  covered 
with  a  carpet  of  pine  spires,  gathered  from  the  surrounding  groves. 
The   aroma    from   them   was   sweeter   than   any   incense  which   ever 

Embraced  by  Indians  277 

arose  from  a  silver  censer  in  silvery  Mexico.  The  town  bell  rang 
out  glad  peals,  which  reverberated  along  the  mountain  sides  and  down 
the  far-reaching  barrancas. 

The  people  were  Indians,  descendants  of  the  very  Aztecs  whom 
Cortez  found  here  three  centuries  and  a  half  ago,  and  whose  off- 
spring has  occupied  these  mountains  ever  since.  The  old  Aztec 
tongue,  which  in  literature  is  commonly  called  here  Lengua  Mejicana, 
is  the  language  of  the  home  and  of  business.  Many  understand 
Spanish,  but  the  most  do  not,  and  all  prefer  to  use  the  dear  old 
speech  of  Montezuma's  day,  when  no  Cortez  had  caught  sight  of  the 
sandy  dunes  where  Vera  Cruz  now  stands. 

My  address  was  interpreted  from  English  into  Spanish  by  the 
Rev.  Dr.  Greenman.  But  how  could  we  get  the  Spanish  into  Aztec? 
We  had  taken  with  us  from  Tetela  the  Rev.  Mr.  Aguilar,  who  is  part 
Aztec  himself,  and  knows  the  language;  but  he  knows  no  English, 
though  a  good  Spanish  scholar.  He,  therefore,  translated  the  Spanish 
interpretation  into  Aztec,  and  so  the  audience  had  in  their  own 
language  all  that  was  said.  It  was  a  strange  scene — three  men  stand- 
ing on  a  platform,  and  filtering  a  dedicatory  address  from  English 
into  Aztec  !  There  were  mothers  in  the  audience,  having  their  small 
children  with  them.  Some  of  these  little  bronze  creatures  had  been 
brought  for  baptism,  but  were  impatient;  and  it  was  the  strongest 
piece  of  public  competition  on  which  I  ever  entered  when  I  endeav- 
ored to  raise  my  voice  to  a  key  higher  than  the  combined  voices  of 
twenty  juvenile  Aztecs.  The  dedicatory  address  lasted  just  thirty 
minutes ;  that  is,  ten  minutes  each  for  the  three  languages.  I  baptized 
ten  of  the  children. 

After  the  close  of  the  services  I  was  informed  that  it  was  now 
in  order  to  receive  the  salutations  of  the  audience.  Ignorance  was 
my  misfortune.  An  Aztec  salutation  is  a  most  absorbing  and  con- 
suming process,  but  a  high  art.  The  chief  men  of  Xochiapulco  came 
up  first,  each  one  embracing  me,  letting  the  hands  meet,  and  patting 
me  on  the  back.  Of  course,  it  was  my  duty  to  do  the  same  thing. 
After  the  embrace,  there  came  a  grasp  of  hands.  My  inexperience 
made  me  a  little  awkward  at  first,  but  by  the  time  I  reached  the  fifth 
or  sixth  Indian  the  process  became  easier.  But  when  I  had  gone 
through  about  fifteen  such  embraces,  and  the  audience  moving  for- 
ward seemed  about  as  large  as  at  the  beginning,  I  saw  only  utter 
defeat  in  view,  and  finally  escaped  by  getting  out  of  the  church, 
leaving  my  two  companions  to  make  amends  for  my  want  of  farther 

As  the  sun  gilded  the  hills  stretching  far  out  from  Xochiapulco, 

j-X  I  mi  in   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

we  took  a  walk  to  the  old  graveyard  of  the  place.  On  returning  to  our 
lodgings  we  rolled  ourselves  up  in  our  wraps  and  lay  down  to  a 
perfect  night's  rest.  Our  next  day's  ride  was  through  the  ancient 
town  of  Xacapoaxtla  to  Mazapa,  a  distance  of  forty  miles,  where 
we  spent  the  night  with  our  familiar  saddles,  bridles,  and  blankets 
piled  up  about  us. 

Vgain  returning  to  Mexico,  after  a  few  days  he  took  his 
third  extended  trip,  this  time  through  the  western  district, 
having  in  the  meanwhile  dedicated  a  third  chapel  to  Christian 
worship  in  Ixtaculco,  a  small  Indian  village  near  Mexico  city, 
and  made  a  two  days'  visit  to  the  flourishing  work  at  Mira- 

Another  mountain  excursion  of  two  brisk  hours  on  horse- 
back takes  him  to  Amecameca,  at  the  base  of  Popocatepetl, 
where  are  the  shrines  of  Saint  Helena  and  others  of  the  Monte 

His  trip  to  the  northern  part  of  the  field  embraced  an  all- 
night's  journey  from  Mexico  to  Leon;  thence  to  Guanajuato, 
where  a  day  was  spent  in  sight-seeing,  and  the  Sabbath  in 
addressing  two  large  congregations  and  the  Sunday  school: 
thence  to  Salamanca;  the  next  day  to  Cortazar;  then  in  the 
evening,  a  dark  and  somewhat  risky  coach  ride  to  the  night 
train  for  Queretaro.  where  he  arrived  at  midnight.  The  next 
day  was  spent  in  visiting  the  historical  spots  in  this  historic 
city,  followed  by  preaching  again  in  the  evening  to  an  inter- 
ested congregation  as  he  had  at  the  four  places  just  named. 
He  took  the  midnight  train  for  the  capital,  where,  on  the 
Sabbath  following,  he  preached  his  farewell  sermon  in  Mexico, 
and  on  Monday  night  was  off  with  his  family  for  the  north. 

Hunting  Prairie  Chickens  279 

1887-S8. — Ten    Conferences   in   Seven    States,   West,   East,    and   Sooth.— 

Leaving  Buffalo 

His  official  travels  in  the  fall  of  1887  were  to  the  Saint 
Louis  German  at  Warrenton,  Missouri,  North  Nebraska  at 
Fremont,  West  Nebraska  at  Broken  Bow,  the  Nebraska  at 
Lincoln,  Pittsburg  at  New  Brighton,  Pennsylvania,  and  Cen- 
tral New  York  at  Elmira.  After  adjournment  at  Fremont 
he  hastened  to  Omaha,  where  he  writes  Mrs.  Hurst,  Septem- 
ber 13: 

Last  night  we  had  a  union  meeting  and  took  $18,000  subscription 
for  a  new  church. 

Of  his  presidency  at  West  Nebraska  Dr.  P.  C.  Johnson  says : 

Marked  by  a  careful,  easy,  courteous  manner.  His  bearing  was 
modest,  kind — nothing  obtrusive  or  excessive.  Without  losing  for  a 
moment  the  dignity  of  his  place,  office,  or  person,  he  was  easy  and 
brotherly.     He  could  be  firm,  even  commanding. 

Here  is  a  bit  of  newspaper  comment  in  Lincoln,  Nebraska : 

Bishop  Hurst  is  dignified  and  learned,  but  happy,  natural,  and 
companionable.  He  enjoys  the  little  asides  that  keep  men  young. 
Monday  at  Broken  Bow  he  engaged  in  a  chicken  hunt — not  failing, 
either,  in  practical  results. 

In  many  churches  he  gave  addresses  on  Mexico,  illuminating 
and  stimulating  to  missionary  zeal  and  gifts.  One  of  these 
was  in  Summerfield  Church,  Brooklyn,  on  November  7,  while 
the  General  Committees  were  in  session.  "The  Estrangement 
of  the  Masses  from  the  Church"  was  the  subject  of  his  able 
and  useful  address  before  the  General  Christian  Conference 
held  by  the  Evangelical  Alliance  in  Washington,  D.  C,  in 
December,  1887.  The  anniversary  of  sweet  Blanche's  decease 
did  not  pass  without  messages  to  the  lonely  one  in  Buffalo : 

jSo  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Washington,  December  6. 

To  Mrs.  Hurst: 

You  will  receive  this  on  the  7th.  My  heart  will  be  with  you  all 
the  time. 

December  7. — I  think  much  of  our  dear  Blanche.  Let  us  be  watch- 
ful and  patient  and  we  shall  see  her,  and  dear,  sweet  Clara,  in  the 
heaven  above  and  beyond. 

On  December  15  he  read  a  liturgical  form  prepared  by  him- 
self especially  for  the  occasion  at  the  dedication  of  the  Meth- 
odist Episcopal  Hospital  in  Brooklyn.  It  was  printed  in  The 
Christian  Advocate  of  the  following  week.  On  introducing 
him  to  the  assembly  Dr.  Buckley,  the  President  of  the  Board 
of  Trustees,  said : 

Years  ago  I  was  an  inmate  of  a  hospital  midway  between  London 
and  Constantinople,  one  of  the  best  in  the  world,  but  its  manage- 
ment was  utterly  devoid  of  sympathy  with  Christianity.  During  those 
five  weeks  I  did  not  once  hear  the  name  of  Jesus  spoken  by  those 
about  me,  and  no  minister's  hand  was  extended  to  me  in  Christian 
brotherhood  beneath  that  roof,  except  the  hand  of  Bishop  Hurst, 
who  happened  to  visit  me  wmile  there.  You  can  understand,  there- 
fore, the  satisfaction  which  I  felt  when  the  committee  selected  him  to 
perform  the  dedicatory  service  of  an  institution  which  will  carry  in 
one  hand  medicine  for  the  body,  and  in  the  other  the  Balm  of  Gilead 
for  the  soul. 

From  San  Gabriel,  California,  came  to  him  from  Dr.  Abel 
Stevens  these  strong  words  of  appreciation  and  cheer  as  the 
.Yew  Year  broke: 

Mrs.  Stevens  wishes  me  to  beg  you  and  their  mother  to  kiss  the 
little  folks  of  the  household  for  us.  We  fell  in  love  with  them  at 
Geneva,  and  often  talk  about  them  here,  in  the  ends  of  the  world. 
'  ."d  bless  them  and  the  good  mother  who  is  so  worthy  of  such  blessed 
maternity.  God  bless  you  also,  my  dear  old  friend,  and  spare  you 
long  for  his  people ! 

The  South  Carolina  at  Charleston,  the  Virginia  at  Berry- 
ville.  the  Baltimore  at  First  Church,  Baltimore,  and  the  Phila- 

Opening  Gates  for  Preachers  281 

delphia  at  Twelfth  Street  Church,  Philadelphia,  were  his  Con- 
ferences for  the  first  half  of  1888.  Prior  to  the  session  in 
Charleston  he  fulfilled  a  long-cherished  desire  to  visit  Savan- 
nah and  vicinity.    He  writes  Mrs.  Hurst: 

Near  Washington,  on  way  to  Savannah,  January  26. — In  the  night 
I  woke,  and  had  some  good  aphorisms  come  to  me,  and  I  wrote  them 

And  Helen,  Savannah,  January  31 : 

Savannah  is  a  most  curious  place.  There  are  many  little  squares, 
and  very  old  little  buildings  and  walls  which  date  from  Colonial  times. 
There  is  a  fine  monument  to  Pulaski  (read  him  up).  I  spent  yes- 
terday in  visiting  old  and  new  Ebenezer — where  the  Salzburgers 
had  their  home  in  America.  Some  of  their  descendants  are  still  here, 
and  one  of  them  drove  me  across  the  country  and  back — a  distance  of 
30  miles.  Whitefield  and  Wesley  both  visited  their  home.  You 
find  Wesley's  Works,  and  in  his  Journal  you  will  see,  early  in  first 
volume,  his  account  of  his  visit  to  the  Salzburgers.  Read  it  up — 
examine  you  when  I  come  home !     See  if  I  don't. 

At  the  South  Carolina  Conference,  J.  B.  Middleton  says : 

He  referred  to  the  session  of  the  first  Methodist  Conference  held 
in  this  city  just  101  years  before,  and  briefly  compared  the  numerical 
and  spiritual  strength  of  Methodism  of  that  time  with  the  present 
day.  The  address  did  not  consist  in  mere  statistical  forms  or  rhetori- 
cal flourishes ;  but  rather  in  a  scholarly  presentation  of  important 
truths  in  such  a  way  that  the  most  untutored  mind  could  grasp  and 
hold  the  great  central  thought — the  advancement  of  the  Redeemer's 
kingdom  and  the  ultimate  triumph  of  the  Cross. 

When  he  opened  the  Baltimore  Conference  he  said  with 
great  feeling : 

I  thank  God  for  the  brotherhood  of  Methodist  ministers.  I  remem- 
ber down  on  Eastern  Shore,  where  I  was  born,  that  my  highest 
honor  in  boyhood  was  to  open  the  gates  for  the  preacher  who  came 
to  visit  our  home.  I  have  been  trying  to  open  gates  for  the  preachers 
ever  since.  I  am  only  too  thankful  when  I  can  help  a  minister  into 
a  better  place. 

John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Dr.  W.  S.  Edwards  says: 

In  council  and  in  the  chair  he  was  careful  and  courteous,  dignified 
without  stiffness,  and  kind  without  running  over  with  gush. 

Of  his  work  at  Philadelphia,  Dr.  W.  L.  McDowell  writes: 

The  Conference  was  delightfully  impressed  with  his  geniality  and 
brotherliness.  His  addresses  to  the  classes  for  admission  into  full 
membership  and  his  sermons  were  characterized  by  clearness,  thought- 
fulness,  scholarliness,  and  spirituality. 

The  tender  memory  of  his  mother  thus  mingled  with  an 
assuring  message  to  his  wife  sent  from  New  York  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  General  Conference  of  1888: 

May  3. — This  is  one  of  the  few  anniversaries  I  can  remember — 
the  day  of  my  mother's  death.  I  sometimes  think  she  is  looking 
on  me,  and  her  good  spirit  is  with  me. 

In  the  new  adjustment  of  episcopal  residences  at  the  close 
of  the  General  Conference,  he  chose  Washington,  succeeding 
Bishop  Andrews,  who  went  to  New  York,  and  being  followed 
at  Buffalo  by  Bishop  Vincent.  The  people  of  Buffalo  sig- 
nalized his  departure  by  giving  him  and  his  family  a  farewell 
reception  at  the  Delaware  Avenue  parsonage.  One  of  the  most 
pleasing  and  fitting  features  of  this  occasion  was  the  reading 
by  Benjamin  Copeland  of  his  parting  tribute: 

Farewell,  beloved  Bishop  Hurst, 
In  scholarship  and  kindness,  first! 
The  saintly  name  befits  him  well, 
On  whom  the  Madeley  mantle  fell. 
A  bishop?    Yes;  and  more, — a  man  ! 
Magnanimous  in  deed  and  plan, 
A  Brother  of  the  Common  Life, 
A  chieftain  in  Thought's  sternest  strife. 
With  every  noble  cause  allied, 
Niagara's  flood,  Potomac's  tide 
Shall  tell  unto  the  utmost  sea 
His  seerlike  faith  and  chivalry. 

Leaving  Buffalo  283 

God  grant  that  many  years  be  given, 

Ere  Bishop  Hurst  goes  home  to  heaven. 

Watch  over  him  by  day  and  night, 

Ye  angels,  excellent  in  might ! 

But  when  the  church  laments  him,  dead, 

This  to  his  praise  shall  then  be  said : 

Close  to  the  weak  he  ever  stood ; 

In  goodness,  great; — in  greatness,  good. 

The  value  of  these  appreciative  lines  to  Bishop  and  Mrs. 
Hurst  may  be  inferred  from  his  letter  of  July  20,  from  Cottage 
City,  to  Mr.  Copeland : 

I  wish  the  subject  were  worthier — but  if  he  strives  to  become 
more  worthy  of  the  tribute,  that  may  be  one  end  gained.  Kind  words 
generally  come  too  late,  but  such  as  have  come  to  me  have  done 
me  more  good  than  harm. 

Mrs.  Hurst  wrote  Mr.  Copeland  from  Washington,  April 
26,  1889: 

Your  beautiful  lines  on  Bishop  Hurst  are  still  ringing  in  my  ears 
— "  Niagara's  flood — Potomac's  tide." 

Many  will  be  glad  that  the  exhortation  which  Bishop  Hurst 
sent  from  Shelter  Island  in  July,  1889,  to  the  author  of  these 
verses  has  been  obeyed:  "Keep  on  touching  the  harp."  His 
uniform  helpfulness  to  the  preachers  and  churches  of  Buffalo 
whenever  he  could  aid  has  been  expressed  by  Thomas  Cardus 
as  "his  unvarying  kindness  and  the  urbanity  of  manner  with 
which  he  received  my  requests  for  his  presence  and  services 
sometimes  rendered  at  the  cost  of  self-sacrifice."  Dr.  (now 
Bishop)  James  W.  Bashford  says : 

During  my  two  years'  pastorate  at  the  Delaware  Avenue  Church, 
Mrs.  Hurst  was  a  constant  attendant  at  the  services,  and  at  the 
prayer  meetings,  and  Bishop  Hurst  was  a  regular  attendant  at  the 
church  when  he  was  not  engaged  elsewhere  in  episcopal  duties.  I 
yet  marvel  at  the  appreciation  with  which  he  listened  to  my  preach- 
ing.    I  shall  never  be  able  to  express  his  helpfulness  to  me  in  those 

284  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

early  days.  Nor  shall  I  ever  forget  the  courtesy  with  which  he 
always  received  me  and  his  kindness  in  coming  often  to  the  par- 
sonage  and  inviting  me  to  walk  with  him  in  the  afternoon.  We  had 
many  delightful  walks  together,  in  which  we  discussed  many  prob- 
lem-- of  church  and  state.  He  was  unusually  full  of  information 
gleaned  from  the  best  books  in  theology  and  ecclesiology.  I  often  said 
to  him,  after  one  of  these  walks,  that  I  thought  he  ought  to  write 
more,  because  he  seemed  to  me  to  have  a  message  for  the  church 
which  he  had  not  fully  expressed. 

His  Busy  Pen  285 

The  Author 

Books  of  Two  Quadrcnniums 

His  literary  instinct  and  habit,  which  had  not  surrendered 
to  the  pressure  of  executive  labors  and  administrative  cares  at 
Drew,  not  only  survived  amid  the  jostling  of  two  prolonged 
removals  of  his  family,  his  household  effects,  and  his  library, 
with  all  the  interruptions  incident  to  a  proper  adjustment  to 
the  new  social  environment,  but  took  on  new  forms  of  pro- 
ductiveness as  his  new  office,  with  its  extensive  travel  and  in- 
numerable contacts  with  men,  brought  him  to  the  practical 
survey  of  new  fields ;  yet  still  clung  tenaciously  to  the  themes 
and  departments  of  theological  study  which  had  earlier  won 
a  firm  place  in  his  thought  and  purpose.  The  stream  of  his 
numerous  contributions  over  his  own  name  to  the  periodical 
press,  by  no  means  confined  to  those  of  his  own  denomination, 
seemed  to  broaden  with  the  ever-widening  circles  of  his  jour- 
neys to  and  fro  in  the  earth  and  became  the  living  nerves  for 
the  transmission  of  inspiring  information  to  the  church  from 
the  points  of  its  impact  upon  the  world,  while  the  volume  of 
his  anonymous  writing  which  for  years  had  been  flowing  into 
the  editorial  columns  of  The  Christian  Advocate  and  a  few 
other  journals,  both  religious  and  secular,  continued  with  but 
slight  if  any  diminution. 

A  brief  survey  of  his  books  and  pamphlets,  issued  during 
the  first  two  quadrenniums  of  his  episcopal  residence  at  Des 
Moines  and  Buffalo,  brings  to  our  view  an  interesting  group. 

Bibliotheca  Theologica,  a  Bibliography  of  Theology  and 
General  Religious  Literature,  was  published  by  Scribners  in 

286  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

[883.  This  book,  like  several  others  of  his  writing,  appeared 
m  a  form  which  was  the  resultant  of  an  original  and  broad 
purpose,  in  this  case  dating  as  early  as  1867,  during  his  resi- 
dence in  Bremen,  to  make  a  general  thesaurus,  but  later  modi- 
tied  to  bring  it  into  a  more  compact  compass  more  suited  to 
the  actual  needs  of  preachers  and  theological  students.  Of  his 
first  scheme  he  says: 

The  titles  of  foreign  books  multiplied  rapidly  and  my  interest  in 
the  undertaking  steadily  increased.  But  the  material  became  unwieldy 
and,  after  two  years  of  such  labor  as  could  be  bestowed  upon  it,  the 
completion  seemed  farther  in  the  future  than  at  the  outset.  I 
reached  a  point  where  it  seemed  best  to  sacrifice  a  cherished  plan 
to  a  public  want. 

The  book  was  prepared  in  "mere  fragments  of  time"  saved 
"during  the  stress  and  pressure  of  graver  duties;  somewhat," 
he  says,  "after  the  fashion  of  that  choice  piece  of  work, 
Bethune's  edition  of  good  Izaak  Walton's  Complete  Angler, 
of  which,  when  completed,  the  editor  said:  'I  have  lost  no 
time  by  it,  for  it  was  the  occupation  of  moments  when  others 
would  have  been  looking  out  of  the  windows.'  In  the  com- 
pilation of  titles  and  other  ways  he  was  aided  successively  in 
the  progress  of  the  work,  in  Germany  by  John  P.  Jackson ; 
at  Madison  by  the  writer,  by  George  B.  Smyth,  and  by  George 
J.  Coombes ;  and  at  Des  Moines  by  J.  C.  W.  Coxe.  The  book 
contains  about  5,300  titles,  giving  size,  pages,  publishers,  date 
and  place  of  publication,  with  an  index  each  of  authors  and 
subjects,  on  431  clear  open  octavo  pages.  It  formed  the  basis 
of  his  later  and  larger  work  entitled  Literature  of  Theology. 

Theological  Encyclopaedia  and  Methodology,  a  joint  product 
with  Dr.  George  R.  Crooks,  came  from  the  press  of  the 
Methodist  Book  Concern  in  1884,  being  the  third  in  the  series 
of  the  Biblical  and  Theological  Library  to  appear,  though  it 
was  the  second  on  which  the  printing  was  begun.     This  work 

The  Sword  of  Christ  287 

was  on  the  general  plan  of  Professor  Hagenbach,  of  Basel, 
but  many  modifications  and  adaptations  to  English  students 
were  introduced.  Of  this  pioneer  volume  in  English  Professor 
Philip  Schaff,  of  the  Union  Theological  Seminary,  said:  "It 
is  the  only  book  in  the  English  language,  so  far,  which  answers 
the  purpose."  Professor  H.  M.  Scott,  of  Chicago  Theological 
Seminary,  says:  "The  valuable  and  indispensable  book  of 
Hagenbach  is  not  merely  given  us  in  American  dress,  but  the 
additions  and  adaptations  make  it  well-nigh  an  independent 
authority."  The  revised  edition  was  issued  in  1894,  the  work 
of  revision  having  been  performed  chiefly  by  Dr.  Crooks.  This 
portly  octavo  of  596  pages  has  been  and  is  a  suggestive  and 
safe  guide  to  hundreds  desiring  to  investigate  special  fields  of 
religious  philosophy,  history,  and  doctrine. 

The  Gospel  a  Combative  Force,  a  sermon,  was  published  by 
Phillips  &  Hunt  in  a  pamphlet  of  24  pages  in  1884,  at  the 
request  of  the  New  York  East  Conference  of  that  year.  The 
resolution  of  that  body  characterizes  the  discourse  as  "one  of 
great  spiritual  advantage  as  well  as  ability."  This  sermon,  too, 
was  a  growth.  In  its  first  form  it  was  preached  at  his  second 
pastoral  charge.  Passaic,  on  June  26,  1859.  ^  became  a 
favorite  with  him,  and  he  preached  it  at  intervals  to  the  last 
with  increasing  pleasure  to  himself  and  profit  to  his  hearers. 
A  few  sentences  from  its  shining  pages  reveal  the  sword  of 
Christ : 

You  fail  to  find  any  analogy  to  the  young  and  valiant  Christianity 
as  it  stood  before  the  world,  in  the  presence  of  Judaism  and  paganism, 
the  sworn  foes  of  every  step  of  its  advance.  With  unblanched  cheek 
and  steady  eye  and  drawn  sword  it  went  from  one  field  of  victory 
to  another,  making  no  compromise  with  any  faith  that  sued  for  its 
valorous  friendship,  conquering  the  old  lands  for  its  new  gospel, 
stripping  the  venerable  temples  of  their  dying  faiths,  releasing  the 
prisoner  and  the  slave,  filling  the  very  archway  of  the  firmament  with 
its   songs   of  triumph,   occupying  the   Roman   throne  by  a   natural 

John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

gravitation,  threading  the  deserts,  climbing  the  mountains,  pene- 
trating the  savage  northern  forests,  building  its  churches,  rearing 
happy  homes,  establishing  schools,  and  constructing  a  civilization  new 
to  the  world. 

hi  1S84,  too,  was  issued  from  the  press  of  Harper's  his 
Short  History  of  the  Reformation,  the  first  of  a  series  of 
five  terse,  pithy  sketches  of  leading  characters,  principles,  and 
events  in  the  progress  and  development  of  Christianity  as  seen 
in  the  church.  Of  this  Professor  George  P.  Fisher,  of  Yale 
University,  wrote: 

Let  me  express  to  you  my  admiration  of  your  little  book  on  The 
Reformation,  which  I  have  just  looked  through.  It  is  verily  "  multum 
in  parvo."  You  have  succeeded  in  condensing,  without  crowding, 
a  mass  of  matter  which,  were  the  order  less  lucid  and  the  style  less 
perspicuous,  it  would  be  impossible  to  bring  into  so  brief  a  compass. 
I  congratulate  you  on  your  remarkable  success. 

This  praise  was  equally  due  the  other  four  of  the  series. 
which  were  a  Short  History  of  the  Early  Church  (1886), 
a  Short  History  of  the  Mediaeval  Church  (1887),  a  Short 
History  of  the  Modern  Church  in  Europe,  and,  by  a  little  antic- 
ipation of  what  saw  the  light  after  he  came  to  Washington, 
a  Short  History  of  the  Church  in  the  United  States.  These 
popular  little  volumes  of  about  130  pages  each  were  taken 
up  by  the  Chautauqua  Literary  and  Scientific  Circles,  and  have 
had  a  combined  circulation  of  over  145,000  copies.  Nearly  if 
not  quite  all  of  the  manuscript  of  the  Modern  Church  in 
Kurope  was  prepared  by  him  from  notes  carried  on  his  journey 
while  he  was  in  Texas  in  December,  1886.  It  was  the  writer's 
privilege  in  this  case,  as  in  many  others,  to  prepare  copy  for 
the  printer  from  the  author's  original  draft  in  pencil,  received 
in  installments  by  mail  from  San  Antonio  and  other  Texan 
cities  and  towns.  Together  this  series  constitute  a  link  in  the 
'ling   chain    of   church    histories   between    the    Outline 

Articles  on  Mexico  -^9 

(1875),   and   the    Short   History   of   the   Christian   Church 

For  his  fellow  Eastern-Shoreman  and  collegian  friend,  Dr. 

R.  W.  Todd,  he  wrote  an  introduction  to  that  fine  specimen 
of  local  church  history,  Methodism  of  the  Peninsula  (Phila- 
delphia, 1886).  In  the  same  year  (1886)  he  published  in 
pamphlet  form  The  Success  of  the  Gospel  and  the  Failure  of 
the  Xew  Theologies  (Ketcham,  New  York). 

While  on  his  Mexican  tour  and  immediately  thereafter  he 
wrote  a  series  of  articles  on  the  literary  and  educational  phases 
of  life  in  Mexico  which  together  would  constitute  a  valuable 
volume.  They  cover  such  themes  as:  Mexican  Literature 
before  the  Spanish  Conquest,  Religious  Orders  of  New  Spain, 
Literary  Spirit  of  the  Religious  Orders,  First  Printers  of  New 
Spain,  First  Books  of  the  Mexican  Press,  The  Earlier  Schools, 
Literature  during  the  Spanish  Domination,  Elegiac  and  Gen- 
eral Poets,  Lyric  and  Dramatic  Poets,  Literary  Groups  of 
Mexico,  Scientific  Societies,  Scientific  Scholars  of  Mexico, 
Periodical  Literature,  Paradise  of  the  Portales,  Search  for 
Americana,  and  Present  Trend  of  Mexican  Thought,  all  of 
which  soon  appeared  in  the  Independent. 

His  pamphlet,  The  Theology  of  the  Twentieth  Century, 
published  in  New  York,  1887,  by  the  Missionary  Society  of 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  was  his  address  given  at  the 
dedication  of  the  new  Hall  of  Theology  of  Boston  University, 
November  10,  1886.  Its  34  pages  gleam  and  glow  with  beauty 
of  sentiment  and  strength  of  statement,  and  furnish  a  fine 
example  of  a  progressive  scholarship  firmly  linked  with  evan- 
gelical fervor  in  the  propagation  of  religious  truth  and  life. 

2go  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  Bishop 

1868-90. — At  Washington. — General   Conference   in   New   York. — Fourteen 
Conferences  in  Eight  States,  Northwest,  East,  Central,  and  Sooth 

Bishop  Hurst  presided  at  three  sessions  of  the  General  Con- 
ference of  1888  in  New  York  city,  at  the  Metropolitan  Opera 
House — those  of  May  5,  18,  and  29,  and  on  the  latter  date 
joined  with  Bishop  Ninde  and  the  Rev.  William  Griffin  and 
J.  F.  Marshall  in  the  laying  on  of  hands  at  the  consecration 
of  Bishop-elect  John  P.  Newman.  On  the  8th  he  made  a 
memorable  address  on  the  Colonization  of  the  Slave  at  the 
anniversary  of  the  Freedmen's  Aid  Society.  When  the  ques- 
tion of  electing  a  Bishop  for  Europe  was  before  the  body, 
delegate  Achard  from  Germany  requested  and  was  granted 
the  privilege  of  speaking  in  German  and  having  Bishop  Hurst 
interpret.  A  report  of  this  incident  was  made  to  the  Univer- 
sal ist  Church  organ,  the  Christian  Leader,  in  the  following- 
racy  paragraph : 

A  delegate  replied,  "  Speak  in  English,  we  want  to  understand  you." 
The  witty  Dr.  Buckley  was  on  his  feet  and  with  mock  indignation 
said,  "  I  ohject  to  the  imputation  that  the  members  of  this  Conference 
can't  understand  the  German  language."  The  German  was  an  orator 
and  spoke  with  eloquence.  He  would  utter  five  or  six  sentences,  and 
with  the  greatest  fluency  and  clearness  the  Bishop  repeated  them  in 
English,  repeating  the  emphasis,  inflections,  almost  the  intonations, 
of  the  speaker.  At  the  last  the  German  forgot  the  Bishop  and  spoke 
nt  least  twenty  sentences,  only  stopping  when  the  increasing  laughter 
of  the  assembly  at  the  hard  task  he  was  imposing  on  the  Bishop 
reminded  him.  A  faint  smile  crept  over  the  Bishop's  face  as  the 
sentences  went  on,  but  when  they  stopped,  without  a  flaw  or  break  he 
repeated  in  English  the  German's  extended  peroration.  It  was  a 
marvelous  piece  of  work.     To  have  repeated  an  English  address  in 

In  Touch  with  the  Preachers  291 

this  manner  would  have  been  a  hard  task,  but  to  carry  the  thought 
and  at  the  same  time  make  translation  into  another  tongue  was  an 
intellectual  feat.  That  is  the  kind  of  bishops  this  breezy  church  is 
willing  to  have  over  it.  We  wouldn't  object  to  having  such  in  our 
own  church. 

During  the  greater  part  of  his  first  year  in  Washington 
Bishop  Hurst  and  his  family  had  rooms  at  the  Riggs  House. 
His  fall  Conferences  in  1888  were  the  Norwegian  and  Danish 
at  Saint  Paul,  North  German  at  Sleepy  Eye,  Minnesota,  Min- 
nesota at  Winona,  and  the  North  Dakota  at  Jamestown.  After 
completing  this  round  he  is  in  Martha's  Vineyard  with  Mrs. 
Hurst,  who  on  October  28  writes  Helen,  already  at  school  in 
Washington : 

;  I  wish  you  could  peep  in  and  see  how  happy  we  are  since  papa 
returned,  and  hear  him  tell  of  his  traveling  experiences.  He  stopped 
over  one  night  in  Buffalo  to  look  after  the  little  stone  at  Forest  Lawn. 
He  stayed  at  Mr.  Root's,  and  made  no  other  calls  except  on  business. 

On  February  17,  1889,  as  was  his  frequent  custom  of  visit- 
ing churches  unannounced,  he  greatly  surprised  and  delighted 
the  preacher  and  people  at  Ryland  Church  by  coming  through 
the  rain  and  preaching  to  them  on  "Faith  a  Victor."  His  goods 
and  books  (about  8,000  volumes),  which  had  been  in  storage 
in  Buffalo  since  midsummer  of  1888.  were  shipped  to  Wash- 
ington March  21,  1889,  filling  two  cars  and  part  of  a  third, 
and  were  again  put  in  storage  in  Washington  until  he  could 
secure  a  house.  The  spring  of  1889  brought  him  three  Con- 
ferences :  New  England  Southern  at  Taunton,  Massachusetts. 
Maine  at  Lewiston,  and  East  Maine  at  Dexter.  Dr.  S.  O. 
Benton  writes  concerning  the  session  at  Taunton  : 

On  the  afternoons  of  two  or  three  days  of  the  Conference  session 
he  came  to  the  lecture  room  of  the  church  and  mingled  freely  with 
the  brethren  socially.  This  gave  them  an  opportunity  for  a  personal 
acquaintance  with  the  presiding  Bishop  such  as  is  rarely  accorded  to 

2Q2  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

the  members  of  an  Annual  Conference.    This  fraternal  act  of  his  was 
commented  upon  by  the  brethren  with  very  great  pleasure. 

Dr.  D.  A.  Jordan  says : 

He  impressed  the  Conference  by  the  ease  with  which  he  carried 
the  responsibilities  of  his  position.  I  recall  his  great  familiarity  with 
and  his  deep  interest  in  the  Swedish  work,  which  was  just  then 
beginning  to  develop  with  us  in  that  Conference. 

Of  the  session  in  Dexter,  I.  H.  \Y.  Wharff  says: 

His  power  to  measure  men  was  almost  wonderful.  He  was  exceed- 
ingly interested  in  the  temperance  work  in  Maine,  and  did  not  hesitate 
to  say  and  do  all  in  his  power  to  aid  this  work.  He  changed  the 
number  of  districts  from  four  to  three.  One  presiding  elder  was 
going  out,  and  I  urged  him  to  continue  the  man  on  the  fourth  district 
on  the  new  one  that  was  to  be  made  out  of  the  fourth  and  parts  of 
another.  He  replied  in  that  easy  way  of  his,  "  Wharff,  I  would  do 
it  in  a  minute  if  I  thought  his  health  was  equal  to  it." 

While  at  the  East  Maine  Conference  he  sends  this  note  of 

confession  and  comfort  to  Mrs.  Hurst,  April  30 : 

I  forgot  all  about  the  anniversary  of  our  marriage  until  I  reached 
here,  and  received  your  welcome  letter.  Thirty  years  !  How  much 
happiness  we  have  had !  I  am  trying  to  forget  our  two  great  sorrows, 
because  they  are  so  happy.  So  I  think  only  of  the  joys  past,  and  to 

He  makes  a  trip  to  the  Ohio  Wesleyan  University,  in  May, 
1889,  and  writes  Mrs.  Hurst,  from  Delaware,  May  20: 

At  8  this  a.  m.  I  lectured  on  "  Recollections  of  German  University 
Life  "  to  a  great  body  of  students. 

His   fall   assignments   were  four   Conferences:   Northwest 

Indiana  at  Brazil,  Central  German  at  Toledo,  Ohio,  Central 

Ohio  at  Upper  Sandusky,  and  East  Ohio  at  Massillon.     Dr. 

W.  H.  Hickman  says  of  the  first : 

We  were  grappling  with  that  difficult  problem  of  how  to  get  rid 
of  a  man  without  a  trial  and  scandal,  dealing  justly  and  mercifully 

"  To  Know  was  to  Love  Him  "  293 

with  the  man,  and  at  the  same  time  protecting  the  church.  After 
one  of  those  troubled  sessions  he  asked  me  to  walk  with  him.  The 
saloon  question  had  come  into  politics  more  than  ever.  The  Bishop 
was  such  an  enemy  to  the  saloon,  with  its  corrupting  influences  in 
civic  affairs,  that  he  had  put  himself  squarely  on  the  prohibition  of 
the  licensed  system.  I  was  surprised  at  his  broad  information  on 
political  affairs,  at  home  and  abroad;  and  my  heart  was  moved  as 
I  listened  to  his  burning  words  in  denouncing  the  liquor  traffic  and 
the  subserviency  of  public  servants  to  this  evil. 

Samuel  Beck  also  says : 

The  beautiful  simplicity  in  the  spirit  and  character  of  his  work 
favorably  impressed  the  members  and  presiding  elders  of  the  Confer- 
ence. Any  member  of  the  Conference  could  approach  him  without 
embarrassment.  He  left  the  work  of  the  Cabinet  largely  with  the 
presiding  elders,  and  as  a  rule  he  would  approve  their  recommenda- 
tions. When  issues  were  raised  he  would  get  all  the  information  he 
could  and  then  decide  them  with  firmness.  To  know  Bishop  Hurst 
was  to  love  him. 

To  Mrs.  Hurst  he  wrote  from  Brazil,  September  9 : 

I  am  surprised,  indeed,  that  my  little  poem  (Our  Immortals  at 
Fourscore)  was  ever  accepted,  and  the  more  that  it  could  have  been 
published  last  week,  as  I  only  copied  it  off  and  mailed  it  from  the 
Hoyts'.  I  am  delighted  that  you  like  it;  that  pleases  me  more  than 
the  admiration  of  all  others. 

Charles  W.  Taneyhill,  of  Central  Ohio  Conference,  says: 

Bishop  Hurst  always  looked  out  for  the  interests  of  the  church. 
Ministers,  though  presiding  elders,  were  instruments,  but  the  church 
of  Jesus  Christ  was  all  in  all  to  him.  The  Johnlike  spirit  pervaded 

Dr.  Leroy  A.  Belt  adds : 

At  the  birthplace  of  missions,  by  the  graves  of  Stewart,  the  black 
man,  the  first  missionary  to  the  Wyandottes,  and  of  early  missionaries, 
their  wives  and  children,  and  also  of  the  converted  chiefs  and  warriors, 
Red  Eyed  Fox,  Mononcue,  Between  the  Logs,  and  many  others, 
Hurst  was  at  home,  at  once  evincing  the  fact  by  recitations  of  history. 

294  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

He  made  one  of  the  best  speeches  ever  heard  here,  and  I  have  heard 
many,  particularly   Simpson. 

Dr.  W.  H.  Rider  writes: 

At  the  Massillon  Conference  his  work  was  critical.  He  heard 
all  representations  with  a  brother's  heart,  and  did  his  work  with 
cool  determination,  without  a  word  or  act  to  be  regretted,  and  with 
tenderness  and  love.  His  sermon  was  a  great  masterpiece  fitted  for 
an  assembly  of  the  profoundest  scholars  and  the  humblest  Christians. 
It  was  simply  the  gospel  for  all.  His  presidency  was  not  marked 
with  too  apparent  ideas  of  parliamentary  dignity  or  judicial  exactness. 
His  Conferences  were  not  court  rooms,  but  families,  and  he  was  not 
conscious  of  prerogative,  but  of  a  fatherly  relation  to  every  one.  So 
little  technicalities  were  brushed  out  of  the  way  for  real  interests. 
I  remember  one  occasion,  when  Moses  Hill  was  speaking  to  some 
question,  he  recognized  that  he  had  run  against  some  minor  barrier 
of  a  legal  nature.  In  the  midst  of  his  discomfiture  he  turned  to  the 
Bishop  and  said,  "  It  would  be  all  right,  Bishop,  if  you  would  only 
give  it  a  twist."  The  Bishop  gave  it  "  the  twist,"  and  "  the  motion 

After  securing  a  home  in  the  fall  of  1889,  and  settling  his 
family,  November  1,  in  the  house  formerly  occupied  by  Gen- 
eral Logan,  at  4  Iowa  Circle,  the  early  weeks  of  January,  1890, 
find  him  in  the  South  again,  this  time  presiding  over  the 
Savannah  Conference  at  Augusta,  the  Georgia  at  Mount  Zion. 
and  the  Alabama  at  Xew  Decatur.  Of  the  work  at  Mount 
Zion  R.  H.  Robb  says : 

He  saw  what  in  his  judgment  would  greatly  strengthen  the  work 
for  the  next  vear  and  did  it  although  it  offended  some. 


This  beautiful  message  of  appreciation  came  to  him  in  early 
February  from  President  (later  Bishop)  James  \Y.  Bashford, 
of  Ohio  Wesleyan  University : 

I  am  receiving  daily  fresh  demonstrations  of  your  wisdom  and 
foresight  in  urging  me  to  come  here.  Your  words  when  you  visited 
Buffalo  a  year  ago  last  fall  led  to  the  decision.  Your  judgment  was 
better  than  my  own.     I  love  the  Delaware  Avenue  people  and  had  a 

His  "Clear,  Strong  Judgment"  j.^^ 

delightful  pastorate  with  them.  But  I  sometimes  think  that  I  can 
do  more  good  here  in  a  week  than  I  accomplished  there  in  a  year. 
I  seem  to  be  standing  at  a  great  fountain  of  life  directing  streams 
to  every  part  of  the  world.  Many  come  to  converse  with  me  daily. 
I  insist  upon  the  New  Testament  standard  of  consecrated  Christian 
manhood  or  womanhood  in  every  case,  and  then  leave  the  Holy  Spirit 
to  make  plain  his  call  to  the  ministry  or  to  mission  work.  I  have 
felt  like  thus  thanking  you  for  your  clear,  strong  judgment.  Accept 
the  words  of  my  heart. 

On  February  7  the  first  of  a  series  of  parlor  meetings,  in- 
cluding one  each  at  Mrs.  Henry  W.  Blair's  and  Postmaster- 
General  Wanamaker's,  was  held  in  the  parlors  of  Mrs.  Hurst, 
and  Miss  Jane  Bancroft  spoke  in  the  interest  of  organizing 
the  Lucy  Webb  Hayes  Training  School.  There  was  a  large 
company  present,  and  the  one  gentleman  who  was  there  beside 
Bishop  Hurst  was  Air.  William  J.  Sibley,  who  gave  one  hun- 
dred dollars  toward  the  establishment  of  the  school.  Mrs. 
Jane  Bancroft  Robinson  says : 

At  this  meeting  Mr.  Sibley  became  interested  in  the  subject  of  dea- 
coness hospitals,  and  later  built  for  us  at  a  cost  of  $10,000  the  small 
building,  later  enlarged,  of  our  present  flourishing  hospital.  Mrs. 
Hurst  was  particularly  sympathetic  in  the  efforts  that  were  making 
at  that  time,  and  Bishop  Hurst  presided  at  a  number  of  meetings 
at  different  churches  where  I  spoke. 

This  busy,  anxious  winter  was  the  time  of  his  successful 
canvass  of  Washington  for  funds  to  purchase  the  ninety  acres 
constituting  the  site  of  the  American  University.  Alas !  to  this 
burden  of  care  was  soon  to  be  added  the  greater  one  of  grief. 
She  who  had  for  the  thirty-five  years  since  their  hearts  met  in 
the  heart  of  the  Catskills  been  an  inspiration  and  solace  to  him 
in  all  his  work — a  helpmeet  indeed — quietly  fell  into  her  last 
sleep  on  March  14,  and  he  was  as  never  before  alone. 

2o6  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 


The  Husband  in  Grief 

Death  of  Catherine  E.  Hurst 

Catherine  Elizabeth  La  Monte,  one  of  three  daughters  of 
Dr.  William  and  Anna  (Vroman)  La  Monte,  was  born  in 
Charlotteville,  Schoharie  County,  New  York,  October  28, 
1836.  She  had  one  brother,  Wellington  La  Monte.  On  her 
father's  side  she  was  of  Huguenot  descent,  and  on  her  mother's 
side  was  related  to  the  Van  Rensselaers  of  New  York.  Wil- 
liam La  Monte  was  a  man  of  much  energy,  of  high  ideals 
in  his  profession  of  medicine,  in  his  business  methods  and 
standards,  and  in  his  civic  relations.  He  enjoyed  the  respect 
and  confidence  of  his  fellow  citizens  in  a  high  degree  and  by 
their  choice  represented  them  in  the  State  Legislature. 

Catherine,  or,  as  she  was  more  frequently  and  popularly 
called,  Kate,  spent  her  girlhood  and  received  her  education  in 
Charlotteville,  where  in  her  seventeenth  year  she  graduated, 
September  28,  1853,  from  the  New  York  Conference  Seminary, 
in  a  class  of  eighteen.  Alonzo  Flack  was  then  at  the  head  of 
this  school.  The  theme  of  her  graduating  essay  was,  "Why 
Are  We  Here?"  an  indication  in  itself  of  the  serious  and  ethical 
quality  of  her  nature.  Miss  Angeline  Ensign,  who  became  the 
wife  of  Bishop  John  P.  Newman,  was  one  of  her  schoolmates 
and  intimate  friends,  and  under  God's  blessing  was  largely 
instrumental  in  her  conversion  during  their  united  school  days. 
Mrs.  Newman  says: 

To  picture  her  personal  beauty  and  intelligent  charms  would  be  no 
easy  task.  She  never  failed  to  excite  my  admiration  for  her  spright- 
liness  and  genius.  She  was  a  natural  born  linguist.  We  have  laughed 
together  over  our  first  efforts  in  art,  particularly  in  our  class  in  oil 

Mrs.  Hurst's  Tastes  and  Works  297 

painting,  but  it  was  our  dear  Kate  who  bore  off  the  palm.  She  was 
the  acknowledged  charm  of  the  family  circle,  as  the  La  Montes  were 
the  pride  of  the  village  and  a  tower  of  strength  to  the  seminary. 

Kate's  services  in  instruction  were  at  times,  even  before,  and 
more  after,  her  graduation,  brought  into  requisition  in  this 
school  where  her  father's  interest  had  become  a  paramount  one. 
Astronomy  and  botany  were  the  branches  she  conducted  in 
1856-57.  As  we  have  already  seen,  a  kind  Providence  guided 
her  in  the  autumn  of  1854  to  her  new  position  as  teacher  of 
the  "ornamental  branches"  in  Hedding  Literary  Institute,  at 
Ashland,  where  the  threads  of  her  life  in  the  loom  of  mutual 
love  were  beautifully  interwoven  with  those  of  John  Fletcher 

Amid  all  her  ceaseless  activities  in  creating  and  guarding 
the  precious  interests  of  the  home,  which  was  within  the  thirty 
years  of  their  married  life  domiciled  in  no  less  than  eleven 
different  houses — one  each  in  Passaic,  Elizabethport,  Eliza- 
beth, West  New  Brighton,  Bremen,  Frankfort,  two  in  Mad- 
ison, one  in  Des  Moines,  Buffalo,  and  Washington,  besides 
the  frequent  and  prolonged  tarryings  of  the  family  in  hotels 
and  other  temporary  quarters — her  pen,  her  pencil,  and  her 
brush  were  always  within  easy  reach  of  her  hand,  which  never 
lost  its  cunning  for  the  literary  and  aesthetic  pursuits  so  loved 
in  her  youth.  Her  water  colors  and  oil  paintings,  especially 
those  of  landscape,  form  a  gallery  of  themselves,  though  many 
of  them  were  widely  scattered  by  her  generous  thoughtfulness 
of  the  pleasure  of  others.  Her  chief  literary  work  was  four 
adaptations  from  the  German,  Good  Women  of  History: 
Anna  Lavater,  a  Picture  of  Swiss  Pastoral  Life  in  the  Past 
Century  (Cincinnati:  1870)  ;  Renata  of  Este,  a  Chapter  from 
the  History  of  the  Reformation  in  France  and  Italy  (New 
York:  1872);  Queen  Louisa  of  Prussia,  or  Goodness  in  a 
Palace  (New  York:  1874)  ;  and  Elizabeth  Christine,  Wife  of 

John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Frederick  the  Great  (New  York:  1880),  all  from  the  church 

She  began  her  work  on  Anna  Lavater  in  the  spring  of 
[868  and  completed  it  in  February,  1869.  Bishop  Janes  said 
of  her  Queen  Louisa:  "I  wish  our  Sunday  school  libraries 
could  have  more  of  such  books.  It  is  a  gem."  Her  Elizabeth 
Christine,  though  based  on  the  German  of  Ziethe,  was  ampli- 
fied and  enriched  by  material  drawn  from  Carlyle  and  other 
si >urces.  While  these  sketches  were  intended  primarily  for 
youthful  readers,  the  clear,  pellucid  stream  of  the  narrative 
attracts  and  holds  the  maturer  mind  by  its  sparkling  beauty 
and  melodious  flow.  On  June  28,  1867,  she  wrote  from 
Bremen  to  her  sister,  Mrs.  Elmore : 

I  try  to  teach  them  (John,  seven  years,  and  Clara,  about  six)  a 
verse  from  the  Bible  every  day,  and  then  they  recite  it  at  prayers 
in  the  evening.  They  can  repeat  the  Apostles'  Creed,  first  psalm, 
twenty-third  psalm,  and  are  now  learning  the  Ten  Commandments — 
know  five  already. 

Of  her  last  days,  Bishop  Hurst  wrote  Carl,  who  was  in 

Europe,  on  March  17,  1890: 

During  January,  when  I  was  in  the  South,  she  had  the  grippe 
severely.  But  when  I  reached  home,  February  first,  she  was  over  it. 
During  that  month  she  was  unusually  well,  but  complaining  much 
of  her  head.  She  was  very  happy,  and  especially  in  view  of  getting 
the  house  in  such  beautiful  order.  She  kept  up  her  calls,  received 
visitors,  attended  church  and  meetings,  and  was  very  happy.  From 
3d  March  to  7th  I  was  in  New  York  (relative  to  University)  and 
when  I  got  home  she  was  very  well.  Then  I  left  again  on  Monday 
Toth  and  got  back  nth.  She  met  me,  and  said:  "I  am  sorry,  Papa, 
T  have  not  been  so  well."  The  next  a.  M.  she  lay  in  bed.  Dr.  Stanton 
came  and  thought  nothing  unusual  or  serious.  He  prescribed.  She 
lay  in  bed  that  day.  Could  not  sleep  much  at  night — old  trouble. 
Xext  day  doctor  came,  she  was  not  any  worse,  and  got  up  in  after- 
noon and  stayed  up  in  evening.  Next  a.  m.  she  was  up  early. 
Doctor  came,  and  she  had  a  pleasant  time,  and  joked  with  the  doctor 
about  the  little  hop  pillow  he  had  prescribed.  She  complained  to 
me  of  her  head,  one  side  paining  her.     But  I  think  she  thought  of 

"  Died  Gently  and  Sweetly  '  299 

nothing  serious.  She  wrote  four  letters  to  friends.  She  took  break- 
fast in  her  room,  and  was  about  the  whole  morning.  In  afternoon 
about  three  she  was  stricken.  Helen  and  I  were  in  the  house  at  the 
time.  She  was  conscious  about  one  half  hour,  but  could  articulate 
but  little.  I  asked  her  if  she  could  trust  the  Saviour,  to  which  she 
replied,  as  best  she  could,  in  the  affirmative.  The  attack  was  apoplexy. 
She  soon  passed  into  a  comatose  condition,  heavy  breathing,  eyes 
closed,  and  died  gently  and  sweetly  at  8  p.  m.  .  .  .  She  was  as  pure 
and  beautiful  a  mother  as  ever  lived.  .  .  .  Let  us  brighten  up,  do  the 
good  work  that  our  dear  Lord  puts  in  our  path,  and  remember  the 
best  is  yet  to  come  to  him  who  is  worthy  of  work  in  the  cause  of 
human  helpfulness. 

Her  son.  John  La  Monte,  was  summoned  by  telegram  from 
Denver,  and  came  immediately.  Her  funeral  services  were  con- 
ducted at  the  residence,  on  Tuesday,  March  18,  by  her  pastor, 
the  Rev.  Dr.  George  H.  Corey,  of  the  Metropolitan  Church, 
who  made  an  address  of  appreciation  on  her  Christian  life,  her 
varied  talents,  and  great  usefulness.  Dr.  Henry  A.  Buttz,  Pres- 
ident of  Drew  Theological  Seminary,  also  spoke  words  of  tender 
sympathy  and  high  commendation  of  the  excellencies  and  vir- 
tues of  the  woman  who  had  successfully  filled  so  many  impor- 
tant stations  in  the  course  of  her  fruitful  life.  Remarks  were 
made  by  Drs.  H.  R.  Naylor,  J.  H.  Dashiell,  and  George  Elli- 
ott, the  pastors  of  other  Methodist  churches  of  Washington. 
Delegations  came  from  Baltimore  and  from  Philadelphia,  and 
many  distinguished  citizens  were  present.  Among  those  who 
were  honored  with  the  privilege  of  bearing  the  sacred  dust 
on  its  way  to  the  tomb  were  Andrew  B.  Duvall,  Elijah  W. 
Halford,  General  S.  S.  Henkle,  Mark  Hoyt.  Hon.  W.  M. 
Springer,  and  Senator  H.  M.  Teller.  The  private  interment 
was  at  the  Rock  Creek  Cemetery,  where  the  remains  of  her 
darling  Blanche  on  removal  from  Forest  Lawn  in  Buffalo  a 
year  later  were  deposited  on  April  9,  1891.  Together  they 
shall  wake  on  the  eternal  morning.  Dr.  James  M.  Buckley  in 
an  editorial  said: 

300  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Her  hospitality  was  unbounded;  pleasing  everywhere,  she  was 
never  more  charming  than  at  her  own  table.  Genuine  Christian 
sympathy  and  interest  in  all  that  made  the  world  better  and  happier 
were  her  chief  religious  characteristics.  If  it  be  true  that  conjugal 
love  increases  with  the  number  and  extent  of  the  vicissitudes  of 
mutual  joy  or  sorrow  through  which  husband  and  wife  may  pass,  then 
must  this  separation  on  its  earthly  side  be  indeed  grievous. 

The  Rev.  J.  W.  Cornelius  said  in  Zion's  Herald: 

By  native  suavity,  keen  discrimination,  thorough  refinement,  easy 
adaptation,  large  literary  acquirements,  true  piety  and  consecration  to 
the  Lord's  work,  she  was  a  helpmeet  indeed  in  any  pastoral,  educa- 
tional, literary,  or  episcopal  service  which  her  distinguished  partner 
in  life  has  filled. 

Dr.  Jesse  Bowman  Young  says: 

In  his  activity  as  a  writer  she  was  from  the  time  of  their  happy 
marriage,  in  1859,  until  her  death,  an  elementary  constituent.  She 
was  a  gentle  and  noble  type  of  womanhood;  she  dispensed  a  generous 
hospitality,  and  yet  found  time  and  method  for  literary  activities  and 

Dr.  Olin  B.  Coit,  of  Northern  New  York  Conference,  writes : 

She  was  his  inspiration,  and  but  for  her  he  would  never  have 
developed  his  great  powers.  She  was  lofty  in  her  ideals,  scholarly 
in  all  her  tastes,  and  her  ambition  for  him  was  unbounded. 

Bishop  Bashford,  who  was  her  pastor  in  Buffalo  in  1887-88, 

says : 

Mrs.  Hurst  was  a  woman  of  beautiful  Christian  spirit  and  rare 
good  judgment.  She  and  her  children  were  always  in  their  accus- 
tomed places  at  public  worship  and  at  the  Sunday  school,  and  proved 
a  real  help  to  the  Christian  life  of  the  church. 

Dr.  Faulkner  says : 

One  of  the  most  noble  and  accomplished  ladies  that  ever  presided 
in  a  Methodist  parsonage.     Her  devotion,  her  sympathy,  her  tact,  her 
ine  accomplishments,  were  ever  laid  on  the  altar  of  her  home. 

"Center  of  a  Loving  Circle"  301 

On  April  7  a  memorial  service  was  held  at  Metropolitan 

Church,  and  on  the  same  day  at  a  similar  service  held  by  the 

Newark  Conference  at  its  annual  session  Dr.   Buttz  read  a 

beautiful   and  touching  tribute  to  her  name  and  character. 

Among  many  precious  words  he  said : 

Here  (at  Drew)  she  was  the  center  of  a  loving  circle,  to  whom 
her  presence  and  companionship  were  always  a  joy.  Her  residence 
there  was  alike  a  gratification  and  a  blessing,  to  their  associates  in 
seminary  life,  to  the  many  students  for  the  ministry  with  whom  she 
was  associated,  and  to  the  whole  community.  She  had  rare  gifts 
in  meeting  and  making  at  home  all  conditions  of  people  with  whom 
she  came  in  contact.  Her  house  was  ever  open,  and  her  greetings 
to  the  many  who  visited  her  home  always  cordial  and  winning. 
The  many  who  met  her  in  her  home  life  will  remember  with  grati- 
tude the  comfort  and  helpfulness  of  her  intercourse,  and  the  largeness 
and  beauty  of  her  hospitality.  The  students  always  found  an  open 
door  and  a  hearty  welcome.  The  pastor  and  the  pastor's  family 
found  in  her  a  true  friend,  and  the  people  of  the  church  recognized 
her  as  associated  with  them  in  the  work  of  the  gospel.  Thus  all  parts 
of  our  community  were  pleasantly  influenced  by  her  spirit,  her  words, 
and  her  kindly  deeds.  While  she  was  there  they  rejoiced  in  the 
sunshine  of  her  presence,  and  now  that  she  has  passed  over  the  river 
they  deeply  mourn  that  she  is  gone,  and  expect  by  God's  grace  to  meet 
her  on  the  other  shore,  where  the  Easter  brightness  shall  never  fade. 

A  few  weeks  after  her  decease  Bishop  Hurst  wrote  to  Dr. 

W.  S.  Edwards,  of  Baltimore: 

My  wife  was  really  a  beautiful  character,  and  I  wonder  at  the 
goodness  of  the  Lord  in  permitting  me  to  have  her  companionship 
for  over  thirty  years. 

In  one  of  his  memorandum  books  he  wrote : 

She  who  was  my  comfort  three  decades  must  still  exist  in  some 
happy  place  and  condition,  for  her  Maker  would  place  her  there. 
Where  she  exists  she  must  be  of  the  same  character  as  when  here, 
only  stronger  and  purer  in  her  present  state.  In  leisure  hours  she 
was  singularly  able  to  make  others  happy,  and  I  know  she  must 
be  contributing  in  some  way  to  the  happiness  of  others.  I  am  com- 
forted that  she  must  now  be  making  others  happy. 

W2  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

To   his  old  and  esteemed   friends,   Dr.   and   Mrs.    Porter, 
Bishop  1  lurst  says: 

She  was  my  instructor.  I  can  see  nothing  which  has  proved  to  he 
a  success  in  which  I  have  had  any  part  in  which  she  was  not  before 
mo  in  faith  and  hope.  Her  last  passion  was  a  National  University 
at  Washington.  There  was  no  decadence  in  her  mental  force.  We 
had  talked  death  all  over  last  summer,  and  she  then  said  that  she 
had  no  fear  of  death.  Her  favorite  work  was  Kempis's  Imitation 
of  Christ,  of  which  she  kept  two  copies  about  her.  Her  favorite 
hymn  was.  "  Lead,  Kindly  Light."  "  One  step  enough  for  me,"  was 
frequently  on  her  lips.  She  was  full  of  joy  and  humor.  She  certainly 
did  not  know  any  pain  in  her  passage  to  her  crown. 

Relieved  by  His  Colleagues  30; 

The  Bishop 

1890-91. — Two  Trips  Across  the  Atlantic. — Three  Conferences   in  Maryland 
and  New  York. — The  Second  Ecumenical  Conference 

At  their  May  meeting  in  New  York  his  colleagues  of  the 
Episcopal  Board  with  thoughtful  considerateness  divided 
among  themselves  the  work  which  would  naturally  have  fallen 
to  him  in  the  autumn  of  1890.  A  double  burden,  the  one  of 
care  and  responsibility  for  the  vast  educational  project  whose 
founding  he  had  undertaken,  and  the  other  of  sorrow  and 
care  over  his  household  broken  by  the  decease  of  his  wife, 
rested  upon  him.  As  a  help  toward  the  development  of  the 
former  and  as  a  partial  diversion  from  the  latter,  he  sailed 
with  Carl,  Helen,  and  Paul  for  Europe  about  the  middle  of 
May.    On  June  17  in  a  letter  to  the  writer  he  says : 

I  have  been  in  London,  with  the  children,  about  three  weeks,  and 
leave  for  Holland  this  week.  I  have  been  studying  the  University  of 
London,  and  hoping  to  use  its  methods  for  our  own  enterprise  in 


After  a  few  weeks  spent  at  Tubingen,  Paris,  and  other 
points  on  the  Continent  he  returned,  August  27,  with  Helen 
and  Paul,  Carl  tarrying  in  London  for  a  little  work  in  the 
British  Museum,  intending  in  a  few  days  to  return  to  his 
studies  in  Tubingen.  His  arrival  in  New  York,  September  5, 
was  saddened  by  a  cable  message  that  Carl  was  sick  in  London 
with  typhoid  fever,  having  been  taken  ill  the  day  after  the 
departure  of  his  father  for  America.  Helen  and  Paul  came 
directly  on  to  Washington,  where  the  house  at  4  Iowa  Circle 
was  again  open,  while  their  father  took  the  first  steamer  Sep- 

jo4  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

tember  6,  and  spent  on  the  ocean  a  most  anxious  week  of 
mingled  hope  and  fear  for  the  recovery  of  Carl.  Just  before 
starting  on  the  Servia  he  writes  from  New  York,  September 
6  to  1  Iclen  : 

Go  on,  you  and  Paul,  to  school  as  usual.  Keep  up  your  spirits. 
( Kid  knows  best.     Have  prayers  together  every  day. 

On  September  15  he  is  by  Carl's  side  in  a  London  hospital, 
where  he  found  the  young  man  near  the  crisis  of  the  fever. 
A  few  days  of  waiting  and  nights  of  watching  were  followed 
by  the  good  news  that  the  danger  was  past.  After  a  month 
of  careful  nursing  father  and  son  board  the  Majestic  and  on 
October  22  land  in  New  York.  On  the  23d  a  joyful  union 
was  that  of  the  four  in  the  Washington  home.  Immediately 
he  prepares  for  the  semiannual  meeting  of  the  Bishops  to  be 
held  for  the  first  time  in  Washington,  beginning  October  30. 

His  assignments  for  the  following  spring  were  three  Con- 
ferences :  East  German  at  Baltimore,  Northern  New  York  at 
Watertown,  and  Troy  at  Johnstown,  New  York.  Of  his  presi- 
dency at  Johnstown  Edwin  Genge  says : 

After  an  evangelistic  sermon  on  Sunday  evening  by  Dr.  Hite, 
Bisbop  Hurst  mingled  with  the  brethren  in  the  altar  urging  the 
unconverted  to  seek  salvation  and  exhorting,  with  much  earnestness, 
to  immediate  surrender  to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ.  To  the  young  men 
of  the  Conference  it  was  an  object  lesson,  commending  the  old-time 
methods  of  the  fathers  with  the  indorsement  of  one  of  our  most 
cultured  and  intellectual  leaders. 

After  meeting  his  colleagues  in  semiannual  session  at  Green- 
castle.  Indiana,  he  returns  about  May  15  to  arrange  for  the 
formal  organization  and  incorporation  of  the  Board  of  Trus- 
tees 1  if  the  American  University,  which  took  place  at  the 
Arlington  Hotel,  on  May  28,  in  the  rooms  once  owned  and 
occupied  as  his  residence  by  Charles  Sumner  at  the  corner 
of     [  Street  and  Vermont  Avenue.     He  was  elected  to  mem- 

Second  Ecumenical  Conference  305 

bership  in  Phi  Beta  Kappa  at  Greencastle  in  1891  and  later 
served  as  Senator,  1895-1901.  He  preached  the  baccalaureate 
sermon  at  Wellesley  College  and  delivered  the  baccalaureate 
address  at  De  Pauw  University  in  June. 

Much  of  his  time  during  the  summer  and  early  fall  was  con- 
sumed in  preparations  for  the  Second  Ecumenical  Methodist 
Conference  to  be  convened  in  October  in  the  Metropolitan 
Church.  His  official  duties,  indeed,  in  connection  with  this 
great  assembly  began  as  early  as  November  20,  1890,  when  he 
met  with  the  various  committees  of  correspondence  of  the 
Ecumenical  Commission  of  the  Western  Section.  Here  he 
was  appointed  a  member  of  the  Executive  Committee,  and  upon 
its  organization  the  same  day  he  was  elected  chairman.  He 
discharged  the  duties  of  that  office  during  its  existence.  He 
was  also  made  chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Programme 
and  Correspondence,  which  entailed  much  care  of  minutiae  and 
adjustment  of  details  before  the  work  was  completed.  He  was 
also  appointed  member  of  a  committee  to  correspond  with 
those  churches  of  the  Western  Section  from  which  no  com- 
munications had  yet  been  received.  On  May  4.  1891,  he  pre- 
sided at  a  meeting  of  the  Executive  Committee  at  Wesley  Hall 
in  Baltimore,  and  again  at  Saratoga,  on  August  5.  He  served 
as  chairman  of  the  local  Committee  on  Entertainment  and  Re- 
ception and  was  also  chosen  chairman  of  the  Business  Com- 
mittee when  the  Ecumenical  Conference  was  organized.  In 
all  these  functions  he  acted  with  wise  efficiency  and  coop- 
erated heartily  with  all  who  were  charged  with  joint  responsi- 
bility in  guiding  the  affairs  of  the  great  body  to  a  successful 
issue.    Dr.  James  M.  King,  secretary  of  the  Conference,  says : 

Bishop  Hurst's  relation  to  the  Second  Ecumenical  Conference  was 
that  of  organizer,  guide,  and  inspirer.  He  had  all  the  facts  and  details 
not  only  in  hand  but  in  heart. 

On  the  afternoon  of  the  first  day  it  became  his  pleasant  duty 

306  Jonx  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

t<  i  give  the  first  address  of  welcome — one  of  the  happiest  efforts 
of  his  life  on  the  platform,  where  he  was  always  strong.  A 
few  of  his  apt  utterances  are  samples  of  the  brilliant  whole: 

Our  common  Methodism,  extending  from  this  church,  which  here 
opens  so  heartily  its  doors  for  your  entertainment,  to  the  farthest 
missionary  chapel  on  the  farthest  island  of  the  farthest  sea,  will  be 
aided  to  a  larger  faith  and  a  more  heroic  endeavor  by  the  work 
which,  through  the  divine  blessing,  shall  be  done  in  the  fortnight 
which  lies  before  us.  No  century  can  ever  come  when  the  welcome 
will  be  more  cordial,  the  presence  more  highly  appreciated,  or  the 
remembrance  more  grateful.  All  the  early  Wesleyan  leaders  knew 
how  to  descrihe  an  odyssey,  but  not  one  could  describe  an  anabasis. 
They  could  wander  widely  in  search  of  souls,  but  never  retreat  to 
the  old  camping  ground.  Victories  beyond  sea  became  a  juvenile  habit. 
( Vvlon,  where  every  prospect  pleases,  has  blossomed  beneath  Meth- 
odist care  ever  since  the  aged,  tireless  Coke  turned  thitherward.  True, 
he  died  on  the  way,  but  the  coral  beds  beneath  a  tropic  sea  became  his 
fit  mausoleum,  while  the  ceaseless  waves  of  the  Indian  Ocean  have 
ever  since  been  chanting  requiems  to  his  memory.  Faith  always 
begins  a  new  march  at  the  last  footprints  of  its  immortal  dead. 

As  he  continued  in  his  warm  greetings  to  the  various  dele- 
gations he  suddenly  broke  out  in  the  mother  tongue  of  the 
Fatherland  as  he  welcomed  the  Germans,  and  then,  after  a 
pause  while  the  audible  thrill  of  pleasure  subsided  into  quiet, 
he  saluted  the  French  delegates  in  their  own  silvery  tongue. 
The  effect  was  a  marvelous  and  beautiful  suggestion  of  the 
spirit  of  Pentecost — of  unity  in  diversity.  At  the  close  of  his 
address  he  and  Dr.  Stephenson  clasped  hands  in  token  of  the 
unity  of  the  Methodisms  of  the  two  hemispheres.  Dr.  Thomas 
O'Hanlon  says : 

The  effect  of  the  address,  especially  of  the  peroration,  on  the  vast 
assemblage  was  profound  and  permanent.  It  was  a  very  great  occa- 
sion, and  Rishop  Hurst  by  the  blessing  of  God  more  than  measured 
up  to  its  great  demands. 

On  the  second  day  he  informed  the  Conference  that  the 

Closing  Ecumenical  Address  307 

presidential  chair  on  the  platform,  constructed  from  beams 
of  the  City  Road  Chapel  at  the  expense  of  a  generous  Wes- 
leyan  Methodist  layman,  was  to  be  used  during  the  Conference 
and  afterward  presented  to  the  American  University.  He  also 
laid  upon  the  desk  for  the  use  of  the  Conference  the  Bible 
from  the  Epworth  Church,  used  by  the  Rev.  Samuel  Wesley, 
this  volume  being  the  property  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  W.  H.  Boole, 
of  Staten  Island.  On  the  fifth  day,  October  12,  he  introduced 
the  members  of  the  Conference  with  the  ladies  accompanying 
them  to  President  and  Mrs.  Harrison,  who  received  them  at 
the  White  House,  and  on  the  tenth  day,  October  17,  largely 
through  his  suggestions  and  arrangement,  President  Harrison 
and  his  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  Hon.  Charles  Foster,  and 
his  Secretary  of  the  Interior,  Hon.  John  W.  Noble,  were  intro- 
duced and  addressed  the  Conference.  The  President  spoke  at 
some  length,  with  his  usual  pertinency  and  intelligence,  on 
International  Arbitration,  the  theme  of  the  hour.  At  the 
closing  session  on  the  afternoon  of  the  twelfth  day,  October 
20,  Dr.  Stephenson  in  speaking  to  the  resolution  of  thanks 
said  of  Bishop  Hurst : 

We  have  all  known  his  character  and  bearing,  but  now  that  we 
have  seen  his  modesty  and  gentleness  and  thoughtful  kindness  we 
have  learned  to  love  him. 

At  this  session  Bishop  Hurst  presided  and  made  the  final 
address,  contributing  greatly  to  heighten  the  lofty  tone  of 
spirituality  which  marked  the  closing  hours.  The  Pacific 
Christian  Advocate  said : 

Bishop  Hurst  delivered  a  very  broad  and  catholic  farewell  address, 
marked  by  tender  pathos  and  deep  solemnity. 

Among  other  words  of  strength  and  light  were  these: 

If  we  ask,  "  What  does  the  Conference  mean  ?  What  is  the  note 
which  it  sends  out  over  land  and  sea?"  we  are  compelled  to  answer, 

io8  Jonx   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

"  Union  and  progress."  No  legislative  function  has  it  possessed,  not 
uigle  law  has  it  thought  of  enacting,  yet  there  are  forces  that  are 
far  beyond  the  law.  There  is  a  power  which  creates  law.  There 
were  lines  of  art,  rigid  and  old,  in  the  times  of  Michelangelo,  but 
when  he  appeared  he  enlarged  the  horizon  of  the  lines  of  art.  After 
he  poised  Saint  Peter's  dome  in  mid-air,  and  released  the  rugged 
"  Moses  "  from  the  shapeless  rock,  and  threw  upon  the  walls  of  the 
Sistine  Chapel  the  figures  of  joy  and  sorrow  which  glow  in  the 
"Last  Judgment,"  there  were  new  revelations  for  the  art  of  the 
future.  So  the  lessons  here  have  been  lessons  for  the  lawmakers  of 
the  future.  When  after  ten  years  we  greet  each  other,  how  delightful 
will  be  the  salutation,  with  these  golden  memories  coming  up  to  aid 
us  in  the  sweet  enchantment!  And  if  we  never  meet  again  here, 
what  matters  it?  All  the  more  glorious  shall  be  the  salvation  when, 
with  robe  and  palm  and  crown,  we  meet  at  the  King's  right  hand, 
and  behold  him  in  his  beauty,  and  go  no  more  out  forever. 


1891-92. — At  Washington. — Nine  Conferences  in  Five  States,  Sooth,  East, 
and  West. — General  Conference  at  Omaha 

Upon  adjournment  of  the  General  Committees  at  Cleveland 
in  November,  189 1,  he  is  off  for  Texas  again,  where  he  held 
the  four  Conferences :  Austin  at  Waco,  Texas  at  Houston. 
Southern  German  at  Seguin,  and  the  West  Texas  at  Victoria. 
The  opportunity  for  frequent  horseback  rides  while  in  Texas, 
especially  at  Waco  and  Seguin,  was  greatly  appreciated  and 
industriously  used  to  his  great  improvement  in  physical  health, 
which  had  been  quite  worn  by  the  strain  of  the  Ecumenical 
Conference  added  to  many  other  exacting  labors.  The  spring 
of  1892  brought  him  to  the  presidency  of  the  New  England 
Conference  at  Boston  and  of  the  New  Hampshire  at  Haverhill. 
Massachusetts,  the  latter  being  the  one  hundredth  in  the  series 
of  his  total  episcopal  career. 


— — 




'  jfl 

B^B>      iJSl 

B^^^       ^ft^k 



i   J 

From  photograph  taken  by  Prince.  1891. 
JOHN    F.    HURST. 

Whittier's  Manuscript  Hymn  309 

The  General  Conference  of  1892  called  him  to  Omaha,  Ne- 
braska, where  was  held  also  the  meeting  of  the  Bishops  a  few 
days  prior  to  its  opening  on  May  2.  He  presided  at  the  morn- 
ing session  on  two  days,  the  16th  and  24th.  On  taking  leave 
of  the  Conference,  Dr.  Albert  Carman,  of  the  Canadian 
Church,  spoke  farewell  words  of  great  tenderness,  which  elic- 
ited a  brief  and  most  fitting  response  from  Bishop  Hurst.  His 
special  burden  at  this  session  of  the  lawmaking  body  of  the 
denomination  was  the  American  University,  which  received 
cordial  though  guarded  commendation  in  the  address  of  the 
Bishops,  written  this  year  and  read  by  Bishop  Foster,  and 
also  by  the  formal  action  of  the  General  Conference.  In  con- 
nection with  the  immense  mass  meeting  held  in  its  interest  on 
the  second  Sunday  of  May,  his  intense  interest  and  labors 
proved  quite  exhausting,  and  in  consequence  he  was  confined 
at  his  rooms  in  the  Paxton  Hotel  for  several  days,  but  rallied 
sufficiently  to  meet  his  duties  in  the  chair.  From  Omaha  he 
makes  a  visit  to  his  son,  John  La  Monte,  at  Denver,  and 
then  goes  to  the  Colorado  Conference  at  Pueblo,  Utah  Mission 
at  Provo,  and  Wyoming  Mission  at  Rock  Springs.  This  view 
of  his  administration  at  Pueblo  is  given  by  C.  A.  Brooks : 

In  the  Cabinet  he  was  very  indulgent;  in  fact,  I  thought  too  much 
so,  as  he  seldom  interfered  with  the  decision  of  the  presiding  elders. 
In  his  judgments  of  the  men  he  was  kind,  but  in  one  or  two  cases 
his  indignation  was  aroused  by  unwarranted  assumption  of  impor- 
tance; but  even  then  he  said  but  little. 

At  the  opening  of  the  session  of  the  Utah  Mission  he  read 
Whittier's  hymn, 

"  It  may  not  be  our  lot  to  wield 
The  sickle  in  the  ripened  field," 

not  from  the  Hymnal,  where  it  is  found.  No.  398.  but  from 
the  manuscript  of  the  author  just  received  in  the  mail  and  sent 

310  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

on  his  own  request  by  the  poet,  who  was  then  within  a  few 
weeks  of  his  own  translation.  J.  D.  Gillilan  says  of  the 
session : 

The  best  in  the  history  of  the  Utah  work.  Bishop  Hurst's  presence 
was  a  benediction. 

Dr.  Daniel  L.  Rader,  who  was  superintendent  of  Wyoming 
Mission,  writes  frankly  as  to  his  work  at  Rock  Springs: 

In  the  spring  of  that  year  (1892)  the  feeling  between  the  farmers 
and  the  cattlemen  reached  the  climax.  From  the  time  the  white 
men  had  gotten  control  of  the  country,  cattlemen  had  undisputed 
sway  in  allowing  their  herds  to  range  over  the  vast  stretch  of  that 
territory,  but  the  farmers  from  Nebraska  and  Kansas  began  in  the 
latter  years  of  the  eighties  to  settle  along  the  water  courses,  to  dig 
ditches,  and  to  cultivate  the  soil.  This  shut  the  herds  away  from  the 
water  and  made  the  ranges  unavailable  in  many  cases,  but  the  settlers 
did  not  cease  to  press  in  and  were  very  aggressive.  In  the  spring  of 
1892  a  body  of  Texas  rangers,  together  with  a  number  of  the  leading 
citizens  of  the  state  of  Wyoming,  heavily  armed,  went  into  the 
northern  part  of  the  state,  and  before  the  civil  authorities  could 
interfere  with  them  had  surrounded  the  cabins  of  two  young  men 
who  had  taken  up  land  along  Powder  River,  killed  the  men  and 
burned  the  cabins;  and  it  was  evidently  their  intention  to  drive  out 
of  that  part  of  the  country  all  the  settlers  who  were  not  interested  in 
the  range  cattle  business.  This  culmination  of  trouble  brought  on 
very  bitter  feelings  among  the  people.  The  superintendent  of  the 
Mission  and  nearly  all  of  the  Methodist  preachers  in  the  state,  un- 
equivocally, publicly,  and  constantly  denounced  such  proceedings  as 
criminal  and  vicious  in  the  extreme ;  but  many  of  the  leading  mem- 
bers of  the  church  were  personally  interested  in  the  range  cattle 
business,  and  themselves  and  their  friends  made  the  situation  for 
the  preachers  who  denounced  them  very  unpleasant.  The  difficulty 
had  now  gotten  into  the  courts,  the  belligerents  were  many  of  them 
imprisoned,  and  the  war  was  practically  over,  but  the  feeling  still 
ran  very  high. 

Into  this  situation  Bishop  Hurst  came,  who  had  known  neither 
friend  nor  foe  on  either  side.  With  great  wisdom  and  tact  he 
granted  the  request  of  the  superintendent  and  relieved  him  from  that 
position,  taking  him  back  to  his  Conference  in  Colorado,  and  appoint- 
ing  Rev.   Dr.    X.   A.   Chamberlain,   of  the   same   Conference,   to  the 

Farsighted  Leadership  311 

superintendency.  This  proved  a  most  judicious  and  happy  appoint- 
ment. He  also  changed  most  of  the  preachers,  relieving  those  who 
were  distasteful  to  the  people  on  account  of  their  adherence  to  their 
principles,  and  sent  in  wise  men  who  had  not  been  involved  in  the 
conflicts.  The  Bishop  did  some  of  the  best  work  for  the  church 
in  his  quiet,  wise  administration  that  has  ever  been  performed  in 
the  interests  of  the  cause  in  that  region.  One  thing  that  impressed 
me  at  the  time  was  his  readiness  to  hear  all  sides;  and  the  way  he 
listened,  as  though  he  were  all  ears  and  had  no  powers  of  speech, 
one  was  led  sometimes  to  wonder  if  he  were  listening  at  all,  he  was 
apparently  so  passive  and  inattentive.  But  he  usually  revealed  the 
fact  that  he  had  heard  and  considered  every  material  and  important 
statement  that  had  been  made.  His  wisdom  did  not  impress  me  so 
much  then  as  it  has  since  the  results  of  his  wise  statesmanship  and 
farsighted  leadership  have  in  course  of  time  become  apparent.  T 
shall  always  be  grateful  for  his  disinterested  brotherliness  and  his 
fidelity  to  the  interests  of  the  church  as  he  saw  them  from  his  impartial 

}I2  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Founder  of  the  American  University 

Hunting    for  a  Site. — Paying  for    the  Site. — Indorsements    by    Friends   of 


Sporadic  expressions  of  desire  for  the  erection  and  endow- 
ment of  a  post-graduate  university  at  Washington  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  had  been  made 
prior  to  1888  by  several  leaders  of  thought,  prominent  among 
whom  were  Bishop  Simpson,  who  at  one  time  thought  seriously 
of  devoting  himself  specially  to  this  object ;  Bishop  Ames, 
whose  residence  in  Baltimore  gave  frequent  and  emphatic 
suggestion  of  the  coming  need;  Dr.  (later  Bishop)  Newman, 
whose  burdened  pastorates  in  Metropolitan  Church  showed  the 
opportunities  presented,  yet  prevented  his  entrance  upon  the 
larger  work ;  and  Dr.  William  Arthur,  of  England,  who  on  a 
visit  in  1880  outlined  to  the  Harpers  the  plans  for  such  a 

Before  Bishop  Hurst  had  settled  his  family  in  Washington 
there  came  to  him  in  spoken  and  written  form  many  messages 
unsought  by  himself  of  earnest  exhortation  and  of  hope  that 
he  would  initiate  a  movement  for  the  realization  of  the  idea. 
While  the  logic  of  his  life  pointed  him  in  this  direction  and 
his  own  mind  clearly  foresaw  the  ever-increasing  necessity. 
yet  his  hands  were  full  and  his  brain  and  heart  busy  with  a 
multiplicity  of  duties  quite  sufficient  for  one  of  his  years  and 
strength.  But  the  vision  would  not  away.  The  voice  of  con- 
science was  echoed  in  the  voices  of  manv  brethren.  The  noble 
woman  at  his  side  whispered  her  willingness  to  join  in  the 
sacrifice  of  rest  and  the  few  precious  hours  of  leisure  still  left 

Hunting  for  a  Site  313 

for  completing  his  literary  projects.  One  test  to  decide  whether 
the  providential  leading  was  to  an  immediate  effort  remained 
to  be  applied.  Was  there  a  spot  in  Washington  now  procurable 
and  suited  to  be  the  habitat  of  such  an  institution?  A  still 
hunt  for  a  site  was  in  order. 

The  city  of  Washington  with  its  environs  furnishes  an 
unusual  variety  of  charming  drives  for  the  pleasure-seeker, 
and  fine  feasts  for  the  eye  and  mind,  as  on  horseback  or  in 
carriage  one  passes  through  the  broad  avenues  or  meanders 
over  its  suburban  roads  and  its  numberless  slopes  and  knolls. 
But  pleasure  was  not  the  chief  purpose  of  two  gentlemen  who. 
on  Christmas  Day,  1889,  began  a  series  of  rides  together;  for 
they  rode  with  frequent  regularity  for  ten  days,  and  chose 
neither  pleasant  weather  nor  smooth  roads.  A  far-away  look 
of  serious  import  was  on  the  face  of  the  leader  in  the  dual 
party,  while  his  companion,  who  held  the  reins  of  the  high- 
mettled  steeds,  seemed  eager  to  second  the  success  of  his 
earnest  quest. 

The  first  was  Bishop  Hurst  hunting  for  a  site.  Under  a 
sense  of  duty,  and  yet  with  a  lurking  hope  that  for  the  less- 
ening of  his  own  burdens  he  might  not  succeed,  he  had  enlisted 
the  help  of  Mr.  Theodore  W.  Talmadge  to  take  him  from  point 
to  point  until  he  could  say  either  "  Eureka — I  have  found  it! ' 
or,  "  No  suitable  site  can  be  found."  The  last  afternoon  of  the 
ten  davs'  round  was  nearly  at  an  end,  when  to  the  vision  of 
both  there  came,  as  they  rode  along  the  Loughboro  Road, 
on  the  Northwest  Heights,  a  diversified  and  beautiful  piece  of 
ground.  It  was  known  as  "  Bellevue,"  ninety  acres  in  extent, 
commanding  a  panoramic  view  over  the  District,  the  Manassas 
Plains,  and  the  Blue  Ridge  Mountains  of  Western  Maryland. 
The  land  was  for  sale.  That  far-away  look  in  the  Bishop's  face 
changed  to  a  gaze  that  roamed  first  over  the  fields  spreading  at 
their  feet,  and  then  again  and  again  swept  the  circle  to  every 

>i  ;  Joitx   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

pi  lint  of  the  compass.    The  tract  exceeded  in  its  advantages  all 
that  could  be  demanded  for  the  site  of  a  university. 

The  next  questions  were  two:  How  much  money  will  buy 
it  ?  and.  Where  shall  the  money  be  found?  Negotiations  for  a 
price  immediately  followed.  Bishop  Hurst  left  for  his  Confer- 
ences in  Georgia  and  Alabama.  These  four  telegrams  tell 
the  story  of  his  faith  in  action : 

T.  W.  Talmadge  to  Bishop  Hurst  at  New  Decatur,  Alabama,  Janu- 
ary 23. — Davis  tract  must  be  secured  now.  One  thousand  for  option, 
twenty  to  be  paid  March  first.  Price  one  hundred  thousand.  Shall 
I  close  bargain  ? 

Bishop  Hurst  to  T.  W.  Talmadge :  New  Decatur,  Alabama,  Janu- 
ary 24. — Close  bargain  for  Davis  tract.  Advance  thousand  for  option. 
I  will  be  responsible.     Send  papers  for  signature.     Answer. 

T.  W.  Talmadge  to  Bishop  Hurst,  January  25. — Davis  tract  pur- 
chased— one  hundred  thousand  dollars.  Waggaman  advanced  thou- 
sand.    Twenty  thousand  to  pay  March  first. 

J.  F.  Waggaman  to  Bishop  Hurst,  January  25. — Have  closed  accord- 
ing to  instructions — Davis  tract.    Will  forward  contract. 

Dr.  Jesse  Lyman  Hurlbut  was  at  New  Decatur  to  represent 
the  work  of  the  Sunday  School  Union  and  says : 

I  met  Bishop  Hurst  at  the  "  Tavern."  He  told  me  then  of  his  plan 
to  establish  the  University,  and  said  that  he  had  received  word  that 
if  he  wished  to  make  the  purchase  of  the  land  he  must  telegraph 
early  the  next  morning.  He  wished  advice.  I  hesitated  to  advise 
him  to  make  the  purchase,  knowing  how  great  would  be  the  burden 
laid  upon  his  shoulders;  though  I  believed  heartily  in  the  aim  and 
plan.  We  talked  together  about  it  until  late  that  night;  and  the 
Bishop  came  to  a  conclusion  in  the  matter,  resolving  to  take  up  the 

Now  began  another  hunt — this  time  for  money.  A  pay- 
ment of  $19,000,  completing  the  first  of  five  equal  annual 
installments,  was  required  to  be  in  hand  by  March  1.  On 
January  30.  having  been  relieved  of  the  Central  Alabama 
Conference  by  Bishop  Joyce,  he  is  in  Washington  again  and 

Paying  for  the  Site  315 

has  prepared  and  signed  a  heading  to  a  subscription  paper 
which  reads : 

Finding  a  sentiment  in  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  favorable 
to  the  location  of  a  National  University  in  the  City  of  Washington, 
District  of  Columbia,  I,  as  resident  Bishop,  after  consultation  with 
other  members  of  the  Episcopacy  and  with  a  number  of  laymen  of 
known  liberality,  interested  in  advanced  education,  have  visited  vari- 
ous locations,  and  have  received  several  liberal  propositions,  with  a 
view  to  that  object.  The  "  Davis  tract,"  situated  on  the  Loughboro 
Road,  is  found  to  be  adapted  for  that  purpose,  and  I  contemplate 
buying  it,  provided  proper  assistance  and  encouragement  are  furnished. 
I  should  be  glad  to  have  the  generous  cooperation  of  all  persons 
interested  in  the  promotion  of  such  an  enterprise.  Should  the  land 
be  obtained,  steps  will  be  taken  for  the  construction  of  buildings 
worthy  of  so  great  an  object. 

With  cab  and  street  car,  and  many  a  block  trudged  on  foot, 
and  with  the  Rev.  Dr.  Charles  W.  Baldwin  as  his  helper,  for 
four  weeks  the  Bishop  canvassed  the  city,  visiting  from  house 
to  store,  from  store  to  office,  and  from  office  back  to  house 
again,  securing  pledges  and  money,  and  when  the  day  of  first 
payment  arrived  he  had  in  his  hand  $22,000.  The  final  pay- 
ment in  March,  1895,  when  he  transferred  the  trust  from  his 
own  name  to  the  Trustees,  made  this  magnificent  keystone- 
shaped  site  the  unincumbered  possession  of  the  American 
University.     Bishop  McCabe  exclaims  : 

Think  of  raising  one  hundred  thousand  dollars  for  a  site  in 
Washington  and  getting  it  all  paid  in  before  the  church  fairly  realized 
that  he  had  bought  the  land.  To  me  there  is  a  wonderful  pathos  in  the 
vision  of  John  F.  Hurst,  in  declining  health,  with  waning  physical 
vigor,  at  an  age  when  other  men  seek  repose,  passing  through  the 
land  from  city  to  city,  talking,  arguing,  pleading  with  men  to  help 
him  make  his  dream  come  true,  and  it  will  come  true ! 

From  his  old-time  Baptist  companion  in  travel  in  the  Holy 

Land,  Dr.  George  D.  Boardman.  came  this  word  of  cheer : 

Philadelphia,  February  11. — Allow  me  to  congratulate  you,  and  the 
great  denomination  you  so  worthily  represent,  on  your  project.    With 

»i6  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

joyous  memories  of  Jerusalem,  Bethany,  Elijah's  Cherith,  Jericho, 
fordan,  Moab,  Dead  Sea,  Bethlehem,  Abraham's  Oak,  and  Hebron, 
I   remain,  my  dear  Bishop,  always  and  all-ways,  yours. 

At  the  first  public  meeting  in  the  interest  of  the  University 
on  March  25  in  Metropolitan  Church,  Bishop  Hurst  said, 
while  still  under  the  shadow  of  Mrs.  Hurst's  death: 

We  plant  the  acorn;  God's  sunshine  and  raindrops  and  infinite 
patience,  with  the  sympathy  and  help  of  his  children,  will  reveal  and 
mature  the  oak. 

On  this  occasion  Rev.  Dr.  Bartlett,  of  the  New  York  Avenue 
Presbyterian  Church,  said : 

There  are  three  things  to  be  considered  in  connection  with  this 
University:  First,  Washington  is  the  place;  second,  this  is  the  time; 
third.  Bishop  Hurst  is  the  man.  Tyndall  said  there  were  more 
scientific  people  here  than  in  any  other  city.  Washington  in  itself 
is  a  university,  with  Washington  Monument  as  a  steeple  for  it  already 
erected.  The  whole  nation  will  inhale  the  perfume  or  drink  the 
poison  of  everything  here ;  will  feel  every  quintescent  drop  of  moral 
power  that  throbs  at  the  center.  Thought  now  is  running  wild.  In 
the  great  molten  mind  of  the  world  there  is  either  being  cast  a  demon 
or  an  angel.  And  [pointing  to  Bishop  Hurst]  this  is  the  man  to 
inaugurate  this  enterprise. 

On  May  8,  1892,  in  his  address  at  the  mass  meeting  in  Expo- 
sition Hall,  Omaha,  Bishop  Hurst  said : 

Responses  came  in  from  many  quarters,  expressing  the  hearty 
salutations  of  the  noble  representatives  of  our  educational  institutions. 
One  among  the  first  was  that  of  Dr.  Warren,  of  Boston,  then  another 
from  the  equal  Warren  of  Denver,  and  then  others  from  Presidents 
and  members  of  Faculties,  all  expressing  the  wish,  "  God  bless  the 
noble  work.'-  Many  of  the  honored  men  who  sit  on  this  platform, 
and  lead  the  young  men  of  our  church  toward  the  higher  planes  of 
'  hristian  knowledge,  gave  early  expression  to  their  confidence  in  the 
success  of  the  undertaking.  They  said,  "  We  cannot  see  yet  how  the 
money  will  come,  whether  or  not  the  sentiment  of  the  church  will 
rapidly  grow ;  but  our  hearts  are  waiting,  and  we  believe  in  ultimate 

Strong  Indorsements  317 

This  was  the  hearty  word  of  encouragement  from  Bishop 

Warren  on  April  3 : 

I  am  so  glad  you  took  the  matter  of  a  Washington  University  in 
hand.  Ever  since  you  and  I  tramped  Philadelphia  over  for  Drew  I 
have  expected  you  would  lead  some  great  educational  enterprise.  No 
Methodist  should  hesitate  about  putting  heart,  hand,  and  purse  into 
the  Washington  movement.  Go  on,  my  good  brother,  and  may  God 
give  you  great  success !  With  tenderest  and  holiest  sympathy,  I  am 

At  their  May  meeting  in  New  York  his  heart  was  cheered 
by  the  indorsement  given  by  the  Board  of  Bishops  as  a  whole, 
and  at  the  public  meeting  of  November  3,  1890,  in  Metro- 
politan Church,  during  the  week  of  the  sessions  of  the  Epis- 
copal Board  at  Washington,  Bishop  Ninde  said : 

You  are  building  a  glorious  pharos  that  shall  be  a  beacon  to  all 
the  truth-seeking  souls  throughout  all  the  stretch  of  the  coming  years. 

And  Bishop  Vincent  declared : 

We  need  some  central  institution  toward  which  the  thoughts  and 
aspirations  of  professors  and  students  shall  habitually  turn.  These 
institutions,  so  many  of  them  all  over  the  land,  must  be  under  some 
one  great  university,  and  up  to  this  time  there  has  been  nothing  so 
promising  for  the  fulfillment  of  this  end  as  the  proposed  institution 
in  Washington  City. 

Bishop  Newman  in  his  address  at  Omaha  during  the  Gen- 
eral Conference  of  1892  said: 

Educated  carefully  at  home  and  abroad,  gifted  with  an  imagina- 
tion that  frescoes  the  future  with  the  actualities  of  the  present,  en- 
dowed with  the  rare  power  of  organization  to  prepare  great  plans  for 
the  coming  generations — it  comes  to  us  more  and  more  that  in  the 
roll  of  the  centuries,  in  the  ordering  of  time,  God  Almighty,  the  God 
of  our  fathers,  has  selected  Bishop  Hurst  to  lay  the  foundation  of  the 
American  University  for  American  Methodism. 

On  the  same  occasion  President  (now  Bishop)  Bashford 

John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

["he  site  is  now  worth  five  times  its  cost,  and  will  grow  in  beauty 
and  value  as  long  as  the  capital  of  the  nation  stands. 

When  the  General  Conference  had  passed  the  resolution 
approving  the  American  University  (1892)  Bishop  Hurst  was 
heard  to  say  to  a  friend.  "  I  could  kiss  the  whole  Conference." 
Bishop  Hurst  was  elected  Chancellor  of  the  American  Univer- 
sity on  May  28,  1 891,  at  the  time  of  its  incorporation,  and  held 
this  important  office  until  through  waning  strength  he  resigned 
on  December  jo.  1902,  when  he  was  made  Chancellor 
Emeritus,  and  Bishop  McCabe  was  chosen  his  successor. 
Through  the  first  thirteen  years  of  its  history  he  was  the 
inspiration  and  guide  of  the  great  educational  enterprise. 
Under  his  administration  and  chiefly  through  his  own  personal 
efforts  contributions  amounting  to  $400,000  in  cash  and  $100,- 
000  in  property  were  brought  into  its  treasury.  These  aggre- 
gate gifts  of  a  half  million  dollars  he  saw  so  well  used  and 
invested  that  at  the  time  of  his  resignation  the  total  assets 
of  the  University  were  on  a  conservative  estimate  not  less  than 
two  millions — the  site  itself  having  enhanced  in  value  from  a 
total  cost  of  $125,000  to  at  least  $900,000.  The  acquisition  of 
this  splendid  piece  of  land  without  a  penny  of  incumbrance 
was  an  achievement  worth  the  effort  of  a  generation.  It  was 
accomplished  in  five  years  and  constitutes  the  chief  feature  of 
his  series  of  successes  which  have  won  him  the  name  of 
Founder  of  the  American  University.  The  acceptance  of  his 
resignation  as  Chancellor  by  the  Trustees  expresses  their  sense 
his  exalted  services: 

It  is  no  diminution  of  the  honor  due  to  any  others  to  say  that 
chiefly  to  your  own  keen  vision  both  of  the  need  and  of  the  oppor- 
tunity, to  your  courageous  faith  in  God  and  in  the  people,  and  to  your 
bold  venture  upon  the  field  of  actuality,  the  church  and  the  country 
owe  the  chartered  existence  of  this  corporation  and  the  substantial 
foundations  already  laid  for  a  great  Christian  University.  To  your 
office  as  Chancellor  and  to  your  present  honored  title  of  Chancellor 

Founder  of  the  American  University         319 

Emeritus  the  whole  body  of  our  constituency  will  spontaneously  and 
justly  add  the  distinctive  and  unique  name  of  Founder. 

Bishop  Fowler  said  in  his  address  at  the  memorial  service 
held  at  Meadville : 

You  need  not  be  afraid  of  the  American  University  not  thriving 
and  prospering.  It  will  grow  stronger  and  richer  in  this  place, 
destined  to  be  the  literary  center,  as  it  is  the  social  center,  of  the 
world,  that  most  beautiful  city  of  the  world,  the  city  of  Washington. 
With  the  thirty  or  forty  million  dollars  of  government  institutions  at 
hand,  all  open  and  easy  of  access,  to  be  used  by  the  students  of  this 
institution ;  with  a  church  that  has  never  known  anything  impossible 
to  it  back  of  it ;  with  the  centuries  open  before  it,  that  University  will 
grow  and  unfold,  and  in  the  not-far-off  future  students  by  the  ten 
thousands  will  crowd  that  way.  When  we  have  all  of  us  vanished, 
faded  out  like  the  mists  in  the  evening  azure  of  the  past,  John  F. 
Hurst  will  sit  quietly  on  the  pedestal  of  that  American  University 
specially  honored  year  by  year  on  Founder's  Day,  as  having  given 
to  the  race  an  institution  to  illuminate,  and  to  the  church  an  institu- 
tion to  defend  its  faith. 

Of  him  Dr.  Jesse  Bowman  Young  wrote  in  the  Western 
Christian  Advocate : 

When  ten  or  twenty  million  dollars  shall  be  secured  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  University,  when  its  graduate  courses,  in  connec- 
tion with  the  vast  governmental  collections  and  facilities  which  are 
to  be  found  in  Washington  are  available,  when  its  Faculties  are 
gathered  and  set  to  work,  and  its  hundreds  of  students  flock  thither 
year  after  year,  coming  generations  will  point  with  grateful  appre- 
ciation to  its  massive  and  noble  buildings,  its  libraries  and  laboratories, 
its  lecture  rooms  and  professors,  and  say :  "  All  this  was  once  a  dream  ! 
As  a  vision  it  shone  before  the  eye  and  kindled  the  imagination  and 
fired  the  soul  of  a  wonderful  dreamer.  He  was  not  disobedient  unto 
the  heavenly  vision.  He  sought,  in  the  face  of  many  delays,  diffi- 
culties, and  disappointments,  to  enshrine  the  vision  in  marble,  and 
in  endowments,  and  in  ample  provision  for  the  needs  of  the  land  he 
loved  better  than  life.  When  men  laughed  at  the  project,  when  he 
was  hindered  and  maligned,  when  cold  shoulders  were  turned  to  him, 
and  when  at  last  his  heart  was  broken  with  domestic  sorrow,  he  never 
for  one  moment  lost  sight  of  the  vision.    He  had  faith,  and  courage, 

>2o  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

and  foresight,  and  fortitude.  And  when  under  his  burdens  his 
-trench  gave  way,  and  his  once  tireless  body  sank  down  exhausted, 
>till  tlic  vision  cheered  and  exalted  him.  It  had  come  to  be  the  chief 
part  of  his  life.  And  now,  behold  it  in  its  glory,  vast,  magnificent, 
world-renowned,  the  source  of  daily  benedictions,  and  as  ceaseless  as 
the  sun  in  its  ministrations — the  American  University — and  thank- 
fullv  recall  the  name  of  its  founder,  who  dreamed  it  into  being — 
John  Fletcher  Hurst!" 

Dr.  Samuel  L.  Beiler,  of  the  Boston  School  of  Theology, 
who  was  as  Vice-Chancellor  from  1892  to  1897  associated 
with  him  most  intimately,  in  the  Central  Christian  Advocate 

says : 

Bishop  Hurst  has  been  called  a  dreamer.  He  was  more  than  a 
dreamer.  It  was  his  to  turn  dreams  into  reality.  He  may  not  have 
risen  to  first  rank  in  literature  as  a  creator  of  new  systems  of  truth, 
as  Calvin  or  Kant,  nor  yet  to  that  clothing  of  ideas  in  new  forms 
that  give  them  universality  and  immortality,  as  Milton  and  Shake- 
speare. But  he  was  of  that  larger  and  possibly  more  useful  class 
of  authors  who  have  an  instinct  for  the  veins  where  the  golden  truth 
lies  buried,  and  the  patience  and  endurance  to  dig  it  out,  purge  it,  mint 
it.  and  send  it  forth  to  bless  humanity.  He  had  the  historical  instinct 
that  recognizes  values  in  deeds  and  thoughts  of  men  and  nations  and 
churches.  It  was  his  to  see  the  turning-point  in  the  tides  of  life,  and 
where  great  opportunities  had  been  seized  or  lost.  He  did  not  dream 
dreams  so  much  as  live  in  the  world  of  other  men's  dreams,  and  he 
had  the  rare  power  to  lay  hold  of  this  ethereal  material  of  which  life 
is  made,  and  clothe  it  with  form  and  give  some  idea  of  its  meaning 
and  value.    He  was  not  a  Nebuchadnezzar,  but  a  Daniel. 

So  Bishop  Hurst  was  not  the  dreamer  in  whose  brain  was  born  the 
Drew  Theological  Seminary,  nor  yet  the  great  institution  he  did  so 
much  to  found  in  Washington.  He  was  the  seer  who  saw  the  value 
of  these  dreams,  and  had  the  courage  to  rescue  the  one  from  financial 
ruin,  and  to  undertake  to  make  real  the  other,  born  in  the  brain  of 
the  Father  of  his  Country.  London,  Paris,  Berlin,  Vienna,  Athens, 
Rome,  were  as  familiar  to  him  as  his  study.  He  was  wont  to  say, 
"  Put  a  roof  over  the  capital  city  of  any  great  nation,  and  you  can 
cover  all  the  requisites  of  a  complete  university." 

Washington,  the  capital  of  his  country,  to  his  vision,  was  not  to  be 
an  exception.  He  saw  that  what  exists  to-day  in  Washington  is  only 
the  germ  of  what  is  to  be.    Amazing  changes  were  taking  place  under 

His  Faith  and  Courage  321 

his  eyes.  Libraries,  laboratories,  and  institutions  were  springing  up 
as  if  by  magic.  His  soul  took  fire.  He  saw  Washington's  dream 
fulfilled  in  the  American  University,  located  in  sight  of  the  Capitol 
dome,  amid  facilities  unsurpassed  on  earth,  crowded  with  post-grad- 
uate students  from  all  lands,  led  on  by  specialists  in  original  investiga- 
tions that  would  bless  the  race. 

He  believed  that  Methodism,  with  its  untrammeled  and  living,  con- 
sistent faith,  its  high  spiritual  life,  and  ideals  born  of  a  gospel  experi- 
ence and  consecrated  to  noblest  service  of  humanity,  was  better  fitted 
to  foster  such  an  institution  than  the  politicians  of  less  spiritual  aims 
and  more  selfish  purposes.  He  felt  that  the  hour  had  come  when  this 
dream  must  be  brought  down  out  of  the  clouds  and  made  a  reality 
among  men.  He  knew  his  limitations  and  understood  the  gigantic- 
task  he  was  assuming.  But  he  dared  to  begin  the  foundations,  hop- 
ing, believing,  sure  that  some  day  the  capstone  would  be  put  in  place 
with  shoutings. 

Only  those  who  toiled  with  him  in  the  early  years,  prayed  with 
him  when  the  days  were  dark,  stood  by  him  when  those  who  should 
have  been  friends  opposed,  and  lifted  when  burdens  seemed  too  great 
for  mortals,  can  fully  appreciate  the  undying  hopefulness,  the  cour- 
ageous persistence,  and  the  sublime  confidence  of  Bishop  Hurst  in 
the  ultimate  triumph  of  this  greatest  and  dearest  dream  of  his  heart. 
With  open  eyes  he  walked  into  his  Gethsemane.  Many  arrows  pierced 
his  soul.  His  brain  reeled  and  staggered.  But  he  dreamed  on,  be- 
lieved on,  to  the  end.  Nor  will  he  die  in  vain.  The  blood  of  martyrs 
is  the  seed  of  the  church.  His  hopes  will  yet  be  realized,  and  the 
American  University,  beautiful  for  situation,  the  joy  of  Methodism, 
will  be  Bishop  Hurst's  great  memorial. 

The  future  development  of  higher  education  in  America  will 
justify  this  lavish  gift  of  the  energy  of  his  latest  years,  as 
Wordsworth  has  vindicated  the  large  consecration  involved  in 
the  creation  of  King's  College  Chapel,  Cambridge : 

"  Tax  not  the  royal  Saint  with  vain  expense, 

With  ill-matched  aims  the  Architect  who  planned — 

Albeit  laboring  for  a  scanty  band 

Of  white-robed  Scholars  only — this  immense 

And  glorious  work  of  fine  intelligence  ! 

Give  all  thou  canst:  high  Heaven  rejects  the  lore 

Of  nicelv  calculated  less  or  more." 



The  Author 

Culminating   Literary   "Work. — At    "Washington. — Fourteen    Years   of 


The  transfer  of  his  residence  to  Washington  was  not  accom- 
plished without  many  tokens  that  his  work  and  life  in  Buffalo 
and  vicinity  were  highly  prized  by  the  people  of  Western  New 
York.  One  of  these  evidences  was  the  earnest  and  persistent 
invitations  of  the  enterprising  publisher  and  bookseller,  Henry 
H.  Otis,  to  write  a  series  of  brief  articles  suitable  for  a  mar- 
riage souvenir.  This  he  promised  to  do  at  his  first  opportune 
leisure,  a  pledge  he  fulfilled  in  a  few  hours  that  he  found 
between  the  adjournment  of  the  General  Conference  and  the 
tenth  of  June,  1888.  The  little  book  called  The  Wedding 
Day  was  published  in  Buffalo  in  1889  and  has  met  with  much 
favor.  The  dainty  volume  of  48  pages  in  white  and  gold 
besides  the  Marriage  Ritual  contains  bright  and  strong  essays 
on  the  New  Home,  the  Home  Altar,  the  Home  Beautiful, 
Good  Reading  at  Home,  Forbearance,  and  Yesterdays  of 

Of  his  Short  History  of  the  Church  in  the  United  States, 
published  in  1890,  mention  has  already  been  made  in  con- 
nection with  the  other  four  of  the  little  Chautauqua  series. 
Parochial  Libraries  in  the  Colonial  Period  (New  York,  1890) 
was  a  paper  read  before  the  American  Society  of  Church 
History  in  New  York,  December  30-31,  1889,  and  treats  espe- 
cially of  the  work  of  Thomas  Bray  in  Maryland.  It  was  printed 
also  in  the  papers  of  the  Society. 

The  fruit  of  his  journey  through  India  in  1884-85  was  not 

From  photograph  by  G.  C.  Cox,  1896. 


Indika  323 

confined  to  the  religious  and  ecclesiastical  interests  of  that  great 
empire,  nor  to  the  increased  intelligence  and  missionary  zeal 
of  the  church  in  America,  which  gave  his  letters  and  addresses 
a  warm  welcome.  As  Germany  was  pictured  in  his  Life  and 
Literature  in  the  Fatherland,  so  his  observations  and  reflections 
while  in  India,  combined  with  his  subsequent  studies  on  mate- 
rials gathered  or  discovered  on  his  travels,  gave  to  the  world 
of  letters  a  stately  volume  which  was  christened  with  a  Greek 
name,  borrowed  from  Megasthenes :  Indika :  The  Country  and 
People  of  India  and  Ceylon,  published  in  Harper's  best  style 
in  1 89 1.  It  is  a  royal  octavo  of  814  pages,  with  splendid 
maps  and  illustrations,  and  has  had  a  steady  sale  from  the  day 
of  its  publication.  His  labors  upon  this  book  extended  from 
1885  to  1 89 1.  How  he  at  first  intended  to  make  two  volumes 
— one  to  be  devoted  to  Western  Asia  and  Europe — may  be 
seen  in  this  letter  to  Mrs.  Hurst  from  Stockholm,  May  27, 

I  find  my  book,  Ecclesiastical  Journey  in  the  Elder  Lands,  is  farther 
under  way  than  I  thought.  The  volume  on  India  and  Ceylon  has 
20  chapters  already,  and  Europe  and  the  Levant  27. 

He  completed  his  first  draft  of  Indika  early  in  1888  and 
then  began  its  careful  revision.  The  revised  manuscript  was 
given  to  the  publishers  on  July  8,  1889,  and  the  work  was  in 
the  hands  of  the  public  in  the  fall  of  1891.  Bishop  Thoburn 

He  has  done  the  kind  of  work  which  was  needed,  by  placing  both 
the  India  of  the  past  and  of  the  present  vividly  before  the  American 

Dr.  W.  H.  Milburn,  Chaplain  of  the  United  States  Senate, 
wrote : 

My  daughter  and  I  have  been  thoroughly  reading  Indika  from  start 
to  finish,  map  and  all,  and  a  more  delightful  book  we  have  never  got 

-$_'4  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

hold  of.  We  heartily  thank  you  for  its  instructive  and  fascinating 
pages,  which  have  done  so  much  toward  helping  us  to  see  vividly 
that  wonderful  country,  its  people,  and  the  mighty  changes  now  going 
on  there.     I  wish  you  could  some  day  do  as  much  for  China. 

Bishop  Goodsell  says : 

Your  hook  is  the  meat  of  many,  hesides  being  rich  in  new  matter — 
I  believe  it  will  stand  for  India  where  Wells  Williams's  work  stands 
for  China. 

Dr.  Asbury  Lowrey  says : 

All  through  we  trace  the  footprints  of  the  scholar;  but  the  Bishop 
displays  his  erudition  here  as  everywhere  with  admirable  modesty. 
There  is  not  a  pedantic  hair  in  his  head. 

Joseph  Cook's  commendation  contains  these  words : 

Bishop  Hurst  is  particularly  felicitous  in  his  combination  of  de- 
scriptions of  scenery  with  discussions  concerning  the  history,  politics, 
social  life,  industries,  races,  and  religions  of  the  land. 

The  severe  critic  on  the  tripod  of  the  Xation  was  con- 
strained to  call  it  a  "  very  well  written  book,"  and  "very  intelli- 
gent observations  upon  places  and  people."  and  says : 

Such  books  as  this  will  be  read  with  pride  and  profit  by  all  English- 
speaking  races ;  and  the  author  will  have  earned  the  respect  and 
gratitude  of  all  those  natives  of  India  who  desire  the  friendship  and 
sympathy  of  the  civilized  natives  of  the  West. 

The  Critic  passes  friendly  judgment: 

How  shall  we  begin  to  describe  or  criticise  a  book  that  has  enthralled 
It  weighs  four  pounds  and  a  quarter,  though  the  literary  qualities 
belie  its  avoirdupois  in  the  same  way  that  well-mixed  and  well-baked 
poundcake  has  no  suggestion  of  heaviness.  Bishop  Hurst  is  a  genial 
traveler,  a  keen  yet  kindly  observer,  and  tells  us  of  man  and  beast,  of 
vegetable  and  mineral  growths,  of  soldier  and  civil  servant,  foreigner 
and  native,  missionary  and  convert,  writing  with  an  enthusiasm  which, 
though  tempered  with  criticism,  still  kindles  us. 

Short  History  of  the  Church  325 

It  was  a  pleasant  reminder  of  his  India  trip  to  furnish  the 
introduction  to  Dr.  M.  V.  B.  Knox's  A  Winter  in  India  and 
Malaysia  among  the  Methodist  Missions  (New  York,  1891)  ; 
a  delightful  task  to  perform  the  same  service  for  one  of  his 
former  students,  Dr.  J.  W.  Etter,  in  his  The  Thorn  in  the 
Flesh;  or,  A  Religious  Meditation  in  Affliction  (Dayton,  Ohio, 
1892)  ;  and  also  for  J.  W.  Johnston's  compilation  from  the 
addresses  and  sermons  of  his  former  instructor  at  Dickinson, 
Dr.  O.  H.  Tiffany,  entitled  Pulpit  and  Platform  (New  York, 


His  Short  History  of  the  Christian  Church  appeared  in  1893 

(Harper's),  a  fine  duodecimo  of  more  than  700  pages.  It 
was  based  upon  the  series  of  five  short  histories,  but  many 
additions  were  made  which  in  brief  were:  Bibliographies  of 
the  several  divisions  and  chapters  with  a  few  footnotes ;  larger 
and  more  frequent  maps ;  to  the  Modern  Church  in  Europe 
a  chapter  on  the  Schools  of  the  Church  of  England,  three  on 
the  Scottish  Church,  five  on  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  and 
one  on  the  Salvation  Army ;  with  an  expansion  of  the  Scholars 
of  the  English  Church  into  three  chapters,  and  of  the  Old 
Catholics  into  two ;  and  to  the  Church  in  the  United  States,  in 
the  Colonial  Period,  a  chapter  each  on  Religious  Literature, 
Early  Leaders,  the  Influence  of  the  Puritans,  and  the  Epis- 
copal Defection  in  Connecticut ;  and.  in  the  National  Period, 
one  each  on  the  French  Infidelity,  and  Theological  Scholar- 
ship ;  while  the  chapter  on  Larger  and  Earlier  Denominations 
is  expanded  into  eleven  distinct  chapters,  and  the  three,  on  the 
Roman  Catholic  Church,  the  L'nitarian  Church,  and  the 
Universalists,  are  each  enlarged.  The  index  of  authors  and 
general  index  are  full,  and  an  appendix  of  statistics  closes 
the  work.  In  the  preparation  of  this  volume  for  the  press 
he  was  aided  by  Rev.  John  Alfred  Faulkner,  one  of  his  former 
students  at  Drew  and  now  his  successor  there  in  the  Chair  of 

j26  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

History.  It  has  had  and  still  has  a  wide  circulation  among 
all  denominations.  Dr.  William  M.  Taylor,  of  the  Broadway 
Tabernacle,  appreciated  it  in  a  letter: 

I  know  something  from  experience  of  the  kind,  and  also  of  the 
amount  of  lahor  required  for  the  compilation,  verification,  and  con- 
densation of  the  dates,  facts,  and  statements  of  a  small  period  of 
church  history  in  the  small  country  of  Scotland,  and  when  I  think  of 
what  must  have  heen  required  for  what  is  virtually  a  universal 
church  history,  extending  over  nineteen  centuries,  I  am  appalled.  I 
congratulate  you  that  you  have  done  it  so  well.  The  style  is  clear 
and  elegant ;  the  arrangement  natural,  and  easily  rememberable ;  and 
the  substance  is  marvelously  accurate. 

The  commendation  of  it  by  Zion's  Herald,  Boston,  was : 

At  once  learned  and  popular,  accurate  in  detail  and  yet  free  in  the 
treatment  of  the  massive  material. 

The  Short  History  of  the  Christian  Church  was  translated 
into  German  by  Professor  Arnold  Sulzberger  of  the  Martin 
Mission  Institute  and  published  at  Cincinnati  in  1895,  with 
certain  additions  made  by  the  translator  in  adapting  it  to  use 
in  Germany.  It  was  also  translated  into  Spanish  by  P.  A. 
Rodriguez  and  published  by  the  Methodist  Book  Concern  at 
Nashville,  Tennessee,  in  1900,  for  use  in  the  missions  of  the 
Southern  Church  among  Spanish-speaking  peoples. 

In  1892,  after  repeated  solicitation,  he  consented  to  serve 
as  one  of  the  associate  editors  in  the  revision  of  Johnson's 
Universal  Cyclopaedia,  taking  charge  of  the  revision  and  sup- 
ply of  all  articles  relating  to  Methodist  biography,  history,  and 
doctrine.  It  fell  to  the  writer's  lot  to  assist  him  in  this  work, 
which  ran  through  nearly  three  years  before  the  ground  of 
the  eight  volumes  was  fully  traversed.  Probably  the  most 
delicate  task  of  this  undertaking  was  that  imposed  by  the 
exigencies  of  the  work  in  the  reduction  of  Dr.  Whedon's 
strong  article  on  Arminius  and  Arminianism.     It  was  now 

Literature  of  Theology  327 

his  office  to  prune  the  periods  of  a  master  who  had  more  than 
once  exercised  his  powers  of  criticism  with  friendly  and  helpful 
severity  on  the  productions  of  the  young  pastor  at  Irvington 
and  Passaic.  For  Professor  W.  W.  Martin's  Bible  Lands  he 
prepared  the  preface  in  1895. 

His  Literature  of  Theology,  brought  out  by  the  Methodist 
Book  Concern  in  1896,  a  Classified  Bibliography  of  Theolog- 
ical and  General  Religious  Literature,  is  one  of  the  finest  speci- 
mens from  the  press  of  the  church.  It  is  a  generous  octavo 
of  "jjt,  pages  and  contains  under  proper  headings  about  ten 
thousand  titles.  His  Bibliotheca  Theologica  was  out  of  print, 
and  the  accumulations  of  new  literature  had  been  numerous 
since  it  was  completed  in  1882.  The  new  work,  while  an  out- 
growth of  the  old,  is  much  more  complete  in  point  of  classifi- 
cation and  more  nearly  exhaustive  of  the  issues  of  the  press  of 
Great  Britain,  the  United  States,  and  Canada.  Another  dis- 
tinct feature,  introduced  at  great  cost  of  labor,  is  the  item  of 
the  price,  added  in  most  instances  to  the  title.  Professor 
George  W.  Gilmore,  of  Bangor  Theological  Seminary,  later 
of  Meadville,  Pennsylvania,  was  his  main  assistant  in  the 
compilation  and  classification  of  the  titles  and  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  the  index  of  subjects,  which  occupies  eighty  pages  of 
double  columns.  The  index  of  authors,  prepared  by  the  writer, 
covers  fifty-seven  pages.  The  book  is  found  in  nearly  all  the 
larger  libraries  of  this  country,  where  it  usually  gives  evidence 
of  frequent  use. 

Among  the  trophies  of  his  habitual  hunt  for  literary  treas- 
ures was  a  manuscript  volume  which  he  discovered  in  an  out- 
of-the-way  part  of  a  secondhand  bookstore  in  Geneva,  Switzer- 
land, in  the  summer  of  1890.  It  proved  to  be  the  autograph 
Journal  of  Captain  William  Pote,  Jr.,  during  his  Captivity 
in  the  French  and  Indian  War  from  May,  1745,  to  August, 
1747.     Pote's  home  was  in  Woodford's,  now  a  part  of  Fal- 

j28  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

mouth,  Maine.  While  engaged  as  captain  of  a  schooner,  the 
Montague,  in  carrying  workmen  and  supplies  to  Fort  Annap- 
olis Royal,  he  was  made  prisoner  by  the  French  and  Indians 
and  taken  to  Quebec,  where  he  was  kept  in  confinement  over 
two  years.  His  Journal  is  a  full  record  of  his  experiences  and 
of  comments  on  many  of  the  important  events  of  the  war,  and 
abounds  in  personalia  of  those  who  shared  his  prison  life — 
thus  contributing  richly  to  the  genealogical  history  of  many 
Xew  England  families.  This  valuable  Journal  for  which  Bishop 
Hurst  wrote  a  general  preface,  and  which  was  annotated, 
with  an  historical  introduction,  by  Mr.  Victor  H.  Paltsits,  of 
the  Lenox  Library,  was  published  by  Dodd,  Mead  &  Co.  in 
1896,  with  superb  illustrations  and  a  reproduction  of  the 
Morris  map  in  the  Lenox  Library,  in  a  limited  edition  of  350 
copies  on  handmade  paper  and  25  copies  on  Imperial  Japan 
paper,  from  the  press  of  De  Vinne.  The  quaint  spelling  of  the 
original  is  preserved  throughout.  Its  quiet  humor  and  occa- 
sional sarcasm  brighten  the  pages  of  this  historic  and  pathetic 
narrative  even  to  the  point  of  fascination.  The  precious  orig- 
inal could  not,  of  course,  be  used  for  printer's  copy,  and  it 
became  the  occupation  of  the  writer  for  many  hours,  taken 
during  a  busy  pastorate  at  Lovejoy  Street  Church,  in  Buffalo, 
to  transcribe  it  in  an  imitation,  approximately  a  facsimile, 
which  was  placed  in  the  printer's  hand.  Mr.  Wilberforce 
Eames,  of  the  Lenox  Library,  says : 

My  first  impression  of  its  historic  value  is  strengthened  by  its  new 
setting.  It  is  certainly  an  important  addition  to  our  stock  of  knowl- 
edge, and  its  quaintness  of  style  adds  to  its  interest. 

Professor  William  F.  Ganoug,  of  Canada,  contributor  to 
the  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Canada,  writes : 

It  is  a  most  valuable  book,  and  admirably  edited. 

History  of  the  Christian  Church  329 

The  Americanist  and  jocose  bookdealer  of  Nassau  Street, 
Mr.  Charles  L.  Woodward,  says : 

If  Captain  Pote  could  see  it,  it  would  compensate  him  for  the  drub- 
bing that  he  received  at  the  hands  of  the  squaws. 

"  Irenic  Movements  Since  the  Reformation  "  was  the  theme 
of  his  lecture,  one  of  a  series,  before  the  Union  Theological 
Seminary  in  New  York  in  1896,  and  appears  in  a  volume  called 
Church  Unity  published  the  same  year  by  the  Scribners.  For 
the  Brief  History  of  English  and  American  Literature,  by 
Professor  Henry  A.  Beers  (2  vols.,  1886,  1887),  he  prepared 
an  Introduction  and  two  supplementary  chapters  on  the  Reli- 
gious and  Theological  Literature  of  Great  Britain  and  the 
United  States,  and  the  work  thus  enlarged  was  issued  in  one 
volume  by  the  Methodist  Book  Concern  with  a  full  index  of 
authors,  writings,  and  periodicals  in  1897.  It  forms  a  most 
useful  and  suggestive  primer  or  compend. 

His  History  of  the  Christian  Church,  in  two  volumes  octavo 
of  nearly  a  thousand  pages  each,  was  published  by  the  Meth- 
odist Book  Concern,  the  first  volume  in  1897  and  the  second 
in  1900.  Upon  this  work  he  wrought  longer  than  any  other. 
He  began  its  writing  during  his  second  year  at  Drew  at  three 
and  three  quarters  minutes  after  11  a.m.  on  January  17,  1873. 
Amid  all  his  other  labors  he  kept  it  as  the  central  object  of  his 
study  and  literary  effort.  The  briefer  histories  which  had 
already  come  from  his  pen  were  rather  the  epitomizings  of 
this  more  extensive  treatment  than  the  germs  from  which  it 
expanded.  The  composition  grew  gradually  into  shape  during 
the  terms  of  his  professorship  at  Drew,  and  more  slowly  dur- 
ing his  residence  at  Des  Moines  and  Buffalo.  The  earlier 
portions  of  it  he  began  to  prepare  for  the  press  in  1883.  In 
these  he  abandoned  the  form  of  lectures  which  at  first  he 
had  thought  to  use,  and  adopted  the  clearly  denned  treatment 

»3<d  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

which  marks  the  entire  work.  After  being  well  settled  in 
Washington  he  organized  and  superintended  a  force  of  helpers 
to  bring  the  work  to  completion.  Among  these  colaborers 
should  be  mentioned,  first.  Rev.  Dr.  John  Alfred  Faulkner, 
who  furnished  many  valuable  additions  and  footnotes,  and 
brought  to  the  author's  hand  much  varied  and  rich  material, 
besides  important  bibliographies  interspersed  throughout. 
Professor  Charles  R.  Gillett,  of  Union  Theological  Sem- 
inary, did  him  excellent  service  in  the  bibliography  of 
the  latter  part  of  the  first  volume,  and  Librarian  S.  G. 
Ayres,  of  Drew  Theological  Seminary,  assisted  in  the  same 
work  in  the  second.  Professor  Charles  W.  Rishell,  of 
Boston  School  of  Theology,  aided  greatly  on  the  Reformation 
in  Continental  countries  and  the  post-Reformation  period  in 
Germany.  Austria,  the  Low  Countries,  and  Scandinavia.  Rev. 
C.  C.  Starbuck,  of  Andover,  was  of  much  assistance  on  the 
post-Reformation  period  in  Southern  Europe  and  on  the  Greek 
Church.  Upon  all  these  contributions  Bishop  Hurst  put  the 
scrutiny  of  his  own  eye  and  the  touch  of  his  practiced  hand 
both  in  the  manuscripts  submitted  and  in  the  galley  and  page 
proofs  which  passed  under  his  revision.  Much  of  this  later 
stage  of  the  work — especially  that  of  passing  through  the 
press — was  done  while  on  journeys,  and  the  writer  enjoyed 
the  privilege  of  reading  and  revising  and  mailing  and 
receiving  again  the  installments  of  proofs,  and,  especially  in 
the  later  chapters  of  the  second  volume,  of  cutting  down 
to  smaller  proportions  the  large  excess  of  matter  above  the 
limits  of  a  two-volume  work.  Of  Volume  I  Dr.  Samuel 
Macauley  Jackson,  professor  of  church  history.  New  York 
University,  says: 

It  is  the  fruit  of  long-continued  study  and  the  use  of  the  most 
recent  literature.  The  author's  standpoint  is  conservative.  But  if 
lie  prefers  the  old  it  is  not  because  he  is  ignorant  of  the  new.     Those 

Commendations  of  the  Press  331 

who  may  make  their  acquaintance  by  means  of  it  with  church  history 
may  rely  upon  it  that  they  will  not  have  to  unlearn  what  they  here 

Of  the  work  as  a  whole  the  following  expressions  of  opinion 
will  show  the  well-nigh  unanimous  verdict  of  the  public : 

This  is  a  work  of  high  order,  not  only  in  scholarship,  but  in  the 
spirit  of  absolute  fairness  which  breathes  on  every  page. — The  Critic. 

Bishop  Hurst  has  brought  to  his  task  not  only  a  thorough  under- 
standing of  his  subject,  but  a  true  historical  spirit. — The  Christian 

Fairness,  accuracy,  and  completeness  within  the  scope  planned  for 
are  the  ends  at  which  he  aims  and,  to  a  very  successful  degree,  reaches. 
— The  Advance. 

The  work  is  plainly  and  even  conspicuously  that  of  a  scholar,  and 
one  who  understands  both  the  need  and  the  method  of  popularizing 
his  learning. — The  Congregationalism 

He  excels  in  brief,  summary  presentations  of  special  topics  which 
omit  nothing  essential  from  the  bony  anatomy  of  the  subject,  but 
clothe  it  with  the  flesh  and  blood  of  a  living  interest. — The  Inde- 

Bishop  Hurst's  work  takes  high  rank  in  the  modern  literature  of 
church  history.  Dr.  Hurst  has  devoted  years  to  the  study  of  his 
subject,  and  his  history  shows  the  result  of  wide  reading,  careful 
thinking,  and  painstaking  composition. — The  Interior. 

Bishop  Hurst  brings  to  his  task  a  thorough  equipment.  To  accurate 
German  scholarship  he  adds  a  clear,  strong,  graceful  English  style. 
He  treats  with  philosophical  insight  the  historical  preparation  of 
Christianity,  the  Apostolic  and  Patristic  ages,  the  early  persecutions 
and  literary  attacks,  the  Christian  apologists,  ecclesiastical  schisms, 
and  the  development  of  theological  literature.  Exceedingly  interesting 
are  the  chapters  on  Early  Christian  Life  and  Usages,  The  Church  in 
the  Catacombs,  The  Triumph  of  Christianity  and  Extinction  of  Pagan- 
ism in  the  Empire,  and  the  great  theological  controversies  that  fol- 
lowed.— Methodist  Magazine  and  Review  {Toronto). 

The  value  of  the  text  is  greatly  enhanced  by  excellent  bibliograph- 
ical tables  and  by  peculiarly  good  maps. — The  Outlook. 

The  chapters  on  Gregory  the  Great  and  Hildebrand  (Gregory  I 
and  Gregory  VII — probably  the  two  greatest  men  who  ever  sat  in  the 
papal  chair)  seem  to  us  to  be  very  well  done  indeed.  The  execution 
throughout  is  not  unworthy  of  the  theme  and  the  author.    He  knows 

33-  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

what  a  church  history  ought  to  be,  and  much  well-directed  labor  has 
issued  in  an  approximation  to  his  ideal. — The  Methodist  Review 
( Nashville). 

His  work  is  that  of  the  true  teacher,  who  directs  his  pupils  to  the 
mines  whence  the  marble  may  be  quarried.  The  preacher  should 
tell  the  story  of  the  vanished  past.  He  will  find  for  his  furnishing 
no  better  work  than  Bishop  Hurst's  thesaurus  of  source-works  and 
rich   pages  of  historic   recital. — Western   Christian  Advocate. 

['lie  chastened  tone  of  a  broad  and  pregnant  scholarship  is  upon 
(.very  page.  It  is  redeemed  from  the  partisan  blemishes  of  an  earlier 
day — those  marks  of  a  callow  and  immature  stage  of  the  historical 
science.  It  is  true  to  the  fundamental  principles  of  the  divine  enter- 
prise it  sets  forth,  and  with  comprehensive  sagacity  it  keenly  recog- 
nizes the  large  submission  of  all  other  elements  in  the  drama  of  life 
to  the  religious  and  ecclesiastical.  The  wonder  remains  that  one  who 
sustains  the  burdens  of  his  office  and  other  burdens  voluntarily 
assumed  in  the  establishment  of  a  complete  educational  equipment  for 
his  church,  should  have  found  the  time  to  offer  these  volumes  of 
consecrated  scholarship  upon  the  altar  of  Christ.  They  betoken  many 
years  of  careful,  painstaking  research  and  fruitful  meditation.  That 
encyclopedic  knowledge  for  which  the  Bishop  has  become  so  widely 
known  is  here  accompanied  by  exactness  and  the  habit  of  a  scholar. 
— Methodist  Review. 

Bishop  Hurst  was  one  of  the  foremost  in  organizing  the 
American  Society  of  Church  History  in  1888  and  a  vigorous 
working  member  of  the  Council.  He  served  as  vice-president 
with  Philip  Schaff  as  president,  and  upon  the  death  of  the  latter 
was  chosen  president  in  1892.  He  filled  that  office  until  the 
society  was  merged  with  the  more  general  American  Historical 
Association  in  1896.  During  its  brief  and  separate  existence 
it  achieved  a  fine  literary  triumph  in  securing  the  publication 
of  a  series  of  thirteen  volumes  of  denominational  histories,  of 
which  he  was  one  of  seven  general  editors,  the  others  being- 
Philip  Schaff,  Henry  C.  Potter,  George  P.  Fisher,  E.  J.  Wolf, 
Henry  C.  Vedder,  and  Samuel  Macauley  Jackson.  Dr.  Jack- 
son says : 

One  meeting  of  the  Council  was  in  his  house  in  Washington  (4  Iowa 

History  of  Rationalism  Revised  33$ 

Circle).    It  was  there  that  the  scheme  for  a  series  of  denominational 
histories  was  first  discussed. 

In  his  tribute  to  Dr.  Schaff  he  said : 

Our  friend  and  teacher  has  with  unerring  skill  taught  not  only  us 
of  to-day,  but  our  successors  forever.  As  in  general  literature  future 
generations  will  remember  Coleridge  and  Carlyle  as  first  revealing 
to  the  Anglo-Saxon  mind  the  wealth  of  German  literature  of  the  time 
of  Goethe,  Schiller,  Herder,  Wieland,  and  the  whole  Weimar  pan- 
theon, so  will  our  friend,  the  youngest  of  us  all  in  hope  and  the  senior 
of  us  all  in  charity,  be  remembered  gratefully  and  affectionately  as 
the  first  to  bring  to  the  Anglo-Saxon  mind  the  learned  theological 
treasures  of  the  Fatherland. 

Upon  the  invitation  of  Mr.  Rossiter  Johnson,  editor-in-chief 
of  Appleton's  series  of  The  World's  Great  Books,  he  furnished 
the  three  biographical  and  critical  introductions  for  the 
volume  containing  Thomas  a  Kempis's  Imitation  of  Christ, 
Rochefoucauld's  Maxims,  and  Pascal's  Thoughts  (New  York, 

The  revised  edition  of  his  History  of  Rationalism  which 
appeared  in  1901  was,  under  his  direction,  prepared  for  the 
press  by  the  writer,  assisted  by  Professor  F.  E.  Hirsch,  of 
Charles  City,  Iowa.  In  1901  Revell  published  in  Chicago 
Upon  the  Sun-road :  Glints  from  the  Sermons  of  Bishop  John 
F.  Hurst,  edited  by  Viola  Price  Franklin,  an  i8mo  of  56  pages, 
one  of  the  Quiet  Home  Series.  The  selections  were  made  from 
a  larger  collection  taken  here  and  there  from  the  published 
works  of  the  Bishop  and  sent  to  Mrs.  Franklin,  who  with  an 
appropriate  foreword  and  with  good  taste  chose  and  classified 
under  proper  headings  seventy-four  of  those  best  suited  for  her 

In  1 90 1  also  appeared,  from  the  Western  Methodist  Book 
Concern  at  Cincinnati,  his  little  book  entitled  The  New  Hearth- 
stone :  A  Bridal  Greeting.     Besides  the  marriage  ritual  it  con- 


34  John   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

tains  seven  chapters  centering  abont  The  Hearthstone.  His 
purpose  was  to  embody  certain  elements  of  an  artistic  char- 
acter in  a  work  not  dissimilar  in  general  to  The  Wedding 
Day,  and  the  publishers  succeeded  to  his  entire  satisfaction 
in  the  beautiful  product  of  their  press. 

it  was  in  the  early  nineties  that  the  Publishing  Agents  of 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  at  New  York  invited  Bishop 
Hurst  to  assume  the  responsibility  for  a  new  and  popular 
1  [istory  of  .Methodism.  To  their  request,  after  several  months 
of  declinature  on  the  ground  of  preoccupation  with  other  tasks, 
he  finally  acceded  and  began  in  1893  with  his  usual  vigor  to 
plan  for  its  execution.  He  secured  as  collaborator  the  services 
of  Rev.  Thomas  E.  Brigden,  of  the  Wesleyan  Church  in  Eng- 
land, on  the  British  Methodism — one  whose  literary  and 
antiquarian  tastes  he  had  quite  freely  tested  in  other  days  of 
personal  association.  For  American  Methodism  he  employed 
on  different  parts  Rev.  W.  A.  Dickson,  Rev.  E.  L.  Watson, 
Rev.  Dr.  S.  Reese  Murray,  Rev.  Page  Milburn,  Dr.  James 
R.  Joy.  and  the  writer,  who  also  wrote  the  Foreword  in  March, 
1900;  and  for  the  World-Wide  Methodism,  the  Rev.  Dr.  James 
Mudge,  Rev.  F.  G.  Porter,  and  Mr.  R.  H.  Johnston,  of  the 
Library  of  Congress.  The  accumulation  of  material  in  manu- 
script and  illustrations  continued  until  1899,  when  by  arrange- 
ment with  the  publishers  he  committed  the  final  work  of  adjust- 
ing part  to  part,  and  of  completing,  revising,  and  preparing 
the  entire  mass  for  the  press,  according  to  the  author's  plan, 
to  Dr.  Joy,  who  finished  the  task  in  January.  1904.  The  work 
was  published  in  seven  finely  illustrated  octavo  volumes,  three 
each  being  given  to  British  Methodism  (1902)  and  American 
Methodism  (1903),  and  the  last  one  to  World-Wide  Meth- 
odism ( 1904). 

Incidental  to  the  progress  of  this  stately  work  through  the 
press  and  helpful  to  its  just  fame  was  the  publication,  in  1903. 

John  Wesley  the  Methodist  335 

of  the  greatly  admired  volume  entitled  John  Wesley  the  Meth- 
odist, By  a  Methodist  Preacher.  Much  wonderment  as  to  its 
authorship  was  gratified  and  satisfied,  when,  upon  an  examina- 
tion of  the  three  volumes  on  British  Methodism,  it  was  found 
to  be  a  judicious  selection  therefrom  of  portions,  both  illustra- 
tions and  text,  bearing  directly  on  the  subject.  The  deft  work 
of  this  biographic  extract  was  also  done  by  Dr.  Joy,  who 
supplied  the  sentences  needed  here  and  there  as  a  nexus  to  form 
this  spirited  and  picturesque  portraiture  of  Methodism's  illus- 
trious founder.  John  Wesley  the  Methodist  and  The  History 
of  Methodism  will  stand  the  worthy  monument  of  Bishop 
Hurst's  latest  stage  of  literary  fecundity  and  useful  authorship. 

336  Jo u.v   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  Bishop 

1892-96. — At  Washington. — Twenty-five    Conferences   in    Fourteen   States, 
West,  Central,  East,   and  South. — Funeral  of  Secretary  Gresham 

At  the  twenty-seventh  anniversary  of  the  Board  of  Church 

Extension  in  Philadelphia,  on  November  4,  1892,  Bishop  Hurst 

was  one  of  the  speakers.     In  an  address  of  much  point  and 

power  he  said  of  the  two  leaders,  Drs.  Kynett  and  McCabe : 

Some  years  ago  there  was  out  in  Iowa  a  young  man  nursing  a 
great  idea.  He  began  by  extending  himself  over  six  feet  in  the  ethe- 
real regions.  Then  he  thought  of  extending  the  church  into  all  the 
country.  A  few  years  of  service  as  pastor  and  presiding  elder 
expanded  the  idea.  Of  course,  there  was  only  one  place  for  such 
a  man,  and  that  was  at  the  center  in  Philadelphia.  Chaplain  McCabe 
has  never  found  out  precisely  the  society  to  which  he  belongs.  It 
used  to  be  the  Church  Extension,  after  that  it  was  the  Missionary 
Society ;  at  present  it  is  quite  largely  the  American  University.  But 
he  has  a  great  heart  and  takes  in  both  hemispheres  and  all  the  stars. 

On  January  12,  1893,  he  opens  his  mouth  in  defense  of  the 
American  Sabbath  in  the  memorable  hearing  before  the  select 
Committee  of  the  House  of  Representatives  against  open  gates 
on  Sunday  at  the  World's  Fair.  Dr.  J.  H.  Knowles,  of  the 
American  Sabbath  Union,  says,  "  Bishop  Hurst's  address  was 
most  impressive." 

In  the  spring  of  1893  he  held  two  Conferences,  the  South- 
west Kansas  at  Great  Bend,  and  the  Northwest  Kansas  at 
Belleville.  The  spirit  of  his  presidency  at  the  former  is  well 
expressed  by  Dr.  James  T.  Hanna : 

He  was  kind,  gentlemanly,  genial,  considerate,  sympathetic.  He 
evidently  desired  to  please  God  in  all  he  did  or  said,  to  benefit  the 
church  and  help  the  brethren. 

Anonymous  Letters  337 

Touches  of  his  humor  are  mingled  in  a  letter  to  Helen 
written  from  Chicago  while  in  attendance  on  the  Bishops' 
meeting  at  Evanston,  on  May  3,  1893: 

Bishops  Foss,  Foster,  and  FitzGerald  were  on  my  train  when  the 
Washington  and  New  York  train  joined  ours  at  Harrisburg.  So 
we  settled  all  the  affairs  of  the  church  right  away,  and  all  talked  all 
the  time. 

On  June  25  he  delivered  a  chastely  eloquent  address  on  the 
late  Senator  Leland  Stanford  in  the  Metropolitan  Church. 
His  Conferences  that  fall  were  the  Cincinnati  at  Troy,  Ohio, 
Erie  at  DuBois,  Pennsylvania,  Ohio  at  Lancaster,  Blue  Ridge 
at  Daisy,  North  Carolina,  and  the  North  Carolina  at  Lexing- 
ton. At  DuBois  some  anonymous  letters  reached  him  intended 
to  prevent  the  probable  appointment  of  a  certain  minister  as 
presiding  elder  and  containing  statements  of  his  unsoundness 
in  doctrine  and  irregularity  in  conduct.  Showing  the  letters 
to  the  preacher  himself,  he  said,  "  This  is  what  I  always  do 
with  this  sort  of  stuff."  He  tore  the  letter  into  fragments  and 
cast  them  into  the  waste  basket.  While  at  home  a  few  days 
before  his  trip  to  North  Carolina  his  affection  for  his  former 
associates  and  successors  flames  out  on  October  9  in  a  message 
to  Helen,  who  was  on  a  visit  to  Madison : 

Give  best  love  to  all  at  dear  Drew.  No  oaks  or  hearts  better 
than  there. 

He  preached  a  notable  Thanksgiving  sermon  on  November 
30  in  Foundry  Church  in  which  he  dealt  in  no  uncertain  terms 
with  the  question  of  the  exclusion  of  the  Chinese.     He  asks : 

In  God's  even  scale  of  justice  which  outweighs  the  other,  the  China- 
man with  his  tolerance  or  the  American  with  his  exclusiveness? 

His  spring  Conferences  in   1894  were  the  Washington  in 

that  city,  the  Central  Pennsylvania  at  Harrisburg,  and  the 

33^  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Wyoming  at  Scranton,  Pennsylvania.     At  the  first  named  he 
said  : 

These  cheerful  faces  do  not  indicate  that  they  have  seen  hard  times, 
hut  later  reports  will  tell.  I  hope  the  presiding  elders  will  expunge 
all  allusions  to  hard  times  from  their  reports. 

In  the  fall  four  Conferences  fell  to  his  lot :  Indiana  at  Bloom- 
ington.  Southeast  Indiana  at  Shelbyville,  Tennessee  at  Martin, 
and  Central  Tennessee  at  Dowelltown.  W.  P.  Banks  says  of 
his  work  at  Dowelltown : 

Nothing  escaped  his  eagle  eye.  He  required  everything,  in  open 
Conference  and  in  Cabinet  sessions,  to  be  up  to  a  high  standard,  and 
yet.  when  a  case  proved  itself  worthy,  he  exhibited  the  tenderness 
of  a  woman.  A  brother  who  made  rather  loud  claims  to  holiness 
was  considerably  behind  with  his  Conference  course  of  study.  The 
Bishop  asked  him  some  questions  about  what  he  knew  of  these  books. 
The  brother  replied  evasively,  "  Bishop,  I  am  wholly  the  Lord's." 
'  Well,"  said  the  Bishop,  "  a  man  can  be  wholly  the  Lord's  and  still 
be  very  ignorant." 

He  responded  cheerfully  to  a  call  to  speak  at  the  dedication 
of  the  new  Hoyt-Bowne  dormitory  building  at  Drew  on  Octo- 
ber 23,  and  gave  a  charming  and  inspiring  address  on  "  The 
Romance  of  Drew."  At  the  close  of  the  annual  meeting  of 
the  American  Society  of  Church  History  at  Washington  on 
December  28.  1894,  he  entertained  the  officers  and  members 
at  luncheon  at  his  home,  1701  Massachusetts  Avenue.  The 
spring  of  1895  brought  him  to  the  Lexington  Conference  at 
Maysville,  Kentucky,  the  Wilmington  at  Smyrna,  and  the 
Newark  at  Tottenville.  on  Staten  Island — his  second  official 
visit  to  each  of  the  two  latter.    Elam  A.  White  says : 

At  Maysville  a  brother  had  misplaced  twenty-five  dollars  of  the 
benevolent  money  and  was  unable  to  pay  it,  and  the  Bishop  asked 
that  the  money  be  made  good.  Whereupon  a  member  of  the  Confer- 
ence moved  that  we  take  a  collection,  which  was  done,  covering  the 

Funeral  of  Secretary  Gresham  339 

Upon  the  sudden  death  of  Judge  Gresham,  Secretary  of 
State,  he  was  requested  by  President  Cleveland,  on  behalf  of 
Mrs.  Gresham,  to  conduct  the  funeral  services  on  May  29, 

1895,  at  the  White  House.    Mr.  Cleveland  writes: 

His  ministration  on  that  occasion  was  noted  by  us  all  as  being  the 
most  solemn  and  appropriate.  All  that  I  recall  of  him  is  of  the 
most  pleasing  character. 

He  became  a  nonresident  member  of  the  Century  Association 
of  New  York  on  June  1,  1895.  and  remained  in  actual  relation 
until  1902.  He  was  also  connected  with  the  Authors  Club 
from  about  the  same  time  until  his  decease. 

His  fall  assignments,  1895,  were  four:  Central  Swedish  at 
Chicago  (where  he  used  the  Swedish  language  in  the  opening 
service,  at  the  communion,  and  at  the  ordination  ceremonies).. 
Detroit  at  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan  at  Albion,  and  the  North  Ohio 
at  Mount  Vernon.  The  Conferences  at  Ann  Arbor  and  Albion 
in  two  successive  weeks  were  seasons  of  intense  feeling,  the 
interests  of  Albion  College  being  thought  by  some  to  be  jeop- 
ardized by  those  of  the  American  University,  represented  by 
the  Bishop  and  earnestly  advocated  by  many  leading  members 
of  the  bodies.  The  result,  however,  was  a  fine  illustration  of 
how  one  good  cause  is  helped,  but  not  hindered,  by  another. 
He  was  in  Washington  again  in  time  to  give  an  address  at 
the  corner-stone  laying  of  the  Fifteenth  Street  Church  on 
October  8.  The  Upper  Mississippi  at  Grenada,  the  Alabama 
at  Pratt  City,  the  Central  Alabama  at  Marion,  and  the  Phil- 
adelphia at  that  city,  claim  his  attention  in  the  early  part  of 

1896.  Of  the  Bishop  at  Marion  Dr.  Henry  N.  Brown  says: 

He  was  the  mirror  of  a  great  mind,  but  noted  for  his  simplicity. 
He  was  kind  to  children  and  did  not  fail  to  ask  about  them.  He  was 
approachable,  and  made  the  most  lowly  to  feel  at  home  in  his 

340  Jonx   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

In  an  opening  address  at  Philadelphia  he  made  feeling  ref- 
erence to  the  religious  care  of  that  body  over  his  childhood 
home.  He  also  expressed  the  hope  and  belief  that  God 
would  hasten  the  time  of  Cuba's  freedom — so  wonderfully 
fulfilled  two  years  later.  On  March  9  he  presided  at  the 
ceremony  of  ground-breaking  for  the  College  of  History  of  the 
American  University.  On  June  4  at  the  corner-stone  laying 
of  First  Church  at  Germantown  he  made  an  address  which 
was  very  rich  in  local  and  historical  allusion. 


1896-98.— At   Washington.— Twenty-three   Conferences   in    Sixteen   States, 
,  Central,  East,  South,  and  West.— Many  Addresses.— A  Zoological  Episode 

At  the  General  Conference  of  1896,  held  in  Cleveland,  Ohio, 
he  presided  on  May  8  and  the  25th  in  the  afternoon.  In  the 
consecration  of  Bishop-elect  McCabe  he  joined  with  Bishops 
Bowman  and  Foster,  and  Drs.  L.  D.  McCabe  and  T.  C.  Iliff, 
in  the  laying  on  of  hands.  Upon  his  return  from  General 
Conference  he  set  earnestly  about  learning  to  ride  the  bicycle, 
in  which  the  writer  was  permitted  to  act  as  tutor  to  his  former 
teacher.  He  became  a  good  rider  and  took  frequent  spins 
about  the  city  and  at  Marion,  where  he  spent  several  summers. 

Four  Conferences  in  the  fall  of  1896  call  him  from  home: 
The  Kentucky  at  Vanceburg,  West  Virginia  at  Moundsville. 
Pittsburg  at  Indiana.  Pennsylvania,  and  the  Genesee  at  Corn- 
ing. New  York.     Joseph  Lee  says: 

He  impressed  me  at  Moundsville  by  his  firmness  and  the  kindness 
which  he  showed  toward  the  men  who  were  in  hard  fields  of  labor. 

He  was  present  and  spoke  at  the  reception  to  Bishop  Fowler 
in  Buffalo  on  October  2.     The  session  of  Genesee  at  Corning 

Honored  by  Princeton  341 

is  vividly  impressed  on  the  memory  of  the  writer  as  one  of 
the  most  intense  in  spirit  for  twenty  years.  The  enthusiastic 
subscription  for  the  American  University  of  $3,000  by  the 
preachers  themselves,  the  sudden  death  of  Rev.  Andrew  Purdy 
on  the  streets  of  the  city,  the  funeral  service  conducted  by  the 
Bishop  at  the  church,  and  his  powerful  and  evangelistic  sermon 
on  Sunday  morning — all  united  to  lift  the  thought  and  purpose 
of  the  body  to  a  higher  level  of  spirituality.  On  Wednesday, 
October  21,  he  presided  and  made  the  first  address  at  the 
corner-stone  laying  of  the  College  of  History  of  the  American 
University.  It  was  a  memorable  occasion,  addresses  being 
given  by  Bishop  Alphaeus  W.  Wilson,  the  Hon.  Robert  E. 
Pattison,  Bishop  Charles  H.  Fowler,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Charles 
H.  Payne,  the  Rev.  Dr.  James  M.  Buckley,  and  Bishop  Charles 
C.  McCabe. 

Princeton  University  in  November,  1896,  as  one  of  its 
honors  at  its  one  hundred  and  fiftieth  anniversary,  conferred 
upon  him  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity.  His  eighth  official 
tour  in  the  South  came  early  in  1897,  when  he  held  the  Florida 
Conference  at  Tampa,  Saint  John's  River  at  Tarpon  Springs, 
Savannah  at  that  city,  and  South  Carolina  at  Columbia,  leaving 
Washington  on  January  12  and  arriving  at  home  February  9. 
As  was  his  unvarying  habit  on  every  return  with  valise  or 
trunk,  these  were  immediately  unpacked  before  he  ate  or  slept, 
and  put  in  readiness  for  the  next  trip.  Travel  in  all  its 
minutiae  had  become  a  second  nature  to  him.  The  next  week 
he  is  in  New  York,  but  consents  in  his  absence  to  let  the 
writer  take  his  copies  of  Melanchthon's  Bible  and  Horace,  each 
containing  autograph  notes  of  the  "  Good  Philip,"  to  the 
four  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  reformer's  birth  at  Luther 
Memorial  Church  on  the  1 5th  of  February.  He  returned  from 
another  trip  to  New  York  on  the  22d,  but  left  again  that  night 
for  Madison  to  attend  the  funeral  of  Dr.  George  R.  Crooks 

34-  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

on  the  following  day,  where  he  made  a  beautiful  and  appre- 
ciative address,  from  which  we  take  the  following  warm 
flashes : 

With  the  illustrious  names  of  McClintock,  Nadal,  Kidder,  Strong, 
Miley,  and  now  the  knightly  Crooks,  this  school  of  theology  furnishes 
to  the  world  most  vivid  examples  of  the  nobility  of  service,  the  splen- 
dor of  consecrated  genius,  the  sweet  melody  of  lives  attuned  to  the 
harmonies  of  heaven.  .  .  .  His  mind  was  transfigured  while  gazing 
into  the  perspectives  of  history. 

He  preached  at  Harvard  University  in  March,  and  at  Vassar 
College  on  April  25.  Five  more  Conferences  were  under  his 
supervision  in  the  fall :  Central  German  at  Columbus,  Ohio, 
Central  Illinois  at  Canton,  Minnesota  at  Winona,  Northern 
Minnesota  at  Fergus  Falls,  and  the  Northern  German  at  Ar- 
lington, Minnesota.  On  his  coming  to  the  Germans  at  Colum- 
bus, H.  A.  Schroetter,  of  Covington,  wrriting  of  him  as  "  our 
German  Bishop,"  says: 

Of  medium  stature,  well  proportioned,  with  clear  eyes,  strong  yet 
pleasing  and  dignified  features,  which  give  proof  of  his  high  culture, 
he  has  largely  acquired  the  German  good  nature,  and  knows  much  of 
its  amiable  fellowship. 

At  this  Conference  he  spoke  touchingly  in  German  at  the 
memorial  service  for  Frederick  Cramer,  one  of  his  former 
pupils  in  Bremen.     F.  W.  Merrell  says: 

His  advice  to  the  young  preachers  at  Canton  as  to  their  investments 
was  apt.  He  said:  "  I  would  advise  you  not  to  build  a  shed  to  which 
you  must  go  when  it  rains,  but  to  buy  an  umbrella  that  you  can  take 
with  you."  He  then  spoke  of  the  embarrassment  occasioned  to  pastors 
and  to  the  Cabinet  by  the  endeavor  to  station  pastors  who  buy  farms : 
'They  want  to  be  sent  to  the  charge  just  north  of  it  (the  farm), 
then  to  the  one  just  south  of  it,  then  to  the  one  just  east,  and  then 
the  one  west,  and  then  they  are  done.    They  locate." 

Of  the  same  session  R.  B.  Williams  writes : 

A  Warm  Place  in  Southern  Hearts  343 

In  Cabinet  work  I  found  him  one  of  the  most  brotherly,  sympa- 
thetic, lovable  men  that  I  have  ever  known. 

Dr.  L.  L.  Hanscom  says : 

At  Winona  he  was  unpretending  in  life  and  manner  and  the  em- 
bodiment of  thoughtfulness,  earnestness,  and  energy. 

Bishop  Hurst's  fine  sense  and  habitual  use  of  courtesy 
toward  those  who  came  before  the  Conferences  where  he  was 
presiding  found  effective  illustration  at  the  Minnesota  Con- 
ference in  his  introduction  of  Dr.  William  V.  Kelley,  editor 
of  the  Methodist  Review,  in  a  brief  reference  to  the  Doctor's 
father,  Rev.  Benjamin  Kelley.    Dr.  Kelley  writes : 

As  I  listened  I  thought  how  incredible  it  would  have  sounded  to 
that  faithful,  modest,  unselfish  man,  if,  when  he  lay  dying  in  Port 
Jervis,  in  October,  1874,  some  one  had  told  him  that,  twenty-three 
years  after  he  had  gone,  a  bishop  of  the  church  would  stand  in  far-off 
Minnesota  and  describe  his  character  and  eulogize  his  life  and  his 
work  in  the  presence  of  a  whole  Conference. 

At  the  close  of  the  Bishops'  meeting  in  Baltimore  he  was 
saddened  by  the  news  of  the  sudden  decease  of  Dr.  Charles 
W.  Buoy,  of  Philadelphia,  at  whose  funeral  on  November  5 
he  made  the  first  address — a  model  tribute  to  a  true  knight  of 
the  cross.  He  served  as  one  of  the  Joint  Committee  on  Federa- 
tion of  the  two  great  Methodist  bodies  on  January  7  and  8, 
1898,  in  Washington,  and  gave  a  reception  to  the  other  mem- 
bers on  the  evening  of  the  7th  in  his  library.  His  brotherly 
cooperation  with  the  representatives  of  the  Southern  Church 
in  securing  their  just  rights  from  Congress  brought  out  a 
testimony  to  his  large  love  for  the  brethren  of  that  great  com- 
munion in  a  characteristic  letter  from  Dr.  (now  Bishop)  E.  E. 
Hoss,  who  on  January  28  wrote : 

Be  assured  that  you  have  made  for  yourself  a  warm  place  in 
the  Southern  Methodist  heart.     What  a  blessing  it  would  be  if  the 

$44  Jo,IX   Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

best  nun  of  our  two  churches  only  knew  one  another!  And  what  a 
blessing  if  all  the  malcontents  and  soreheads  could  be  put  into  a 
capacious  growlery,  and  allowed  to  fight  and  snarl  to  their  hearts' 
content ! 

In  February  he  was  elected  one  of  the  vice-presidents  of 
the  Evangelical  Alliance  for  the  United  States,  an  honor 
which  he  appreciated  highly,  and  he  gave  frequent  proofs  of 
his  interest  in  the  noble  and  beautiful  objects  which  caused 
and  still  glorify  its  existence.  One  day  about  the  middle  of 
February  while  exercising  on  Sixteenth  Street  on  his  bicycle, 
which  had  come  to  be  almost  a  rival  to  his  favorite  pedes- 
trianism,  there  was  suddenly  placed  before  him  the  alternative 
of  running  against  a  woman  or  taking  a  fall  to  the  pavement. 
It  was  a  case  of  self-preservation  versus  politeness,  and  polite- 
ness won.  He  carried  a  bruised  hip  for  two  weeks,  and  an 
operation  wTas  found  necessary  before  he  was  well  again.  The 
Delaware  Conference  at  Orange,  New  Jersey,  the  New  York 
at  that  city,  and  the  East  German  at  Rochester,  New  York, 
were  his  in  the  spring  of  1898.  During  this  second  presidency 
over  the  New  York  Conference  he  made  a  visit  to  the  congre- 
gation of  Saint  Mark's  Church  (colored).  Dr.  W.  H.  Brooks, 
its  pastor,  says : 

His  address  to  my  people  was  sparkling,  bubbling  over  with  wit 
and  humor,  and  full  of  a  deep  spirituality,  and  his  sermon  was  pro- 
found and  ran  like  limpid  waters  from  a  full  fountain. 

Mr.  John  M.  Cornell,  his  host,  wrote  him  after  the  session: 
1  Your  presidency  has  left  nothing  but  pleasant  impressions 
and  happy  memories."  At  Rochester  he  chose  to  preach  in 
English,  but  conducted  the  business  and  the  ordination  services 
and  addressed  the  Sunday  school  in  German.  On  May  21 
he  presided  in  Baltimore  at  a  meeting  of  the  Executive  Com- 
mittee of  the  Western  Section  for  the  Third  Ecumenical 
Conference,  and  in  the  evening  made  an  address  at  a  meeting 

"A  Beautiful  and  Sweet  Alliance"  345 

held  under  the  auspices  of  the  General  Conference  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  in  the  interest  of  the 
American  University.  On  June  1  he  spoke  on  the  Leadership 
of  Christianity  in  the  Higher  Education  at  the  Quarter  Cen- 
tennial of  Boston  University.  Mrs.  C.  W.  Ellis,  of  Newton- 
ville.  savs : 

This  was  one  of  the  most  scholarly  and  most  charming  of  his 
public  addresses.  He  spoke  at  the  same  time  with  President  Eliot, 
of  Harvard,  and  other  speakers  chosen  from  the  best  we  have  here, 
and  I  recall  the  pride  I  felt  at  the  time  in  the  speech  of  the  Bishop. 

Speaking  of  the  early  leaders  in  education  in  the  church,  he 

Brave  they  were,  glowing  incarnations  of  the  beatitudes  of  Christ. 
.  .  .  Hostility  between  the  church  and  the  university  !  Never  !  Noth- 
ing but  an  everlasting  unity,  a  beautiful  and  sweet  alliance. 

On  June  20  he  delivered  the  address  at  the  dedication  of  the 
Slocum  Library  at  Ohio  Wesleyan  University,  his  subject 
being  Libraries  in  the  United  States. 

With  his  daughter  Helen  he  made  the  rounds  of  the  Pacific 
Conferences  again  in  the  fall  of  1898:  Nevada  Mission  at 
Carson  City,  California  German  at  San  Francisco,  California 
at  Pacific  Grove,  Southern  California  at  Santa  Barbara,  Ari- 
zona at  Tuqson,  New  Mexico  English  Mission  at  Silver  City, 
being  the  one  hundred  and  fiftieth  in  his  episcopal  career,  and 
the  New  Mexico  Spanish  Mission  at  El  Paso.  Texas.  Dr. 
H.  B.  Heacock  says  his  address  to  the  entering  class  at  Pacific 
Grove  was  "  instructive,  inspiring,  and  lives  in  the  memory  of 
many  " ;  and  adds : 

The  American  University  had  now  assumed  a  certain  regnancy 
in  his  thought.  The  interests  of  our  church  in  colleges  and  univer- 
sities, according  to  his  theory,  demanded  a  great  central  post-graduate 
institution  as  its  climax  and  bond  of  union.  The  institution  at 
Washington,  so  auspiciously  begun,  loomed  before  his  vision  as  the 

546  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

normal  outcome  of  our  educational  plans  and  essential  to  their  full 

1  )f  his  interest  in  zoology  in  a  practical  way  few  are  aware, 
and  the  letter  of  Dr.  Frank  Baker,  Superintendent  of  the  Na- 
tional Zoological  Park,  will  be  a  surprise  to  many  of  his 
friends : 

Washington,  D.  C,  September  22. — I  am  very  greatly  obliged  to 
you  for  the  interest  you  have  taken  with  regard  to  procuring  speci- 
mens for  the  National  Zoological  Park.  The  bear  from  Marion, 
Massachusetts,  has  arrived,  and  has  proved  to  be  a  very  fine  acquisi- 
tion. With  regard  to  the  bear  at  Truckee,  California,  the  expense  of 
transportation  would  be  so  great  that  it  will  hardly  pay  the  Park  to 
negotiate  for  the  animal. 

'  In  our  Spanish  Mission,"  says  Dr.  Thomas  Harwood  of 
the  meeting  at  El  Paso,  "  he  was  so  kind  and  fatherly  that 
he  endeared  himself  wonderfully  to  all  our  Mexican  brethren." 
About  Thanksgiving  time  in  response  to  an  invitation  from  the 
editor  of  Harper's  Weekly  he  wrote  a  vigorous  and  approving 
article  on  the  very  live  topic  of  expansion  in  the  Philippines. 
It  was  published  simultaneously  with  another  of  a  different 
view  by  Bishop  Henry  C.  Potter,  of  Xew  York,  who  after 
a  trip  of  observation  in  the  Orient  greatly  modified  the  senti- 
ments contained  in  his  own  article.  On  December  18  he  spoke 
at  the  Decennial  of  the  American  Sabbath  Union,  of  which 
he  was  a  Manager,  held  in  Calvary  Baptist  Church.  Among 
other  excellent  remarks  he  said : 

The  general  opinion  of  thinking  men  and  of  the  press  to-day  is 
the  discriminating  and  just  view  that  the  Sabbath  is  a  great  boon  from 
the  Creator  to  the  race  made  in  his  image,  and  should  be  welcomed 
in  the  spirit  of  love,  obedience,  and  hope  as  the  bulwark  of  social 
morality  and  a  fountain  of  blessing  to  the  home  and  to  the  state. 

Hymns  in  the  White  House  347 


1898-1901. — At  Washington. — President  McKinley's  Friendship. — Nineteen 
Conferences  in  Eleven  States,  West,  North,  South,  and  East. — 

His  Second   Marriage 

Major  William  McKinley  and  Bishop  Hurst  were  fast 
friends  before  the  choice  of  the  people  made  the  Major  the 
President.  Of  this  relation  as  it  continued  and  grew  to  in- 
timacy Colonel  Henry  O.  S.  Heistand.  who  was  Mr.  McKin- 
ley's private  secretary  when  he  was  Governor  of  Ohio,  says : 

Bishop  Hurst  was  one  of  the  warmest  personal  friends  of  William 
McKinley.  No  one  visited  Mr.  McKinley  who  was  more  cordially 
welcomed  than  Bishop  Hurst.  The  President  not  only  appreciated 
the  Bishop  on  account  of  his  high  ecclesiastical  office,  but  admired 
him  for  his  brilliant  attainments,  his  excellent  judgment,  and  his 
wise  counsels.  He  loved  him  for  his  charming  and  sympathetic 
nature,  and  placed  high  value  upon  him  as  a  man  and  friend.  The 
relations  existing  between  these  two  great  men  were  those  of  perfect 
confidence.  For  many  years  it  was  Mr.  McKinley's  custom  to  have 
his  intimate  friends  gather  at  his  home  on  Sunday  evenings  and  sing 
hymns.  Mrs.  McKinley,  being  unable  to  attend  church,  the  President 
always,  if  possible,  remained  with  her  in  the  evening,  though  attend- 
ing church  in  the  morning  by  himself.  At  these  little  informal 
Sunday  evenings  the  voices  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  McKinley  were  always 
mingled  with  those  of  the  assembled  company,  and  occasionally  Mrs. 
McKinley  would  play  an  accompaniment.  Upon  entering  the  White 
House  this  custom  was  continued,  and  Bishop  Hurst  was  so  frequently 
a  member  of  the  party  that  Mr.  McKinley  hardly  thought  the  gather- 
ing complete  until  the  Bishop  had  arrived.  It  was  through  these 
gatherings,  where  my  wife  usually  played  the  accompaniment,  that  I 
formed  the  acquaintance  with  Bishop  Hurst,  which  grew  to  a  friend- 
ship. At  one  of  these  evenings  of  sacred  song  it  was  discovered  that 
the  only  Methodist  hymn  book  available  was  the  one  carried  by  Mr. 
McKinley  in  his  own  church  devotions,  and  the  President  said,  "  I 
must  get  some  more  hymn  books.  Our  little  Sunday  evening  devotion 
must  not  suffer  for  want  of  books."  Whereupon  Bishop  Hurst  said, 
"  Now,  Mr.  President,  let  me  provide  the  hymn  books  for  the  White 
House";  to  which  the  President  agreed.  A  few  days  later  (on  New 
Year's  Eve,   1898),  ten  handsome  copies  of  the  Methodist  Hymnal, 

348  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

each  volume  bearing  Bishop  Hurst's  compliments  and  his  signature, 
were  received  and  afterward  used  on  Sunday  evening  by  the  "  White 
House  Choir"  (as  the  President  called  it),  until  the  time  of  Mr. 
McKinley's  death. 

The  Hon.  George  B.  Cortelyou,  Postmaster-General,  who 
was  secretary  to  the  President  at  the  time  of  his  tragic  death, 
says : 

I  well  remember  President  McKinley's  regard  for  Bishop  Hurst, 
and  the  President  several  times  commented  to  me  on  the  energy  and 
forcefulness  with  which  the  Bishop  presented  the  claims  of  the 
University.  Upon  the  occasion  of  these  calls  I  saw  the  Bishop  fre- 
quently, and  always  had  the  pleasantest  relations  with  him.  He  was 
of  a  peculiarly  gentle  and  winning  disposition,  but  withal  a  very 
vigorous  and  persevering  advocate  in  any  cause  in  which  he  was 

On  one  of  his  calls  to  see  the  President,  Bishop  Hurst  noticed 
that  the  usually  lustrous  eyes  seemed  a  bit  dim,  and  said : 

'  You  seem  a  little  tired."  "  Yes,''  he  replied,  "  I  have  not 
been  quite  well  for  several  days."  "  Is  there  anything  I  can 
do  for  you?  "  asked  the  Bishop.     "  Yes,  there  is,"  he  replied. 

1  Keep  on  praying  for  me ;  that  will  help  me  more  than  any- 
thing else." 

His  Conferences  in  the  spring  of  1899  were  the  Saint  Louis 
at  Union  Church  in  that  city,  the  Missouri  at  Cameron,  and 
the  Central  Missouri  at  Oskaloosa,  Iowa.  The  session  at 
Saint  Louis  was  remarkable  for  the  spirit  of  reunion  manifest 
between  the  representatives  of  the  two  great  branches  of 
American  Methodism.     Dr.  Frank  Lenig  writes : 

The  ordination  of  elders,  held  in  the  Lindell  Avenue  Church  Sun- 
day afternoon,  was  unique,  peculiarly  impressive,  and  perhaps  the 
first  of  the  kind  ever  held — a  kind  of  a  reunion  service.  At  the  laying 
on  of  hands  Bishop  Hurst  was  assisted  inside  the  altar  by  Bishop 
McCabe.  and  Bishop  E.  R.  Hendrix,  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church.  South ;  and  on  the  outside  by  Dr.  Young,  Dr.  Hopkins,  of 
the  Southern   Church,  and  myself. 

City  or  Great  Heart  " 


Dr.  W.  T.  Wright  says : 

His  eye  and  intellect  were  clear,  his  administration  vigorous.  The 
Conference  was  hard  to  handle,  but  the  Bishop  handled  it  with  his 
usual  skill  and,  I  think,  fairness. 

In  the  midsummer  heat,  on  July  20,  Bishop  Hurst  was  at 
the  Fourth  International  Convention  of  the  Epworth  League 
at  Indianapolis,  where  he  responded  in  English,  in  German, 
in  French,  in  Italian,  and  in  Spanish,  to  the  address  of  welcome 
in  Tomlinson  Hall.  His  official  task  in  the  fall  of  1899  took 
him  to  six  Conferences :  Northwest  Indiana  at  Frankfort,  Chi- 
cago German  at  Milwaukee,  West  Wisconsin  at  Baraboo. 
Wisconsin  at  Waukesha,  Rock  River  at  Rockford,  Illinois, 
and  Dakota  at  Huron.  Of  the  Rock  River  Dr.  H.  G.  Jackson 

The  Conference  was  an  exciting  one,  in  some  respects.  Matters 
of  critical  interest  came  up  for  settlement,  but  Bishop  Hurst  presided 
with  such  fairness  and  skill  as  to  satisfy  all  parties. 

W.  H.  Smith  adds : 

Clear,  calm,  judicial,  in  the  midst  of  the  strife  and  contention, 
he  was  master  of  the  situation,  and  I  believe  few  could  have  filled 
his  trying  and  difficult  position  with  such  satisfaction  to  so  many 
intensely  interested  partisans,  or  brought  out  more  peaceable  results 
for  the  men  and  the  church. 

While  the  Bishops  were  at  their  semiannual  meeting  in 
November,  1899,  in  Philadelphia,  Bishops  Hurst  and  Ninde 
made  responses  to  the  welcome  spoken  by  Dr.  John  E.  James 
at  the  public  reception  on  the  evening  of  the  third.  "  If  I 
should  try  to  give  a  name  befitting  this  wonderful  city,"  said 
he,  "  I  would  call  it  the  city  of  Great  Heart."  Continuing 
he  gave  the  Methodists  of  the  city  a  most  hearty  compliment 
for  the  successful  establishment  in  recent  years  of  their  four 
great  and  growing  charities,  the  home  for  the  aged,  the  hos- 
pital, the  orphanage,  and  the  deaconess  home. 

350  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

The  dedication  of  the  new  administration  building  at  Drew 
i  .n  I  December  5  called  him  to  his  loved  Madison,  where  he  was 
the  first  on  the  afternoon  programme.  The  body  of  his  address 
was  a  clear  and  strong  expose  of  the  weakness  of  certain 
phases  of  the  destructive  higher  criticism,  and  a  masterful 
argument  drawn  from  history  proving  that  God's  Word  is  like 
the  great  oaks  of  the  campus,  growing  in  strength  and  beauty, 
and  entering  the  thought  and  life  of  the  world  more  effectually 
through  the  storms  of  opposition.  On  December  18,  19,  and 
20.  at  the  request  of  Chaplain  Milburn.  who  was  recovering 
from  illness,  he  opened  the  daily  sessions  of  the  Senate  with 
a  brief  prayer.  He  spoke  most  fittingly  at  the  farewell  service 
at  Twelfth  Street  Church  on  December  31.  prior  to  its  mer- 
gence with  the  Wilson  Memorial  Church. 

At  the  service  in  memory  of  Bishop  Newman  held  at  Met- 
ropolitan Church  on  Sunday,  February  25.  1900,  Bishop  Hurst 
preached  a  most  appreciative  memorial  sermon,  using  for  his 
text  the  same  passage  from  which  Bishop  Newman  had 
preached  in  the  same  place  on  John  Wesley  during  the  Second 
Ecumenical  Conference:  "There  was  a  man  sent  from  God 
whose  name  was  John."  The  next  day  he  addressed  the 
Preachers'  Meeting  of  New  York  city  on  "  The  American 

His  Conferences  in  the  spring  of  1900  were  three:  New 
Jersey  at  Millville.  Virginia  at  Alexandria,  and  New  York 
East  at  Danbury,  Connecticut.  In  his  address  at  Millville  to 
the  class  for  full  connection  he  said : 

Let  me  urge  you  not  to  be  in  a  hurry  to  become  great,  but  rather 
to  be  wise,  patient,  cautious,  and  studious,  never  losing  sight  of  the 
fact  that  you  are  only  instruments  in  advancing  the  cause  of  God, 
and  that  what  you  accomplish  is  not  so  much  your  work  as  it  is  that 
of  God  through  you. 

At  the  Ecumenical  Missionary  Conference  held  in  New  York 

Trips  in  Virginia  and  Canada  351 

at  Carnegie  Hall  and  many  other  public  places  opened  for  the 
throngs  in  attendance,  Bishop  Hurst  spoke  at  a  meeting  in 
Broadway  Tabernacle  on  the  afternoon  of  April  23  on  the 
Philippines  as  a  missionary  field.  At  the  General  Conference 
of  1900  held  in  Chicago  he  presided  on  May  7  in  the  morning 
and  the  23d  in  the  afternoon  at  Studebaker  Hall.  Together 
with  Bishops  Foss  and  Thoburn  he  laid  hands  on  Bishop 
Edwin  Wallace  Parker,  and  also  presented  the  Scriptures  to 
him  at  the  Consecration  service  held  on  Sunday,  May  27. 

During  the  summer  of  1900  he  made  two  trips  besides  his 
usual  stay,  shortened  thereby,  at  Marion.  One  in  July  in 
company  with  the  writer  was  by  steamer  to  Old  Point  Com- 
fort; a  steamboat  ride  up  the  James  to  Jamestown  and  the 
ruins ;  by  carriage  to  Williamsburg,  affording  two  hours  with 
President  Tyler  of  William  and  Mary  College;  to  Yorktown 
and  back  to  Williamsburg  by  livery ;  by  rail  back  to  Old  Point ; 
a  few  days  later  to  Richmond  and  return  by  rail;  and  thence 
by  boat  home  again.  On  the  second  trip  in  August  he  was 
accompanied  by  Helen,  to  the  White  Mountains,  to  Quebec, 
to  Port  Hope  and  Montreal. 

At  all  subsequent  Conferences  the  writer  was  with  him.  His 
fall  series,  all  in  Iowa,  were  the  Saint  Louis  German  in  Bur- 
lington, Northwest  German  at  Lemars,  Northwest  Iowa  at 
Spencer,  and  Upper  Iowa  at  Osage.  His  sermon  in  English 
at  Burlington  was  one  of  great  power,  many  being  visibly 
affected  to  tears.  On  the  way  between  Burlington  and  Lemars 
he  stopped  three  hours  at  Cedar  Rapids,  where  he  made  an 
inspiring  address  to  the  District  Conference  in  session  at 
Trinity  Church.  Professor  F.  E.  Hirsch,  of  Charles  City 
College,  says : 

The  sermon  which  he  preached  in  Lemars  has  ever  remained  in 
my  memory.  He  preached  on  the  words,  "  There  is  joy  in  heaven 
over  one  sinner  that  repenteth."     He  said  that  every  great  event  in 

35-  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

history  has  produced  an  immortal  song;  the  greatest  event  of  which 
(  rod  can  conceive  is  the  conversion  of  a  sinner;  and  that  this  is  in 
itself  sufficient  to  start  the  full  anthem  of  the  heavenly  choir. 

Bishop  Hurst  was  one  of  the  ninety-seven  distinguished  men 
who  served  as  a  board  of  electors  in  October,  1900,  to  deter- 
mine the  names  to  be  placed  in  the  Hall  of  Fame  for  Great 
Americans  in  the  New  York  University.  He  was  also  one  of 
the  Committee  on  the  Centennial  of  Washington  as  the  seat 
of  the  Federal  Government  held  at  the  White  House  on 
December  12. 

In  January,  1901,  he  presided  at  the  Upper  Mississippi  Con- 
ference at  Aberdeen,  and  the  Mississippi  at  Moss  Point,  at  the 
former  being  the  guest  of  Rev.  Dr.  Richard  Wilkinson,  and 
at  the  latter  of  Rev.  Dr.  H.  W.  Featherstun,  each  the  pastor 
of  the  Southern  Church.  At  Aberdeen  we  were  entertained 
at  dinner  at  the  beautiful  home  of  Mr.  George  Paine,  whose 
mother,  widow  of  Bishop  Paine,  added  greatly  to  the  charm 
of  three  hours  of  most  delightful  hospitality.  The  Bishop 
preached  at  the  Southern  Church  at  Aberdeen  to  the  great 
satisfaction  of  both  pastor  and  people. 

What  proved  to  be  his  last  Conference  was  the  Troy,  held 

at  Saratoga,  New  York,  April  10-15,  1901-    The  correspondent 

of  The  Christian  Advocate  wrote : 

He  presided  with  his  usual  ease  and  dignity,  and  without  seeming 
haste  so  dispatched  the  minute  business  that  it  was  almost  finished 
by  noon  of  Saturday. 

Edwin  Genge,  the  Secretary,  says: 

It  was  evident  that  he  was  laboring  under  some  disability.  Yet  he 
bravely  carried  through  the  work  of  the  Conference.  He  was  much 
interested  in  some  of  the  brethren  who  were  to  be  moved,  and  made 
several  inquiries  concerning  them  and  their  work  while  routine  busi- 
ness was  being  transacted.  His  sermon  on  Sunday  morning  was 
preached  with  much  vigor.  At  the  ordination  service  in  the  afternoon 
it  was  apparent  that  he  had  undertaken  to  do  too  much  for  the  one  day. 

Summation  of  Episcopal  Service  353 

On  his  way  from  the  morning  service  to  the  Sanitarium 
where  he  was  entertained  he  said  to  the  writer  with  great 
earnestness :  "  I  would  like  to  live  twenty  years  more  to  preach 
the  gospel." 

After  his  return  from  the  Bishops'  meeting  at  Portland, 
Maine,  we  went  again  together  to  Charlottesville,  Virginia, 
where  he,  although  in  feeble  health,  fulfilled  an  engagement 
by  preaching  in  the  chapel  of  the  University  of  Virginia  both 
morning  and  evening  on  Sunday,  May  12.  While  there  he 
greatly  enjoyed  a  call  on  Saturday  evening  upon  Dr.  Wilson 
C.  N.  Randolph,  a  great-grandson  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  and 
a  drive  with  Professor  F.  H.  Smith  on  Monday  morning  to 
Monticello,  the  home  and  the  tomb  of  Jefferson.  He  preached 
his  last  sermon  at  West  Baltimore  Station  Sunday  morning, 
June  16,  1 90 1,  and  spoke  briefly,  but  very  earnestly,  choice 
words  of  welcome  to  the  class  of  nearly  one  hundred  proba- 
tioners who  were  received  into  full  connection  by  the  pastor, 
Dr.  M.  F.  B.  Rice,  in  the  evening.  This  was  his  last  public 
service  in  America. 

A  summation  of  his  twenty-one  years  of  episcopal  service 
shows  that  he  presided  at  170  Conferences  and  Missions, 
157  having  been  held  in  45  states  of  the  Union,  and  13  in 
9  foreign  countries,  made  18,414  appointments  for  a  year  in  his 
assignment  of  effective  ministers  to  their  work,  and  ordained 
1,041  deacons  and  803  elders. 

For  many  years  prior  to  his  residence  in  Buffalo  Bishop 

Hurst   and   Mr.   Francis   H.    Root   had  been   warm    friends 

through  a  mutual  appreciation  of  qualities  of  character.     In 

the  tireless  application  of  energy  each  in  his  own  field  and  in 

the  spirit  of  progress,  impatient  of  delay  in  any  good  work, 

the  two  men  were  alike.     When  Bishop  and  Mrs.  Hurst  with 

their  three  younger  children  came  to  reside  in  Buffalo  in  1885 

they  were  for  a  time,  while  the  newly  purchased  episcopal 

354  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

residence  was  being  put  in  order,  the  guests  of  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Root,  and  thereafter  the  two  families  were  on  intimate  terms. 
Bishop  Hurst  and  Miss  Ella  Agnes  (born  1858).  the  youngest 
daughter  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Root,  became  engaged  in  February, 
1892,  and  the  wedding  took  place  in  Buffalo  on  September  5, 
three  days  earlier  than  had  been  planned,  the  change  of  date 
having  been  made  at  the  earnest  request  of  Mr.  Root,  then 
in  his  final  illness.  Mrs.  Hurst  was  cordially  welcomed  by 
all  the  family  at  4  Iowa  Circle,  Washington,  and  late  in  1893 
they  removed  to  1701  Massachusetts  Avenue.  Bishop  and 
Mrs.  Hurst  traveled  in  Europe  during  the  summer  of  1894. 
A  son  was  born  to  them  on  December  18.  1894,  to  whom  was 
given  the  name  of  Spencer  Root,  in  honor  of  Mrs.  Hurst's 
father  and  mother. 

In  May,  1898,  Mrs.  Hurst  and  Spencer  went  to  Europe  for 
the  announced  purpose  of  cultivating  her  voice.  Her  stay  was 
prolonged  through  the  next  winter,  and  she  wrote  in  Febru- 
ary, 1899,  of  her  plans  to  remain  another  year.  To  Bishop 
Hurst's  earnest  request  that  she  return  with  their  child  she 
made  no  reply.  In  this  crisis  his  gentleness  and  considerate- 
ness,  his  affection,  his  sense  of  duty  and  of  justice,  his  clear 
vision  of  the  right  path  for  all  concerned  to  pursue,  all  united 
in  a  final  heart  message  and  appeal  which  as  a  husband  and 
father  he  sent  to  his  wife.  She  never  returned  to  him.  He 
grieved  deeply  over  the  situation,  but  never  surrendered  his 
affection  for  his  absent  wife,  nor  the  hope  for  her  return.  To 
the  proposition  for  a  formal  separation  and  a  relinquishment  of 
his  claim  upon  the  child  he  never  gave  any  consent.  In  the 
fall  of  1899  he  removed  to  1207  Connecticut  Avenue,  which 
continued  to  be  his  home  for  more  than  three  years  under  the 
care  of  his  daughter  Helen. 

Vienna,  Paris,  London  355 

The  Bishop-Traveler 

Eighth  Trip  to  Europe. — Third  Ecumenical  Conference. — The  Break 

Bishop  Hurst  served  as  chairman  of  the  Committee  of  the 
Western  Section  on  Programme  for  the  Ecumenical  Methodist 
Conference  which  met  in  London  in  September,  1901.  The 
duties  of  this  position  involved  the  holding  of  several  meetings, 
and  much  correspondence  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic.  A 
preliminary  meeting  of  the  Committee  was  held  on  May  21, 
1898,  at  Baltimore,  during  the  session  of  the  General  Confer- 
ence of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South ;  another  at 
Washington  on  March  21,  1900;  and  several  were  held  at 
different  places  before  he  started  for  Europe  on  his  eighth 
visit  and  fifteenth  trans-Atlantic  trip.  During  the  month  of 
June  he  made  preparations  for  his  Ecumenical  address  which 
he  delivered  in  London  in  response  to  the  welcome.  His 
daughter  Helen  accompanied  him  on  this  journey,  sailing 
July  3,  1 90 1.  They  spent  most  of  the  summer  at  Vienna, 
visiting  his  son.  Dr.  Carl  Bailey  Hurst,  then  Consul-General 
in  that  city. 

As  the  time  for  the  opening  of  the  Ecumenical  Conference 
approached  they  made  a  short  visit  to  Paris,  in  the  hope  that 
he  might  there  have  the  opportunity  of  seeing  his  wife  and  son, 
but  in  this  he  was  greatly  disappointed.  On  reaching  London 
they  stopped  first  at  the  Sackville  Hotel,  Piccadilly,  and  later 
had  rooms  at  Upper  Bedford  Place,  Russell  Square.  He 
assisted  in  the  administration  of  the  holy  communion  at  the 
close  of  the  forenoon  session  of  the  opening  day  of  the  great 
meeting  in  City  Road  Chapel,  September  4,  and  in  the  after- 
noon he  made  the  first  response  to  the  three  addresses  of  wel- 

35t>  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

come.  He  occupied  about  twenty  minutes  in  reading  in  clear 
tones  what  proved  to  be  his  last  public  address.  The  opening 
sentences  and  a  few  toward  the  close  indicate  the  spirit  both  of 
the  man  and  the  address  : 

Mr.  Chairman,  these  words  of  welcome,  an  eloquent  trinity  in 
voice,  but  a  beautiful  unity  in  spirit,  warm  and  stir  our  hearts  to  a 
quicker  and  stronger  stroke.  We  had  supposed  that  every  puff  of  the 
locomotive,  that  every  plash  and  turn  of  the  steamer's  wheels,  every 
coach  and  car  used  on  our  journey  hither,  was  taking  us  farther  and 
farther  away  from  our  homes ;  but  the  deep  fraternal  love  that  pervades 
these  cordial  greetings  puts  every  pilgrim  from  across  the  sea  to  this 
Mecca  of  modern  evangelism  at  once  and  wholly  at  home  again.  The 
speed  of  travel  and  the  annihilation  of  distance  by  easy  transporta- 
tion are  among  the  greatest  of  latter-day  achievements  with  steam  and 
electricity;  but  these  do  not  equal  in  luxury  and  rapidity  the  real 
and  enduring  transports  of  the  spiritual  children  of  one  common 
Father,  who  already  find  themselves  sitting  at  the  family  hearthstone, 
looking  into  countenances  that  at  first  wore  something  of  a  strange 
look,  but  in  a  trice,  through  the  spirit  of  prayer  and  affection,  are 
transformed  into  the  faces  of  kindred.  .  .  . 

Brethren,  one  of  the  happiest  effects,  and  certainly  one  of  the 
chief  objects  of  our  two  preceding  Conferences  bearing  the  name  of 
Ecumenical,  has  been  the  enlarging  and  love-crowned  spirit  of  cath- 
olicity which  has  prevailed  throughout  the  sessions,  and  left  its 
sweet  fruitage  in  the  personal  life  and  consciousness  of  each  and  all 
of  the  delegates.  The  sentiments  thus  nourished  into  new  power 
by  these  addresses  and  by  their  widespread  dissemination  through 
the  press  have  led  the  thoughts  of  the  whole  church  to  higher  alti- 
tudes and  stimulated  all  hearts  to  a  broader,  warmer,  more  generous, 
and  more  comprehensive  love  for  all  who  bear  the  name  and  desire  to 
welcome  and  obey  the  Spirit  of  Christ.  If  the  Ecumenical  quality 
of  our  meeting  to-day,  as  of  those  of  ten  and  twenty  years  ago, 
should  be  questioned  by  any  who  doubt  the  propriety  of  the  present 
application  of  the  term,  or  should  be  challenged  by  any  who  eye 
with  jealous  wonder  the  wide-spreading  growth  of  Methodism,  the 
best  defense  of  our  adoption  of  this  globe-covering  word  would  be 
found,  not  in  the  statistical  tables  of  our  growing  communion  in  all 
the  habitable  parts  of  the  planet,  but  rather  in  the  catholic  spirit  of 
John  Wesley — the  most  truly  catholic  man  of  the  eighteenth  century 
— and  in  the  continuous  and  unfolding  catholicity  of  the  millions  who 

A  Staggering  Blow  357 

have  answered  with  their  faith  and  love  to  that  apostolic  voice,  exam- 
ple, and  evangel. 

The  correspondent  of  the  Methodist  Recorder  of  Septem- 
ber 5  says: 

Bishop  Hurst  is  just  now  reading  his  address  of  reply  on  behalf 
of  the  West.  Alas !  he  is  ten  years  older  than  when  I  last  heard  him. 
He  is,  I  suppose,  the  most  honored  representative  of  the  West  here 

Two  days  later  the  news  which  shocked  the  world,  "  Presi- 
dent McKinley  has  been  shot,"  broke  upon  him,  while,  with 
Admiral  Henry  Keppell,  the  veteran  naval  hero  of  the  Crimea, 
he  was  the  guest  of  the  Baroness  Burdett-Coutts  at  Holly 
Lodge,  Hempstead.  It  was  a  staggering  blow.  His  general 
health  had  been  declining  for  several  months,  and  the  sad 
message  of  September  14  that  his  dear  friend  was  dead  was 
almost  immediately  followed  by  an  attack  of  partial  apoplexy 
on  the  1 6th.  From  this  he  slowly  rallied  and  was  able  to  be 
about  in  a  few  days.  His  last  written  message  to  Helen  was  a 
note  penned  in  the  hotel,  on  the  day  Mr.  McKinley  died.  It 
gathers  into  its  simple  yet  beautiful  unity  the  triple  experi- 
ences of  his  heart's  affection  for  the  living,  sorrow  for  the  dead, 
and  his  perpetual  refuge  in  the  house  of  the  Lord : 

Dearest  Helen  j  The  President  is  gone !  I  will  leave  this  for  you 
on  your  arrival.    I-ut  I  will  be  at  the  church  all  the  time. 

Affectionately,  J.  F.  Hurst. 

On  September  24  he  and  Helen  took  passage  for  America. 
While  the  ship  plows  the  Atlantic — a  familiar  road  to  him 
now  on  his  sixteenth  crossing — and  before  father  and  daugh- 
ter again  touch  foot  on  their  loved  and  native  shore,  we  have 
time  to  examine  a  little  more  closely  and  fully,  on  the  shining 
jewel  of  his  life,  some  of  the  facets  which  do  not  readily  yield 
themselves  to  a  setting  in  the  chronologic  order  of  a  career 
so  rich  in  details  of  industry  and  fruitfulness. 

John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

Aside  Views  and  Touches 

The  Book-Lover  and  Antiquarian 

Henry  Ward  Beecher  said,  "  There  is  no  pleasure  in  life 
equal  to  buying  a  book  you  cannot  afford  to  buy."  Vance 
Thompson  enlarges  on  the  statement — shall  we  say  confes- 
sion?— of  the  Brooklyn  divine: 

Hazlitt  praised  old  books;  anyone  can  praise  old  books.  Isaac 
Ritson  read  them;  even  that  is  not  beyond  the  reach  of  the  ordinary 
intelligence.  But  buying  old  books  is  an  art.  Dibdin's  theory  that  all 
one  needed  was  "  civility,  quickness,  and  intelligence  "  is  defective. 
The  matter  is  not  so  simple.  One  must  be  wily  as  a  red  Indian, 
patient  as  a  thief.  Any  superficial,  early-stunted  fool  may  buy  a  book 
for  what  it  is  worth.  There  is  no  art  in  that.  It  needs  no  nous. 
The  elaborate  joy,  the  supreme  art  of  book-buying  is  paying  forty 
cents  for  some  dusty  i2mo  worth  a  Spaniard's  ransom. 

Bishop  Hurst  was  a  Nimrod  among  book-hunters.  How 
he  loved  books  and  how  keen  was  his  scent  for  rare  literary 
treasures  at  the  age  of  twenty-two,  is  indicated  by  certain 
autobiographic  references  taken  from  one  of  his  papers  entitled 
"  About  a  Book  Auction  in  Germany  " : 

As  to  taste  I  was  always  fond  of  everything  old;  had  more  liking 
for  an  old  wall  than  a  new  palace;  loved  the  old,  jaundiced  rag- 
woman  better  than  my  neighbor's  sweet  prattler;  preferred  a  hollow 
log  for  a  seat  to  the  richest  ottoman;  always  gave  more  for  the  first 
than  for  the  last  edition  of  a  work,  other  things  being  equal;  liked 
half-effaced  pictures  better  than  the  glowing  colors  of  new  ones;  had 
a  passionate  love  for  old  maps  and  designs,  and  yet  could  not  boast 
the  slightest  practical  acquaintance  with  art;  in  fact,  I  fell  in  love 
with  everything  that  could  boast  of  a  coat  of  the  "  charming  dust." 
...  I  stood  one  day  in  a  Brunswick  street  and  read  a  large  placard 
announcing  a  great  sale  of  old  books,  curious  coins,  pictures,  shells, 

Rival  Recreations  359 

manuscripts,  and  relics.  The  bill  closed  with  the  information  of 
the  place  where  a  complete  catalogue  could  be  found  giving  many 
useful  facts  concerning  the  articles  to  be  sold.  My  blood  was  at  once 
crazy  within  me.  I  rushed  over  the  grandest  bridge  in  Brunswick 
without  stopping  a  moment.  Two  old  churches  did  I  pass  without 
thinking  to  look  up  at  a  single  gargoyle.  Soon  I  had  the  catalogue, 
and  taking  the  nearest  street  to  my  lodgings  I  neither  ate  nor  slept 
until  I  had  read  every  word  of  its  precious  contents.  I  closed  it  with 
an  agitated  frame  and  lost  appetite.  Nor  did  sleep  come  to  my  eyelids 
that  night,  and  I  was  blessed  with  none  save  short  and  nervous 
snatches  for  the  next  three  nights  and  days  that  intervened  before  the 
antiquarian  auction. 

His  interest  in  old  books  was  always  marked  by  a  vital 
link  connecting  them  with  the  life  and  thought  of  the  present ; 
it  grew  with  his  growth  and  strengthened  with  his  strength; 
yet  it  was  ever  held  in  subordination  to  his  dominant  passion 
for  useful  work.  Book-hunting  was  his  choice  recreation, 
though  a  close  second  was  travel  on  foot.  His  happiest  and 
most  successful  respites  were  those  in  which  these  rivals  were 
yoked  together.  A  walk  that  promised  punctuation  by  a  peep 
at  the  drawers  and  corners  and  upper  shelves  of  some  book- 
stall had  no  superior  as  a  spur  to  his  striding  pace.  A  bookshop 
three  or  four  miles  distant  from  his  lodgings  drew  him  more 
strongly  than  one  near  at  hand — the  enchantment  lent  to  it 
not  being  due  to  mere  distance,  but  rather  to  the  opportunity  to 
step  it  off  in  lively  and  tonic  fashion.  His  daily  and  volumi- 
nous correspondence,  entailing  a  great  variety  of  cares  and 
burdens,  was  lighted  up  and  lightened  by  the  ever-present 
bibliographic  message.  Booksellers  wrere  by  no  means  the 
only  ones  to  whom  he  wrote,  when  the  emergency  did  not  sug- 
gest the  telegraph,  but  soldiers  and  sailors,  consuls  and 
missionaries,  or  whoever  might  be  in  touch  with  specimens  of 
literature,  ordinarily  inaccessible,  in  any  part  of  the  postal 
world,  were  on  his  address  list.  His  journeys  by  car  and 
steamer  and  stage  were  often  relieved  of  monotony  by  the 

360  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

study  and  butchery  of  the  "  cats  "  which  had  accumulated  on 

his  desk  since  his  last  trip.     His  favorite  method  of  search 

was  of  the  mousing  kind,  especially  where  the  deposits  had 

outgrown  the  primal  plan  of  the  shop  and  found  their  overflow 

into  every  sort  of  cranny  or  angle,  or  even  invaded  the  most 

private  precincts  of  the  dealer's  sanctum  sanctorum.     He  was 

usually  present  by  proxy  at  the  leading  book  sales  in  New 

York,  Boston,  and  Philadelphia,  and  was  as  eager  to  learn 

the  results  of  the  bidding  and  the  destination  of  particular 

items  as  the  angler  is  to  know  where  the  shining  sides  of  the 

largest  trout  have  been  seen,  since  the  wary  prize  slipped  from 

his  own  hook.     It  would  have  been  a  rare  day  when  on  the 

ocean  there  was  not  some  message  either  going  or  coming 

that  concerned  some  treasure  on  which  his  mind  was  set  or 

the  treasure  itself  moving  to  its  place  among  the  thousands 

of  his  culling.    Dr.  Samuel  Macauley  Jackson  says :  "  He  was 

the  bibliophile  and  book  expert  embodied."     Dr.  Samuel  A. 

Green,  of  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Society,  Boston,  writes : 

I  knew  him  as  an  indefatigable  collector  of  rare  titles  and  a  genuine 
lover  of  books;  and  he  knew  a  good  thing  when  he  saw  it.  I  shall 
always  remember  him  as  a  man  with  the  true  bibliographical  instincts. 

Mr.  Robert  E.  Cowan,  of  San  Francisco,  whose  practiced 
eye  he  had  enlisted  in  certain  lines  of  search,  wrote  him : 

Your  wants  are  carefully  considered  and  in  mind,  but  this  market,  I 
fear,  does  not  admit  of  much  in  the  shape  of  pleasant  surprises  either 
for  the  book-buyer  or  the  bookseller.  If  it  should  so  fortunately 
happen  I  will  advise  you  thereof;  for  in  my  estimation  you  as  a  book- 
hunter  are  "  first  in  line." 

Another  dealer  who  would  have  been  willing  to  let  the 
Bishop  dispense  quite  largely  with  his  desire  to  make  a  good 
bargain,  and  confine  his  attention  more  closely  to  the  size  and 
value  of  the  game  he  bagged  than  to  the  amount  of  powder 
and  shot  consumed,  says : 

Pilling  and  Indian  Books  361 

It  always  seemed  to  me  that  the  commercial  spirit  was  closely  allied 
to  the  book-loving  spirit  in  Bishop  Hurst,  and  therefore  my  reminis- 
cences of  him  are  more  vivid  along  that  line  than  that  of  a  book- 
lover  ! 

One  of  the  many  lines  of  his  special  collections  was  in  the 
languages  of  the  American  Indians — particularly  those  of 
North  America.  This  brought  him  into  correspondence  and 
later  into  personal  contact  with  the  eminent  Indian  bibliog- 
rapher, Mr.  James  Constantine  Pilling,  who  long  and  success- 
fully prosecuted  his  work  at  Washington  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Bureau  of  Ethnology.  Mr.  Pilling,  half  in  playfulness 
but  half  in  earnest,  wrote  him  on  December  18,  1888: 

You  are  compelling  most  of  the  collectors  of  this  class  of  literature, 
myself  among  the  number,  to  play  second  fiddle,  at  any  rate  so  far  as 
the  missionaries  are  concerned ;  for  you  seem  to  have  preempted 
them  all. 

In  April,  1894,  while  holding  the  Wyoming  Conference, 
after  considerable  epistolary  diplomacy,  the  Bishop  gave  Mr. 
Pilling  the  privilege  of  examining  his  collection  for  the  pur- 
pose of  collating  titles  and  editions.  He  wrote  the  Bishop  on 
May  7: 

I  want  to  thank  you  sincerely  for  your  kindness  in  letting  me  see 
your  American  linguistics.     I  envy  you  your  Mexicana. 

An  instance  of  his  watchfulness  for  "  nuggets  "  offered  in 
Europe  is  indicated  by  his  letter  to  Dr.  Erikson,  who  had 
done  some  bidding  at  an  auction  at  Bukowski's  Local  (Stock- 
holm), on  October  2,  1886: 

Dallas,  Texas,  November  26. — I  am  very  much  obliged  to  you 
for  kindly  sending  me  the  Bukowski  books,  and  also  the  Arfvedson, 
"De  Colonia." 

On  the  2 1  st  of  the  following  March  he  wrote  Dr.  Erikson 
again  in  acknowledgment  of  another  "  find  "  which  had  fol- 
lowed him  in  the  mails : 

362  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

I  am  very  much  obliged  to  you  for  having  taken  care  to  send  me  the 
copy  of  Luther's  Catechism.  I  received  it  safely;  it  even  went  down 
to  Mexico,  by  which  time  it  had  had  a  good  many  cuffs  and  knocks, 
but  it  was  not  in  the  least  injured. 

After  the  adjournment  of  the  Conference  at  Winona  in 
1888,  bound  for  Jamestown,  North  Dakota,  he  stopped  over 
in  Saint  Paul  between  trains.  Dr.  Arthur  Edwards  desired 
to  have  an  interview  with  him,  but  did  not  know  where  to  look 
for  him.  He  applied  to  one  of  the  brethren  for  directions. 
'  I  think."  said  this  gentleman,  "  that  you  will  be  as  likely  to 
come  across  the  Bishop  in  some  secondhand  bookstore  as  any- 
where else."  Dr.  Edwards  made  a  bee  line  for  a  secondhand 
book  store  on  Third  Street,  and  there  he  discovered  Bishop 
Hurst,  absorbed  in  a  search  for  something  rare. 

Dr.  William  H.  Meredith,  of  Boston  University,  himself 
no  ordinary  connoisseur  of  literary  rarities  and  especially  of 
Methodistica,  says : 

On  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic,  almost  invariably,  even  in  out-of-the- 
way  places,  we  have  been  told,  on  inquiry  for  such  things:  "Dr. 
Hurst  of  America,"  or  "  Bishop  Hurst  takes  all  we  can  get  in  that 
line."  He  seemed  to  be  able  to  go  directly  to  the  very  spot  where 
a  rare  thing  was  placed,  even  if  the  bookseller  himself  did  not  know 
where  to  put  his  hand  upon  it.  At  the  Ecumenical  Conference  in 
190 1  a  little  lot  of  Americana  was  sent  me  on  approbation.  Not 
wanting  it  myself,  I  took  it  to  the  City  Road  Chapel,  and  showed  it 
him.  In  a  moment  he  separated  the  chaff  from  the  wheat.  He  knew 
the  valuable  at  a  glance.  Never  have  I  met  his  equal  in  the  knowledge 
of  books. 

While  he  presided  at  the  New  York  East  Conference  in 
Danbury,  Connecticut,  in  1900,  a  gentleman,  who  had  made 
considerable  effort  to  get  a  fine  span  of  horses  and  carriage, 
started  to  give  him  a  long  ride  and  show  him  the  beauties 
of  the  place.  Xo  sooner  had  he  become  seated  in  the  carriage 
than  he  inquired  if  there  was  an  antiquarian  store  in  town. 
Finding  one  to  his  taste,  he  spent  so  much  of  the  afternoon 

At  Santa  Barbara  Mission  363 

there  that  when  he  came  out  it  was  too  late  to  take  the  ride. 
To  his  notion  it  was  a  good  exchange — a  ride  for  a  hunt. 
Professor  Charles  W.  Rishell.  of  Boston  University,  says : 

Once  in  Boston  he  asked  me  to  go  with  him  to  a  bookstore  in  some 
out-of-the-way  place  in  a  back  room  upstairs.  I  never  saw  him  look 
so  happy  as  just  then.  He  seemed  to  know  all  about  the  rare  editions 
of  everything  on  the  shelves;  and  his  conversation  with  the  propri- 
etor showed  that  he  was  acquainted  with  similar  places  in  all  the 
principal  cities  of  the  United  States. 

Dr.  William  V.  Kelley,  editor  of  the  Methodist  Review, 
writes : 

John  F.  Hurst  was  the  greatest  book-lover  and  hunter  and  accumu- 
lator of  rare,  curious,  ancient  literature  ever  seen  on  our  Episcopal 
Board.  Among  the  objects  shown  to  us  in  June,  1904,  at  the  old 
Mission  at  Santa  Barbara,  was  a  large  Choir  Book,  no  years  old — 
a  yard  and  a  half  wide,  perhaps,  as  it  lay  open  before  us — the  musical 
notes  and  the  words  of  the  Latin  chants  hand-printed  or  painted 
large  and  clear  on  the  smooth,  cream-colored  sheepskin ;  a  most 
beautiful  piece  of  work,  the  production  of  which  must  have  cost  years 
of  labor  by  the  Brothers  of  the  Mission.  As  we  turned  its  wide, 
thick,  flexible  pages  and  lingered  over  them  admiringly,  our  Fran- 
ciscan guide  said,  "  A  Methodist  Bishop  came  here  some  years  ago 
and  offered  us  a  thousand  dollars  for  that  Choir  Book."  "  What  was 
the  Bishop's  name?"  I  asked.     "Hurst,"  was  the  monk's  reply. 

Dr.  Jesse  L.  Hurlbut  says : 

I  was  seated  at  a  table  with  him  and  a  number  of  ministers,  in 
Minnesota,  I  think.  One  minister  said  that  he  had  in  his  library 
a  book  bearing  the  autograph  of  Philip  Melanchthon.  "  But,"  said 
he,  "  it  must  have  been  the  property  of  several  other  persons  also, 
for  I  find  annotations  all  through  it,  in  three  or  four  very  different 
handwritings."  The  Bishop  replied,  "  That  is  a  sure  token  that  it 
belonged  to  Philip  Melanchthon;  for  he  wrote  in  no  less  than  four 
styles  of  handwriting,  all  very  different  from  one  another." 

He  often  judged  and  measured  men  by  their  books.  At  the 
session  of  the  Newark  Conference  in  1866  he  casually  met  for 

364  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

the  first  time  a  young  man  who  was  applying  to  be  ordained 
local  deacon.  That  young  man  was  reading  a  book  in  odd 
moments  at  the  house  where  he  was  entertained.  Twenty- 
eight  years  later  Bishop  Hurst  said  to  the  man,  now  a  leading 
light  in  religious  literature,  "  Do  you  know  what  book  you 
were  carrying  about  with  you  and  reading  the  first  time  I  ever 
saw  you?  "  "  No,  I  do  not  remember,"  replied  the  preacher. 
"  It  was  a  volume  of  John  Ruskin's  Stones  of  Venice,"  said 
the  Bishop,  "  and  I  knew  then  what  kind  of  a  young  man  you 
were."  In  writing  on  '  The  Drift  of  Great  Books  "  Bishop 
Hurst  makes  disclosure  of  some  of  his  own  richest  possessions 
and  of  his  experience  in  acquiring  them  or  of  the  rarer  one  of 
losing  others  to  rival  hunters : 

What  lover  of  books  does  not  sigh  over  the  treasures  he  has  lost 
by  not  seizing  the  golden  moment?  It  is  well  if  you  have  kept  your 
counsel  during  the  long  process — as  long  it  must  have  been  for  a 
downright  treasure.  If  your  friend,  with  a  similar  bibliomania,  has 
heard  you  whisper  of  your  passion  and  especially  of  a  thought  as  to 
the  probability  of  your  acquiring  a  special  find,  the  precious  quest 
is  in  danger.  Such  a  thing  as  his,  and  not  your,  getting  the  prize 
has  happened  even  in  these  honest  days.  Go  to  his  library  on  some 
rainy  day,  when  he  is  communicative  and  the  logs  burn  cheerfully. 
If  you  saunter  around  his  shelves  you  will  probably  strike  a  neigh- 
borhood where  your  host  suddenly  becomes  disconcerted  and  will  say : 
"  By  the  way,  Jones,  here  is  the  book  you  mentioned  to  me  once. 
I  thought  I  would  go  and  see  the  book,  don't  you  know.  Brown  was 
very  good  and  let  me  have  it.  True,  he  charged  me  a  good  price 
for  it,  but,  you  see,  I  just  had  to  have  it."  Of  course,  on  that  day 
Jones  ate  neither  luncheon  nor  dinner. 

There  used  to  be  a  time  when  a  great  library  would  even  let  its 
duplicate  treasures  go  into  any  hand  that  offered  money  enough,  but 
that  time  is  past.  I  know  a  fine  Gutenberg  [his  own  Catholicon], 
which  was  a  duplicate  of  one  in  the  British  Museum  and  which  it 
parted  with  in  1804,  but  no  such  happy  day  ever  came  again  when  that 
library  was  willing  to  part  with  any  valuable  duplicate,  let  alone  a 
large  paper  from  the  first  press  at  Mainz,  over  which  both  Lowndes 
and  Brunet  would  grow  rapturous  and  spend  a  whole  page  in  bibli- 
ophilic  panegyric. 

A  Hand-Picked  Collection  365 

On  the  issuing  of  standard  authors  in  abridged  form,  which 
he  called  The  Plague  of  Small  Books,  he  emptied  several  vials 
of  his  choicest  irony: 

Think  of  reducing  the  Spectator,  and  Plutarch's  Lives,  to  about 
one  half  their  size,  yet  all  bright  in  gilt,  and  gay  muslin,  and  tinted 
paper !  Since  we  began  this  article  we  came  across  a  publisher's 
announcement  of  an  abridged  edition  of  Boswell's  Life  of  Johnson. 
O  tempora  !  One  should  as  soon  think  of  abridging  the  multiplication 
table  or  Kempis's  Imitation.  There  are  some  books  which  ought 
never  to  be  abridged.  There  is  no  more  sense  in  it  than  in  amputating 
a  limb  to  save  tailors'  bills. 


The  Hurst  Collection. — Its  Creation. — Its  Contents. — Its  Dispersal 

Through  all  earth's  marts  a  traveler,  his  keen  eye 

And  mind,  e'er  bent  to  Clio's  magic  spell. 

Alert  to  see  and  seize  materiel, 
In  dust  or  dusky  nook  a  prize  would  spy. 
If  yet  the  gems  his  love  and  wish  defy. 

Their  faces  in  his  vivid  vision  dwell; 

Their  hiding  places  fairies  to  him  tell. 
And  soon  or  late  into  his  hand  they  fly. 
Strange  comrades  met  on  table,  desk,  and  shelf, 

Or  pressed  each  other  in  his  crowded  crypts; 
Yet  through  them  all  ran  one  strong  living  tie: 
His  love  made  each  more  than  its  lonely  self — 

Not  battered  books  and  musty  manuscripts — 
Lo !  breathing,  speaking  tomes  that  cannot  die. 

The  extraordinary  character  of  Bishop  Hurst's  entire  collec- 
tion lay  in  its  being  a  hand-picked  library,  gathered  through 
forty  years  and  made  up  of  strong  and  rich  pieces,  not  merely 
in  one  or  two  favorite  lines,  but  in  a  score  or  more  distinct 
departments.  Among  its  more  than  fifteen  thousand  separate 
pieces — which  for  convenience  might  be  divided  into  Ameri- 

c  e.p. 

366  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

cana  (Parts  I,  II,  and  III  of  the  Catalogue)  and  General — 
were  found  under  the  first  head :  Indian  Languages  numbering 
five  hundred,  both  South  and  North  American — the  Mexicana 
being  predominant — and  including  Eliot's  Bible,  2d  ed.,  and 
the  Mohawk  Prayer-Book ;  New-  England  Primers,  1 50  copies, 
several  of  the  18th  century,  and  some  not  noted  by  Paul 
Leicester  Ford  in  his  bibliography:  104  Mathers;  Sowers; 
Ephratas ;  752  Franklin  Imprints,  including  67  Poor  Richard 
Almanacs,  432  Pennsylvania  Gazettes,  63  Colonial  Laws,  and 
six  copies  of  Cicero's  Cato  Major;  other  rare  Frankliniana ; 
Washingtoniana,  including  48  volumes  from  George  Wash- 
ington's library  at  Mount  Vernon,  and  341  other  items  from 
other  members  of  the  Washington  family  or  relating  to  the 
General ;  early  newspapers ;  Confederates ;  First  Editions ;  and 
Local  Histories  galore.  The  General  Collection  (Part  IV 
of  the  Catalogue)  contained  twelve  editions  of  ^Esop's  Fables, 
and  eighty-six  of  a  Kempis's  Imitation  of  Christ,  in  eight  lan- 
guages; forty-six  specimens  from  the  presses  of  the  Aldus 
family  in  Venice,  five  from  the  Plantin  press  of  Antwerp,  and 
thirteen  from  the  Elzevir  press  at  Leyden ;  thirty-seven  early 
and  rare  Bibles,  in  eleven  languages ;  a  large,  practical  outfit 
of  Bibliography,  numbering,  with  catalogues,  about  six  hun- 
dred volumes ;  about  eighty  biographies ;  first  editions  of 
Hawthorne,  Milton,  Byron.  Dickens,  and  others;  ten  chained 
manuscripts  of  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth  centuries :  some 
choice  extra-illustrated  books ;  many  volumes  having  valuable 
historic  associations,  such  as  Samuel  Johnson's  copy  of  Dry- 
den's  translation  of  Virgil,  Hawthorne's  set  of  Shakespeare, 
books  from  Dickens's  and  Kingsley's  libraries,  Melanchthon's 
Bible  and  copy  of  Horace,  and  Southey's  Palmerin  of  England 
used  in  the  preparation  of  his  edition  of  that  work;  fifty-one 
samples  of  early  printing  of  the  sixteenth  century :  a  fine  group 
of  Incunabula,  or  books  printed  prior  to  A.  D.  1500,  numbering 

Contents  of  Library  367 

sixty-six  (inclusive  of  Bibles),  among  which  are  found  three 
copies  of  Higden's  Polycronycon  from  the  press  of  William 
Caxton,  the  pioneer  printer  of  England,  and  fine  specimens 
of  Gutenberg  and  Schoffer  of  Mainz,  Ulric  Zel  of  Cologne. 
Anton  Koburger  of  Nuremberg,  Ulric  Gering  of  Paris,  Anton 
Sorg  of  Augsburg,  Kessler  and  Froben  of  Basel,  Jenson,  Pa- 
gininus,  Wendelin  "of  Speier,"  and  Arrivabenus  of  Venice., 
Ketelaer  and  Leempt  of  Utrecht,  Koblinger  of  Vicenza,  the 
"  R  "  printer  and  Flach  of  Strassburg,  John  Faure  of  Lyons, 
Bartolommeo  di  Libri  of  Florence  and  others;  three  speci- 
mens each  from  the  presses  of  Caxton's  successors  of  a  little 
later  date,  Wynkin  de  Worde  and  Richard  Pynson,  and  two 
from  the  press  of  Peter  Treveris  of  Southwark ;  seventeen 
items  of  Erasmus,  mostly  contemporaneous  editions  of 
Froben  at  Basel  (one  of  Froschover,  Zurich,  the  printer  of 
the  Coverdale  Bible  of  1550)  ;  over  two  hundred  books  of 
fiction,  nine  of  Eugene  Field's  works,  many  collected  works ; 
a  few  select  Americana,  such  as  Sandys's  Ovid  and  the  twelfth 
part  of  Hulsius's  Voyages  (Heinrich  Hudson)  ;  twelve  ancient 
works  on  Japan ;  sixty-four  issues  of  the  earliest  Protestant 
press,  mostly  at  Wittenberg,  written  by  Luther  and  Melanch- 
thon,  with  artistic  work  of  Holbein  and  Cranach ;  three  illumi- 
nated devotional  manuscripts  on  vellum  of  the  fifteenth  and 
sixteenth  centuries,  ten  manuscripts  in  Samaritan,  Arabic,  and 
Persian  characters,  a  few  contemporary  Melanchthons,  thirty- 
five  curious  and  beautiful  miniature  books,  several  hundred 
periodicals,  several  hundred  pamphlets,  about  fifty  volumes  of 
poetry,  about  one  hundred  volumes  of  fine  bindings,  chiefly 
literature  and  poetry;  one  hundred  and  fifty  books  of  travel 
and  guidebooks,  forty-seven  pieces  of  Colonial  and  seventy  of 
Confederate  currency,  five  hundred  and  seventy-five  engrav- 
ings, photographs,  portraits,  copperplates,  and  maps ;  six  hun- 
dred and  twenty-eight  numbered  items  of  theology,  embracing 

j68  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

a  set  of  Bampton  Lectures  for  nearly  a  century,  about  seventy- 
five  Disciplines  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  many 
standard  works  in  history,  exegesis,  and  doctrine,  a  hundred 
or  more  early  Methodist  publications,  including  many  first  edi- 
tions of  John  Wesley's  books  and  eight  books  by  Samuel 
Wesley;  and  last,  but  by  no  means  least,  a  superb  collection 
of  autograph  signatures,  autograph  letters,  autograph  docu- 
ments, and  autograph  manuscripts  by  celebrated  persons  of 
both  hemispheres.  Among  them  were  specimens  of  the  hand- 
writing of  Alexander  von  Humboldt.  Lafayette,  John  Wesley, 
William  Wordsworth,  Count  Zinzendorf,  Tischendorf,  Van 
Oosterzee,  Samuel  Taylor  Coleridge.  William  Cowper,  Thomas 
Moore,  Sir  Walter  Scott,  Robert  Southey,  Robert  Browning, 
Mrs.  Browning,  Garibaldi,  Munkacsy,  Thomas  Carlyle,  Ben- 
jamin Franklin,  Robert  Morris,  James  Kent,  Alexander 
Hamilton,  Francis  Hopkinson,  Benjamin  Rush,  Presidents 
Washington,  Monroe,  Polk,  Jackson,  Buchanan,  Lincoln, 
Grant,  Hayes,  Garfield,  Cleveland,  Benjamin  Harrison,  and 
McKinley ;  Holmes,  Longfellow,  Whittier,  Diaz,  Jonathan 
Edwards,  Increase  and  Cotton  Mather,  Daniel  Webster,  Ste- 
phen Girard,  Generals  Gates,  Scott,  Wool,  Sherman,  and 
Sheridan;  Washington  Irving,  Mrs.  Sigourney,  William  Gil- 
more  Simms.  Edgar  Allan  Poe,  Walt  Whitman,  William  H. 
Seward,  Jefferson  Davis,  P.  T.  Barnum.  George  Peabody,  Dr. 
Kane,  George  Bancroft,  Agassiz,  Sam  Houston,  Frances  E. 
Willard,  Gerrit  Smith,  Eugene  Field,  Edmund  C.  Stedman, 
Harriet  B.  Stowe.  D.  L.  Moody,  and  numerous  others. 

In  accordance  with  the  terms  of  his  will  and  the  rights  of  his 
heirs  his  library  was  sold  by  the  Anderson  Auction  Company, 
New  York,  in  four  parts,  separately  catalogued  under  4,281 
items,  the  First  Part,  containing  only  the  Washington  and 
Franklin  books,  on  May  2  and  3,  1904;  the  Second  Part, 
embracing  special  Americana,  such  as  Writings  of  the  Mathers, 

Remarkable  Prices  for  Books  369 

New  England  Primers,  and  Indian  Languages,  on  November 
28  and  29,  1904 ;  the  Third  Part,  including  General  Americana, 
on  December  12  and  13,  1904;  and  the  Fourth  Part,  consist- 
ing of  Theology,  books  with  Historic  Associations,  Engrav- 
ings, early  Bibles,  Bibliography,  extra-illustrated  books,  In- 
cunabula, Manuscripts,  and  Autographs,  on  March  20,  21,  and 
22,  1905,  The  gross  amount  realized  was  $56,500,  or  about 
$15,000  more  than  the  estimated  cost  of  the  collection. 

A  few  items  of  special  interest  and  value  from  Parts  I,  II,  and 
III  are  here  noted :  Washington's  Official  Letters  ascommander 
in  chief  with  marginal  and  appended  notes  in  manuscript  by 
the  editor,  John  Carey,  in  two  volumes,  from  Washington's 
library,  brought  $2,810;  his  set  of  Gibbon's  Decline  and  Fall, 
6  volumes,  $1,626;  his  Locke  on  the  Human  Understanding, 
2  volumes,  $650;  Poor  Richard's  Almanac  for  1739,  consisting 
of  12  fragile  leaves  with  edges  torn  and  wholly  innocent  of 
any  cover,  sold  for  $565 ;  the  daily  cash  book  of  Washington's 
household  during  his  second  term  as  President  at  Philadel- 
phia, kept  by  Tobias  Lear  and  Bartholomew  Dandridge, 
reached  $525;  the  Mohawk  Prayer  Book  (Bradford  imprint. 
New  York,  171 5),  $1,300;  Eliot's  Indian  Bible  (second  edi- 
tion), $410;  the  proposed  Prayer  Book,  Philadelphia,  1786. 
$190;  Hawthorne's  Peter  Parley's  Universal  History,  first 
edition,  2  volumes,  $140;  New  England's  First  Fruits,  London, 
1643,  $136;  and  the   Pennsylvania  Magazine,   Philadelphia, 

1 775-*776>  $2°°- 

The  sale  of  Part  IV  was  an  extraordinary  occasion,  prob- 
ably never  before  paralleled  in  public  book  sales  in  America  in 
the  attractive  massing  of  strong  pieces.  The  following  account 
appeared  in  the  April  number  of  the  University  Courier: 

On    Monday   afternoon   there   were   two   high    points   of   interest 

reached.    The  first  was  when  the  Paris  Bible  of  Freyburger,  Gering, 

and  Crantz,  1475  or  r4/6.  went  for  $135;  the  Jenson  Bible  of  Venice, 

3/0  John  Fletcher  Hurst — A  Biography 

1470.  $150;  the  Matthews  Bible,  London,  1549,  $90;  and  the  Coverdale 
Bible,  2d  edition.  Zurich,  1550,  $190 — all  within  a  few  minutes.  The 
second  was  at  the  close  when  the  ten  chained  manuscripts  to  the 
music  of  the  rattling  links,  the  rhythmic  voice  of  the  auctioneer,  and 
the  lively  voices  of  bidders,  were  struck  off  at  prices  ranging  from 
$30  to  $151. 

The  evening  session  of  Monday  was  marked  by  two  waves  of  lesser 
and  two  of  greater  excitement,  beginning  with  a  moderate  one  over 
books  from  Dickens's  library  for  $106,  the  extra-illustrated  Life  of 
Dickens,  by  Forster,  which  brought  $105,  and  Johnson's  copy  of 
Dryden's  Virgil  for  $96.  Interest  jumped  to  a  high  pitch  when  Eng- 
lish presses  were  struck,  and  the  three  pieces  from  Caxton's  press  ran 
up  the  rapid  scale  to  $1,400,  $700,  and  $675,  to  be  followed  immediately 
by  the  three  Wynkin  de  YYordes  for  $170,  $130,  and  $150,  while 
the  three  Pynsons  let  the  interest  down  to  the  level  again  by  bringing 
$70,  $40.  and  $21,  and  Treveris  made  a  slight  ripple  with  two  items 
of  $70  and  $35.  The  second  moderate  height  was  reached  when 
Hawthorne's  Famous  People,  first  edition,  went  for  $52,  Leigh  Hunt's 
copy  of  Hazlitt's  Characters  of  Shakespeare  for  just  half  that  sum, 
and  the  Hulsius  (twelfth  part)  for  $37.50.  Near  the  close  came  the 
fine  enthusiasm  caused  by  the  Incunabula,  which  was  sustained  for 
a  half  hour,  while  these  early  specimens  from  the  cradle  of  the  art 
showed  their  long-hidden  faces,  and  were  struck  down  in  lively  fashion, 
the  chief  being  Gutenberg's  Catholicon  of  Balbus,  Mainz,  1460  (partly 
made  up  with  that  probably  of  the  "R"  Printer),  $710;  the  "R" 
Printer's  two  items  for  $100  and  $105 ;  the  three  from  Peter  Schoffer's 
press,  Mainz,  1473,  I474-  and  1478,  bringing  respectively  $260,  $52.50, 
and  $45 ;  and  Ulric  Zel,  Cologne,  closing  the  scene  with  his  four 
specimens  at  $60,  $115,  $35,  and  $27.50. 

Tuesday's  afternoon  session  was  punctuated  by  several  items  of 
special  interest,  each  succeeding  one  rising  a  little  higher,  and  the 
last  being  a  brilliant  burst  of  bibliopolic  splendor.  There  was  a  fine 
elevated  stretch  as  the  sixty-four  beautiful  specimens  of  the  Witten- 
berg press  came  out  in  stately  procession  and  were  retired,  one  by  one, 
the  highest  price  of  the  line  being  reached  by  Luther's  essay  on 
schools  (1530),  $47.  A  few  minutes  later  came  three  Illuminated 
Manuscripts  at  $25,  $40,  and  $41,  a  choral  book  or  Antiphonal  for 
$80,  and  eleven  Oriental  manuscripts  from  $3.50  to  $50.  Then  fifteen 
minutes  later  Melanchthon's  Bible  and  Horace  were  sold  for  $75  and 
$60,  and  Milton's  Paradise  Lost,  first  edition,  was  struck  off  at  $75. 
After  twenty  minutes  of  ordinary  items,  Southey's  copy  of  Munday's 
translation  of  Palmerin  of  England  lifted  all  up  as  it  climbed  to  $315. 

A  Massing  of  Manuscripts  371 

Then  for  a  half  hour  there  was  little  to  excite,  except,  perhaps,  the 
fine  Plantin,  a  Roman  Breviary,  for  $45,  and  the  eight  volumes  of 
Ruskin  at  $66.  The  acme  of  the  afternoon  came  when  Nathaniel 
Hawthorne's  set  of  Shakespeare  (15  volumes,  one  missing),  with  his 
autograph  in  each,  set  all  eyes  agog,  and  many  mouths  open  with  loud 
simultaneous  bids  which  moved  swiftly  up  from  $5  to  $20,  to  $30,  to 
$50,  to  $60,  and  then  by  a  leap  to  $100  a  volume,  or  $1,400  for  the 
incomplete  set. 

The  evening  session  of  Tuesday  capped  the  climax.  It  began  at 
7 :30  and  lasted  for  more  than  three  and  a  half  hours.  It  was  a  severe 
ordeal  for  the  good-natured  Morse,  the  au